The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England. The main campus is south of the city centre, adjacent to Victoria Park. In 1957, the university's predecessor gained university status. For 2018/19, the university is nationally ranked 34th in The Sunday Times Good University Guide, 63rd by The Guardian University Guide and 29th in The Complete University Guide, it is ranked as one of the top 200 universities in the world by the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the 25th in the United Kingdom. The university had an income of £302.8 million in 2016/17, of which £52.2 million was from research grants. The university is famous for the discovery of genetic fingerprinting and contributing to the discovery and identification of the remains of King Richard III, it is argued that the first serious suggestions for a university in Leicester began with the Leicester Literary and Philosophical society which had its interest in literature and philosophy in the old sense, meaning science.
With the success of Owen's College in Manchester, the establishment of Birmingham University in 1900, Nottingham University College, it was thought that Leicester ought to have a university college too. University colleges could not award degrees. In most cases students sat the exam of the University of London. In the late 19th century, presidents of the society Revered James Went, headmaster of the Wyggeston Boys' School, J. D. Paul called for an establishment of a University College However, no private donations were forthcoming, the Corporation of Leicester was busy funding the School of Art and the Technical School; the matter was brought up again by Dr Astey V. Clarke in 1912. Born in Leicester in 1870, he was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School and Cambridge before receiving his medical training at Guy's Hospital, he was the new president of the Philosophy society. Reaction was mixed with some saying. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, talk of the University subsided. In 1917, during the despair of war, the Leicester Daily Post urged in an editorial that something more of practical utility than memorials ought to be used to commemorate the dead.
With the ending of the war, the local newspapers, the Leicester Post and Leicester Mail encouraged donations to form the University. Some suggested that Leicester should join forces with neighbouring university colleges of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington and Loughborough, to create a federal East Midlands college, rather than an independent one; the old asylum building had been suggested as a site for the new university, after it was due to be finished being used as a hospital for the wounded, Astley Clarke was keen to urge the citizens and local authorities to buy it. Clarke learned the building had been bought by Thomas Fielding Johnson, a wealthy philanthropist who owned a worsted manufacturing business, he had bought 37 acres of land for £40,000 and intended not only to house the college, but the boys' and girls' grammar schools. Further donations soon topped £100,000: many were given in memory of loved ones lost during the war, while others were for those who had taken part and survived. King George V gave his blessing to the scheme after a visit to the town in 1919.
Talk turned to the curriculum with many arguing that it should focus on Leicester's chief industries hosiery and shoes. Others had higher hopes than just technical training; the education acts of 1902 and 1918, which brought education to the masses was thought to have increased the need for a college, not least to train the new teachers that were needed. Talk of a federal university soured and the decision was for Leicester to become a stand-alone college. In 1920, the college appointed its first official. W. G. Gibbs, a long-standing supporter of the college while editor of the Leicester Daily Post, was nominated as Secretary. On 9 May 1921, Dr R. F Rattray, was appointed Principal, aged 35. Rattray was an impressive academic. Having gained a first class English degree at Glasgow, he studied at Manchester College, Oxford, he studied in Germany, secured his Ph. D at Harvard. After that, heworked as a Unitarian Minister. Rattray was to teach English, he recruited others including Miss Measham to teach Botany, Miss Sarson to teach geography, Miss Chapuzet to teach French.
In all, 14 people started at the University when it opened its doors in October 1921: the principal, the secretary, 3 lecturers and nine students. Two types of students were expected, around 100–150 teachers in training, undergraduates hoping to sit the external degrees of London University. A students union was formed in 1923–24 with a Miss Bonsor as its first president. In 1927, after it became University College, students sat for the examinations for external degrees of the University of London. Two years it merged with the Vaughan Working Men's College, providing adult education in Leicester since 1862. In 1931, Dr Rattray resigned as principal, he was replaced in 1932 by Frederick Attenborough, the father of David and Richard Attenborough. He was succeeded by Charles Wilson in 1952. In 1957, the University College was granted its Royal Charter, has since had the status of a university with the right to award its own degrees; the Percy Gee Student Union building was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 9 May 1958.
Divaldo Pereira Franco is a prominent Spiritist speaker and medium. He represented Spiritism as a delegate to the United Nations August 28–31st, 2000, Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders. After the death of Brazilian medium Chico Xavier in 2002, Divaldo became the most representative figure of Spiritism worldwide. On March 12, 2004, Divaldo presented the seminar Understanding Spiritual and Mental Health at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, in Baltimore. "Divaldo Pereira Franco offers a psychologized counterpoint to the popular Spiritism paradigm established around the work of Chico Xavier". "Divaldo Pereira Franco had a prevalent role in the implantation and consolidation of the Spiritist Movement in the United States." "Divaldo, médium ou gênio?" - by journalist Fernando Pinto, 1976, 160 pags. Different interviews with Divaldo. Child of God Recipes for Peace Self-Discovery: An Inner Search Living and Loving The Dynamics of Our Sixth Sense Obsession I Love Myself, I Am Addiction-free: Spiritual Tools to Fight Addiction The New Generation: The Spiritist View on Indigo and Crystal Children with Vanessa Anseloni Open Your Heart and Find Happiness Therapeutic Visualizations - Understanding Spiritual and Mental Health Divaldo Franco - English Bio Mansion of the Way Peace and You Movement by Divaldo Franco
Insteon is a home automation technology that enables light switches, thermostats, leak sensors, remote controls, motion sensors, other electrically powered devices to interoperate through power lines, radio frequency communications, or both. It employs a dual-mesh networking topology in which all devices are peers and each device independently transmits and repeats messages. Like other home automation systems, it has been associated with the Internet of Things. Insteon-based products were launched in 2005 by Smartlabs, the company which holds the trademark for Insteon. A Smartlabs subsidiary named Insteon, was created to market the technology. According to a press release on June 13, 2017, SmartLabs and its Insteon technology has been acquired by Richmond Capital Partners with Rob Lilleness of Universal Electronics assuming the role of chairman and CEO; every message received by an Insteon compatible device undergoes error detection and correction and is retransmitted to improve reliability.
All devices retransmit the same message so that message transmissions are synchronous to the powerline frequency, thus preserving the integrity of the message while strengthening the signal on the powerline and erasing RF dead zones. Insteon powerline messaging uses phase-shift keying. Insteon RF messaging uses frequency-shift keying; each message contains a two-bit "hops" field, initialized to 3 by the originating node and decremented each time a node in the network repeats the message. Individual Insteon messages can carry up to 14 bytes of arbitrary user data for custom applications. Insteon is an integrated dual-mesh network that combines wireless radio frequency and a building's existing electrical wiring; the electrical wiring becomes a backup transmission medium in the event of RF/wireless interference. Conversely, RF/wireless becomes a backup transmission medium in the event of powerline interference; as a peer-to-peer network, devices do not require network supervision, thus allowing optional operation without central controllers and routing tables.
Insteon devices can function without a central controller. Additionally, they may be managed by a central controller to implement functions such as control via smartphones and tablets, control scheduling, event handling, problem reporting via email or text messaging. A computer can be used as a central controller by connecting it to an Insteon USB/serial PowerLinc modem, which serves as a communication bridge between the computer and the Insteon device network. Insteon network security is maintained via linking control to ensure that users cannot create links that would allow them to control a neighbors’ Insteon devices, via encryption within extended Insteon messages for applications such as door locks and security applications, should those applications choose to implement encryption. Insteon enforces linking control by requiring users to have physical possession of devices, or knowledge of their unique Insteon IDs in order to create links. Firmware in Insteon devices prohibits them from identifying themselves to other devices unless a user either physically presses a button on the device during the installation process or explicitly addresses the device via a central controller.
Linking to a device by sending Insteon messages requires knowledge of the address of the target Insteon device. As these addresses are unique for each device and assigned at the factory, users must have physical access to the device to read the device address from the label and manually enter it when prompted during installation; the security of Insteon RF devices was criticized in a DEF CON presentation in 2015. Insteon devices are configured by applying a sequence of "taps" to a pushbutton on each device to establish direct device-to-device links. Alternatively, a central controller may be used to configure devices; each Insteon device has its own unique identifier code, similar to a MAC address, the technology allows directly linked devices to manage their identifiers. Older Insteon chip sets manufactured by Smartlabs can transmit and respond to X10 power line messages, thus enabling X10 networks to interoperate with Insteon. In 2014, Insteon released a home automation system compatible with the touch-enabled Metro interface, with devices appearing as "live tiles", added voice control via Microsoft Cortana.
In 2015, voice control was added via compatibility with Amazon Echo. That same year, Logitech announced the Harmony Hub-based remote would support Insteon devices when deployed with an Insteon Hub. In 2015, Insteon announced an initiative to integrate the Google-owned Nest learning thermostat with the Insteon Hub. Insteon was one of two launch partners for Apple's HomeKit platform, with the HomeKit-enabled Insteon Hub Pro. In 2015, Insteon announced support for the Apple Watch, allowing watch owners to control their home with an Insteon Hub. Data rateInstantaneous: 13,165 bit/s Sustained best case: 2,880 bit/s Sustained average case: 180 bit/sMessage typesStandard: 10 bytes Extended: 24 bytesMessage format/structureSource Address: 3 bytes Destination Address: 3 bytes Flags: 1 byte Command: 2 bytes User Data: 14 bytes Message Integrity: 1 byteDevices supportedUnique IDs: 16,777,216 Device Types: 65,536 Commands: 65,536 Group Members: 256Insteon engine memory requirementsRAM: 80 bytes ROM: 3 kilobytesTypical application memory requirementsRAM: 256 bytes EEPROM: 256 bytes Flash: 7 kBPower line physical layerFrequency: 131.65 kHz Modulation: Binary phase-shift keying Min Transmit Level: 3.16 Vpp into 5 ohm