Howard University School of Law
Howard University School of Law is one of the professional graduate schools of Howard University. Located in Washington, D. C. it is one of the oldest law schools in the country and the oldest black college or university law school in the United States. Today, Howard University School of Law confers about 185 Juris Doctor and Master of Law degrees annually to students from the United States and countries in South America, the Caribbean and Asia. Howard University School of Law was accredited by the American Bar Association and the Association of American Law Schools in 1931. According to Howard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 51% of 2016 graduates obtained full-time, long-term, bar passage-required employment nine months after graduation. Howard University opened its legal department, led by John Mercer Langston, on January 6, 1869; the founders of Howard Law recognized "a great need to train lawyers who would have a strong commitment to helping black Americans secure and protect their newly established rights" during the country's tumultuous Reconstruction era.
The first class consisted of six students who met three evenings a week in the homes and offices of the department's four teachers. Classes were held in various locations throughout the years before the law school settled into its current location at 2900 Van Ness Street N. W. in 1974. At the time, the LL. B program required only two years of study. Ten students were awarded degrees at the first commencement ceremony, held on February 3, 1871; the school was accredited by the American Bar Association and the Association of American Law Schools in 1931. Howard Law was the first school in the nation to have a non-discriminatory admissions policy. From its founding, it admitted white female students along with black students, it was a progressive policy at the time to admit women, but only eight women graduated from Howard Law during the first 30 years of its existence. An 1890 review of women lawyers in the United States published in The Green Bag, found that many women had difficulty being admitted to law school, or gaining admission to the bar, practice at Howard.
Charlotte E. Ray was admitted to Howard's law program in 1869 and graduated in 1872, becoming its first black female lawyer, it is reported that Ray applied for admission to the bar using initials for her given and middle names, in order to disguise her gender, because she was "ware of the school's reluctant commitment to the principle of sexual equality."Mary Ann Shadd Cary was among four women enrolled in the law school in 1880. She said in 1890 that she had been admitted to Howard's law program in September 1869, prior to Ray. However, Carey claims she was barred from graduating on time because of her gender and did not graduate until 1883. Eliza A. Chambers, an early white female graduate of Howard's law program, was admitted in 1885 and completed the three-year course of study, earning two diplomas. But, "the Law School faculty refused to hand in name to the examiners, for admission to practice, omitting her from the list of her male classmates whom they recommended because she was a woman."
After that, she succeeded in entering practice. Howard University School of Law has significant ties to the Civil Rights Movement. Former HUSL Dean Charles Hamilton Houston's work for the NAACP earned him the title of "The Man Who Killed Jim Crow." Thurgood Marshall, a 1933 graduate of Howard Law argued the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case before the U. S. Supreme Court and in 1967 became the first African-American Supreme Court Justice. In 1950, Howard law graduate Pauli Murray published States' Laws on Race and Color, an examination and critique of state segregation laws throughout the nation. Thurgood Marshall called the book the "bible" of the civil rights movement. First year students at Howard Law are required to take courses on civil procedure. Students must take courses on evidence and professional responsibility and fulfill the school's scholarly writing requirement; the school offers more than 90 courses beyond the first year curriculum. Howard University School of Law offers the Master of Laws.
Additionally, students can enroll in the four-year J. D./M. B. A. Dual degree program with the Howard University School of Business. HUSL students can earn a certificate in family law; as of Fall 2013, Howard Law employed administrators. The school's student-faculty ratio was 16.52 to 1. Howard Law boasts three institutes and centers: the Education Rights Center, the Institute of Intellectual Property and Social Justice, the World Food Law Institute; the school's Clinical Law Center offers seven in-house legal clinics that provide students with first-hand legal experience as well as an Externship and Equal Justice Program. These clinics are: Alternative Dispute Resolution Clinic Child Welfare Clinic Civil Rights Clinic Criminal Justice Clinic Fair Housing Clinic Intellectual Property and Trademark Clinic Investor Justice and Education Clinic Howard Law has published the student-managed Howard Law Journal since 1955; the school publishes the Howard Human & Civil Rights Law Review known as the Human Rights & Globalization Law Review and the successor to the Howard Scroll: Social Justice Law Review.
The Barrister is the HUSL student-edited newspaper. The school publishes a news journal, The Jurist, the Howard Docket newsletter. For the school's 140th anniversary, the school published A Legacy of Defending the Constitution: A Pictorial History Book of Howard University School of Law. Howard Law enrolled 407 J
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements; the primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities. Urban planning is considered an interdisciplinary field that includes social and design sciences, it is related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks and other urban areas. Urban planning is referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide. Urban planning guides orderly development in urban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources and agricultural land and conserving areas of natural environmental significance.
Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations and management. Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants. Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, public administration to achieve strategic and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were members of these cognate fields. Today urban planning is a independent professional discipline; the discipline is the broader category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, economic development, environmental planning, transportation planning. There is evidence of urban planning and designed communities dating back to the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Egyptian civilizations in the third millennium BCE. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were laid out at right angles in a grid pattern.
The idea of a planned out urban area evolved. Beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were centered on orthogonal plans; the ancient Romans, inspired by the Greeks used orthogonal plans for their cities. City planning in the Roman world was developed for public convenience; the spread of the Roman Empire subsequently spread the ideas of urban planning. As the Roman Empire declined, these ideas disappeared. However, many cities in Europe still held onto the planned Roman city center. Cities in Europe from the 9th to 14th centuries grew organically and sometimes chaotically, but in the following centuries some newly created towns were built according to preconceived plans, many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. From the 15th century on, much more is recorded of the people that were involved. In this period, theoretical treatises on architecture and urban planning start to appear in which theoretical questions are addressed and designs of towns and cities are described and depicted.
During the Enlightenment period, several European rulers ambitiously attempted to redesign capital cities. During the Second French Republic, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III, redesigned the city of Paris into a more modern capital, with long, wide boulevards. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century; the industrialized cities of the 19th century grew at a tremendous rate. The pace and style of this industrial construction was dictated by the concerns of private business; the evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era, was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged. Around 1900, theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age, by providing citizens factory workers, with healthier environments.
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning began to be recognized as a profession. The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in 1899 and the first academic course in Great Britain on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in 1909. In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism and uniformity began to surface in urban planning, lasted until the 1970s. Many planners started to believe that the ideas of modernism in urban planning led to higher crime rates and social problems. Urban planners now focus more on diversity in urban centers. Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, behavioral relationships, assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, the humanist or phenomenological approach.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve the applying scientific, technical processes and features that are involved
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
Carey Business School
The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School referred to as Carey Business School or JHUCarey or Carey, is the business school of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. As "the newest school in America's first research university," the school offers full-time and part-time MBA degrees, master of science degrees, several dual degrees with other Johns Hopkins schools—including medicine, public health and sciences, nursing—and Maryland Institute College of Art, as well as a number of graduate certificates; the Carey Business School is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. James Carey, the namesake of the Carey Business School, is a relative to Johns Hopkins, a co-founder of the Gilman School, ancestor to several founding trustees of the university and hospital, his sixth-generation decedent, William P. Carey, has been in active pursuit of establishing a business school for Johns Hopkins University since the 1950s and realized his "lifelong dream" in 2006.
The origins of the school can be traced back to 1909, when the "College Courses for Teachers" school was created at Hopkins. In 1925 the school changed its name to "College for Teachers" adopted the name "McCoy College" in 1947 as it welcomed into its classrooms many World War II veterans studying on the G. I. Bill. In 1965, the school's name changed again, to "Evening College and Summer Session", until 1983, when it became known as the School of Continuing Studies. In 1999, in order to more reflect its two remaining major divisions, the school was renamed as the School of Professional Studies in Business and Education. Throughout all of these iterations, the central objective of serving the educational needs of working professionals, allowing them to complete degrees while maintaining careers, held true. Over the years, the school evolved from a teacher’s college to one of nine major schools within the university, housing the majority of Hopkins' part-time academic programs. On January 1, 2007, SPSBE separated into two new schools—the Johns Hopkins University Carey Business School, the Johns Hopkins University School of Education.
S. This split was engendered by the late philanthropist William P. Carey's announcement on December 5, 2006 of his gift of $50 million to Johns Hopkins through his W. P. Carey Foundation, to create a freestanding business school at the university; the gift remains the largest to Hopkins in support of business education to date. The school is named in honor of Wm. Polk Carey's great-great-great-grandfather, James Carey, an 18th- and 19th-century Baltimore shipper, chairman of the Bank of Maryland, a member of Baltimore's first City Council, a relative of university founder Johns Hopkins; the current dean of Carey Business School is Bernard T. Ferrari. In August 2010, the Carey Business School launched its signature full-time Global MBA Program designed to "reinvent" the traditional approach to MBA education and embody the school's mission of "Teaching Business with Humanity in Mind." Since the Executive MBA and several full-time Masters of Science degrees were added. The full-time MS degree concentrations include Real Estate and Infrastructure, Health Care Management, Business Analytics and Risk Management, Information Systems, Marketing.
The school offers part-time Flex MBA and Master of Science degrees in Finance, Real Estate and Infrastructure, Health Care Management and Marketing. The Flex MBA and Master of Science degrees in Finance and Health Care Management are available as online programs. Certificate programs are offered in Financial Investments. Executive Education certificates and non-degree courses were added in 2015; the school counts as one of its major strengths is developing partnerships and collaborations with other Johns Hopkins schools, including the School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health, plus the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Whiting School of Engineering, Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. From these partnerships have come a number of joint-degree MBA programs, including the MBA/MS in Nursing, the MBA/MS in Biotechnology, the MBA/MS in Applied Economics, the MBA/MA in Government, the MBA/MA in Communication. Available from the school and administered jointly with the School of Medicine is the MBA in Medical Services Management.
In 2012, Carey began offering a MBA/MA in Design Leadership, in collaboration with the Maryland Institute College of Art. The Carey Business School hosts the annual Johns Hopkins Symposium on Healthcare Operations, a multidisciplinary forum bringing together leading business school, engineering school, mathematics scholars, medical doctors, health policy makers to share the latest advances in operations research applied to healthcare, promote dialogues among academics and policymakers; the Carey Business School continues to undergo significant institutional development, hiring additional full-time faculty and exploring new course and program offerings. The Carey Business School's flagship program is the full-time Global MBA. Discovery to Market: groups of students are paired with inventors through the Johns Hopkins' Technology Transfer office to assess the commercial feasibility of new discoveries. Innovation for Humanity: a semester-long program in sustainable business which pairs groups of students with entrepreneurs in developing countries.
This includes a three-week-long international residency. The Carey Business School
Oriole Park at Camden Yards
Oriole Park at Camden Yards referred to as Camden Yards or Oriole Park and abbreviated in print and online as OPACY, is a Major League Baseball ballpark located in Baltimore, Maryland. Home to the Baltimore Orioles, it is the first of the "retro" major league ballparks constructed during the 1990s and early 2000s, remains one of the most praised, it was completed in 1992 to replace Memorial Stadium. The park is situated in downtown Baltimore, a few blocks west of the Inner Harbor in the Camden Yards Sports Complex; the Orioles celebrated the ballpark's 20th anniversary during the 2012 season and launched the website CamdenYards20.com as part of the celebration. Oriole Park at Camden Yards is one of several venues that have carried the "Oriole Park" name for various Baltimore franchises over the years. Prior to Camden Yards, the predominant design trend of big league ballparks was the symmetrical "multi-purpose stadium". Memorial Stadium, the Orioles' home since they moved from St. Louis in 1954, was an early example of such a design.
In 1984, the Baltimore Colts moved to Indianapolis, in part because Baltimore and Maryland officials refused to commit money for a replacement for Memorial Stadium. Not wanting to risk losing the Orioles—and Baltimore's status as a major-league city in its own right—city and state officials began planning a new park in order to keep them in town; the master plan was designed by international design firm RTKL. The stadium design was completed by the architectural firm HOK Sport, which had pioneered retro ballparks on the minor league level four years earlier with Pilot Field in Buffalo, New York. HOK Sport's original design was similar to the new Comiskey Park. However, at the urging of architectural consultant Janet Marie Smith, the Orioles turned it down, preferring a retro-style park. Construction began in 1989, lasted 33 months. Former Orioles owner Eli Jacobs favored naming the new field Oriole Park, while then-Maryland Governor William Donald Schaefer favored Camden Yards. After considerable debate a compromise was reached to use both names.
The ballpark opened on April 1992 with the Orioles hosting the Cleveland Indians. The great success of Camden Yards sparked a trend in the construction of more traditional, fan-friendly ballparks in downtown locations across the U. S. Indeed, by the 2012 season, all but two teams played in baseball-only parks; the first run scored at Camden Yards occurred when Chris Hoiles hit a ground rule double that brought in Sam Horn. The Orioles went on to win the game 2-0 on Rick Sutcliffe's shutout. Camden Yards hosted the 1993 MLB All-Star Game. On June 18, 1994, an escalator accident injured 43 people. On September 6, 1995, Camden Yards witnessed Cal Ripken, Jr.'s record-setting 2,131st consecutive game. One year Eddie Murray blasted his 500th home run there. Two orange seats stand out from the park's dark green plastic chairs. One, located at Section 96, Row 7, Seat 23 in the right-center field bleachers, commemorates the spot where Murray's 500th home run landed; the other, Section 86, Row FF, Seat 10 in the left field bleachers, was the landing spot for Ripken's 278th home run as a shortstop, breaking Chicago Cubs legend Ernie Banks' record for the position.
That home run was hit on July 15, 1993. Ripken finished his career with 345 home runs as 431 overall. After the 2008 season, a new HD video display and scoreboard were installed below the right field bleachers. A new, high fidelity sound reinforcement system was added around the ballpark in 2009; the Orioles made numerous improvements to their home ballpark and to their spring training facility, Ed Smith Stadium, before the start of the 2011 season. All seats in the lower seating bowl were replaced and drink rails were added in the club level. Several skyboxes were eliminated and refurbished to make room for more party suites and casual luxury boxes; the renovation reduced Oriole Park's capacity from 48,876 to 45,971, making it more comparable with newer ballparks. During the 2011–12 off season, the Orioles announced further upgrades to Camden Yards in preparation for the 20th anniversary of the park's opening; these improvements included the expansion of concession food choices, widening of the concourses in the upper deck, the installation of a replica of the B&O Warehouse's original canopy, the addition of a lounge atop the batter's eye in center field, been inaccessible to fans.
The lounge would contain a restaurant and have bar-style and casual deck seating where fans could watch the game. The team announced that cast-bronze statues of all the Oriole Baseball Hall of Famers would be erected in the picnic area beyond the bullpens in left-center field. Furthermore, the right field wall would be lowered from 25 feet to 21 feet to improve the view of the field from Eutaw Street; the stadium planners incorporated the warehouse into the architecture of the ballpark experience rather than demolish or truncate it. The floors of the warehouse contain offices, service spaces, a private club; the warehouse has been hit by a ball only once, by Ken Griffey, Jr. during the Home Run Derby of the 1993 MLB All-Star Game. Eutaw Street, between the stadium and the warehouse, is closed to vehicular traffic. Along this street, spectators can get a view of the game or visit the many shops and restaurants that line the thoroughfare, including former Oriole star Boog Powell's outdoor barbecue stand.
On game days, pedestrians must have a ticket in order
Market Center (Baltimore, Maryland)
Market Center is a national historic district in Baltimore, United States. It is an 24-block area in downtown Baltimore that includes buildings associated with the development of the area as Baltimore's historic retail district; the area evolved from an early 19th-century neighborhood of urban rowhouses to a premiere shopping district featuring large department stores, grand theaters, major chain stores. The diverse size, style and types of structures within the district reflect its residential origins and evolution as a downtown retail center, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. Market Center Historic District, Baltimore City, including photo from 1999, at Maryland Historical Trust Boundary Map of the Market Center Historic District, Baltimore City, at Maryland Historical Trust The Market Center Merchants Association
Old Pine Street Station
Old Pine Street Station known as the Old Western District Police Station House, is a historic police station located at Baltimore, United States. It is a freestanding brick building of two stories raised on a exposed basement in the quintessential brick Victorian Gothic style, it was constructed 1877-78. The station was to be torn down to make way for a highway, but was saved through the efforts of preservationists and the demise of the highway project; the building is now used as a police station for the University of Baltimore Police. Old Pine Street Station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Old Pine Street Station, Baltimore City, including photo from 1991, at Maryland Historical Trust Explore Baltimore Heritage - Pine Street Station