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University of Oslo

The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology; the Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university; the university has 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include Theology, Medicine, Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences and Education; the university's original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo.

Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area; the university includes some formally independent, affiliated institutes such as CICERO, NKVTS and the Frisch Centre. The university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the University of Copenhagen and the established University of Berlin, it was named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939. The university is informally known as Universitetet, having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was referred to as "The Royal Frederick's", prior to the name change; the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the university's Atrium, from 1947 to 1989, making it the only university in the world to be involved in awarding a Nobel Prize. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates.

In 1811, a decision was made to establish the first university in the Dano-Norwegian Union, after an agreement was reached with King Frederik VI, who had earlier believed that such an institution might encourage political separatist tendencies. In 1813, The Royal Frederik's University was founded in a small city at that time. Circumstances changed one year into the commencement of the university, as Norway proclaimed independence. However, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, although royal power and foreign affairs were shared with Sweden. At a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence; the main initial function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of upper-echelon civil servants, as well as parliamentary representatives and government ministers.

The university became the centre for a survey of the country—a survey of culture, language and folk traditions. The staff of the university strove to undertake a wide range of tasks necessary for developing a modern society. Throughout the 1800s, the university's academic disciplines became more specialised. One of the major changes in the university came during the 1870s when a greater emphasis was placed upon research, the management of the university became more professional, academic subjects were reformed, the forms of teaching evolved. Classical education came under increasing pressure; when the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the university became important for producing educated experts in a society which placed increasing emphasis on ensuring that all its citizens enjoy a life of dignity and security. Education, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from the university's graduates. Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century as new methods, scientific theories and forms of practice changed the nature of research.

It was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as qualified academics and continue academic research alongside their role as teachers. Scientific research—whether to launch or test out new theories, to innovate or to pave the way for discoveries across a wide range of disciplines—became part of the increased expectations placed on the university. Developments in society created a need for more and more specialised and practical knowledge, not competence in theology or law, for example; the university strove to meet these expectations through increasing academic specialisation. The position of rector was established by Parliament in 1905 following the Dissolution of the Union. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger became the university's first rector. Brøgger vacillated between a certain pessimism and a powerfully energetic attitude regarding how to procure finances for research and fulfill his more general funding objectives. With the establishment of the national research council after World War II, Brøgger's vision was fulfilled.

This coincided with a massive rise in student enrollment during the 1960s, which again made it difficult to balance research with the demands for t

Thoha Khalsa

Thoha Khalsa is a town in the Islamabad Capital Territory of Pakistan. It is located at 33°31'0N 73°25'60E at an altitude of 700 metres and lies south-east of the city of Islamabad, it was part of Rawalpindi District and Islamabad Capital Territory. Thoha Khalsa is a village of Tehsil Kahuta District Rawalpindi Pakistan; the village is located in the South East of Rawalpindi city at the distance of 45 kilometers. The population is about 20,000 consisting different tribes named Janjua Rajput, Mirza and few others; the language used by the people is Pothohari and majority of the people is labour. Few of them are serving in different Government/Civil organizations of Pakistan, However about 4% are working in foreign countries, it is a historical village and was established by the Sikhs in early 18th Century during the Sikh rule over Punjab and Kashmir. Amendments made by Zeeshan Ali Historical importance Avtar Singh Vahiria was a famous polemicist and scholar of Sikh community, He was born on 12 June 1848 at Thoha Khalsa.

As a small boy, he learnt to recite the Sikh psalms from Prem Singh. After he had learnt Gurmukhi his own village thoha khalsa, he moved towards Rawalpindi city for further education. Nihal Singh Saint known as Pandit Nihal Singh, a Sanskrit scholar well versed in Vedanta as well as in gurbani. In 1870 Thakur Nihal Singh set out on a pilgrimage to various Hindu and Sikh holy places, where he preached the Sikh faith through kirtan. In 1874 he moved to Thoha Khalsa, he continued his kirtan recitals and missionary work till the end. Saint Attar Singh is said to have attended these recitals at Thoha Khalsa. Baba Khem Singh Bedi once took him on a preaching tour to Thoha Khalsa.

Perseus with the Head of Medusa

Perseus with the Head of Medusa is a bronze sculpture made by Benvenuto Cellini in the period 1545–1554. The sculpture stands upon a square base with bronze relief panels depicting the story of Perseus and Andromeda, similar to a predella on an altarpiece, it is located in the Loggia dei Lanzi of the Piazza della Signoria in Italy. The second Florentine duke, Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, commissioned the work with specific political connections to the other sculptural works in the piazza; when the piece was revealed to the public on 27 April 1554, Michelangelo's David, Bandinelli's Hercules and Cacus, Donatello's Judith and Holofernes were erected in the piazza. The subject matter of the work is the mythological story of Perseus beheading Medusa, a hideous woman-faced Gorgon whose hair was turned to snakes and anyone that looked at her was turned to stone. Perseus stands naked except for a sash and winged sandals, triumphant on top of the body of Medusa with her snakey head in his raised hand; the body of Medusa spews blood from her severed neck.

The bronze sculpture and Medusa's head turns men to stone and is appropriately surrounded by three huge marble statues of men: Hercules and Neptune. Cellini breathed new life into the piazza visitor through his new use of bronze in Perseus and the head of Medusa and the motifs he used to respond to the previous sculpture in the piazza. If one examines the sculpture from the back, you can see the self-image of the sculptor Cellini on the backside of Perseus' helmet; the sculpture is thought to be the first statue since the classical age where the base included a figurative sculpture forming an integral part of the work. Cellini was the first to integrate narrative relief into the sculpture of the piazza; as the Perseus was installed in the Loggia, it dominated the dimensions of pedestals of other sculptural works within the Loggia, like Giambologna's The Rape of the Sabine Women. Perseus added to the cast of Olympian gods protecting the Medici. Weil-Garris focuses on the pedestal beneath the sculpture in the round.

However, it may not have been Cellini's original intent, as the relief was still being worked on and installed when the bronze sculpture above had been revealed. The Medici still dominated the theme of the pedestal as Perseus in the pedestal acts as an allegory to Duke Francesco Medici; the politics of the Medici and Florence dominate the Piazza della Signoria referencing the first three Florentine dukes. Duke Alessandro I was the first Florentine duke and Hercules and Cacus was revealed during his time and met with terrible reception by the public in 1534; the next sculpture to be revealed was Cellini's Perseus and Cosimo I was cautious about the public's reaction to the piece. Thankfully, the public received the sculpture well as Cosimo watched the reception from a window in the Palazzo Vecchio; the third duke is directly related to the sculpture's relief panel on the base as the Perseus can be seen as an allegory to Duke Francesco and Andromeda as his Habsburg bride, Giovanna. Andromeda acts as an allegory to Florence, while Perseus is the collective Medici swooping down to save Florence.

Cellini chose to represent the sad side of the story of Andromeda. Every sculpture within the piazza responds artistically to each other and the Medici. At the time the sculpture was created, bronze had not been used in half a century for a monumental work of art. Cellini made the conscious decision to work in this medium because pouring molten metal into his cast, he was vivifying the sculpture with life-giving blood; the most difficult part would be completing the entire cast all at once. Donatello's Judith and Holofernes was placed within the Loggia dei Lanzi in the westernmost arch. Judith had been cast in several sections jointed together. Cellini was competing against monumental works, like Michelangelo's David and wanted to make a statement for himself and the patron, Cosimo I. Michael Cole draws attention to the process of casting the Perseus. Citing Cellini's Vita, Cole notes how Cellini's assistants let the metal clot and had Cellini not been present the work would have been destroyed.

Cole asserts that Cellini goes beyond reviving the work, but raised the dead, in which he means that Cellini's salvation was remelting the bronze. Cellini invokes Christ and by doing so he breathes life into the sculpture. Casting the Perseus was more than meeting the demand of Cosimo I. Perseus was one of Cellini's crowning works, completed with two different ideals in mind, he wanted to respond to the sculpture placed within the piazza, which he did with the subject matter of Medusa reducing men to stone. Secondly, the Medici were represented by Perseus and the subject matter achieved that in the round sculpture and the relief below. Moreover, in that respect, Cellini made a statement for himself in the actual casting of Perseus. Cellini gave life with his new sculpture in his use of bronze and asserted the Medician control over the Florentine people through the Perseus motif. There is an exquisite though smaller scale bronze copy of the Perseus displayed outside The Ringling Museum in Sarasota, Florida.

Burne-Jones, Edward. “ ‘Andromeda’: Transformation of Historical and Mythological Sources.” Artibus et Historiae 25, no. 49: 197-227. Cole, Michael. "Cellini's Blood." The Art Bulletin 81, no. 2: 215-235. Mandel, C. "Perseus and the Medici." Storia Dell'Arte no. 87: 168-187. Shearman, John. Art Or Politics in the Piazza? Benvenuto Cellini. Kunst und Kunsttheorie im 16. Jahrhundert: 19-36. Weil-Garris, Kathleen. On Pedestals

Johnny Payne

Johnny Payne is a dramatist, novelist and has been a professor at the University of Texas at El Paso and Florida Atlantic University's Boca Raton campus. He has been head of a Northwestern University Latin American Studies program in Peru. Payne received his bachelor's degree in Comparative Literature at Indiana University and was awarded a Master of Fine Arts at the University of Alabama, he completed his PhD at Stanford University. Payne conducted fieldwork in the Quechua highlands of Peru and has published two books from this research. Cuentos cusqueños is a dual language text, in both Quechua and Spanish, gives stories told by several Quechua native speakers. She-Calf and Other Quechua Folk Tales is a translation of Quechua folktales into English. Payne wrote the novel Kentuckiana. Novels“Bedfellows” "La Muerte de Papi" "Vassal: Poems of Odysseus" "Silver Dagger" "Second Chance* North of Patagonia Kentuckiana The Ambassador’s Son Baja Chalk Lake Poetry “Heaven of Ashes” PlaysThe Devil in Disputanta The Serpent’s LoverLiterary EthnographyShe-Calf and Other Quechua Folk Tales Cuentos cusqueños Non-fictionConquest of the New Word: Experimental Fiction and Translation in the Americas Voice and Style “Talking Around Terrorism: A Conference Report”.

Telos 74. New York: Telos Press. Translationswith Phyllis Silverstein Teresa Porzecanski,'Sun Inventions'. Arthur Salm, San Diego Union-Tribune. Elizabeth Redden, "Going Borderless and Bilingual, Inside Higher Ed, January 5, 2007

Red Rhodes

Orville J. Rhodes, better known as Red Rhodes or O. J. Rhodes, was an American pedal steel guitarist, his mother taught him to play the Dobro at the age of five, but at the age of fifteen he switched to the steel guitar. He was an oil company engineer before he settled into music, he became a session musician. Rhodes played pedal steel on many country rock and rock albums with The Monkees, Michael Nesmith, James Taylor, The Beach Boys and Crofts, The Byrds, The Carpenters and Our Gang, many other groups, as part of the "Wrecking Crew" studio musicians, he is most remembered for his work with former Monkee Michael Nesmith on Nesmith's first solo albums in the early 1970s. Rhodes is credited for the "other-worldly" effects he created with pedal steel on The Ventures futuristic album The Ventures in Space in 1964. In the late 1970s Rhodes shifted his focus from performing to guitar electronics at his Royal Amplifier Service shop in Hollywood, California. There Rhodes modified amplifiers and created his custom Velvet Hammer guitar pickups for James Burton, Clarence White, Gerald Ray. and other influential guitarists.

His shop staff included future instrument makers Michael Tobias and Bill Chapin. Rheumatoid arthritis restricted Rhodes' public performances and recordings in the 1980s and 1990s, with the notable exception of his appearance on Michael Nesmith's Tropical Campfires album and tour in 1992. Rhodes fell ill soon after this tour, died on August 20, 1995. Once a Day and Other Steel Guitar Country & Western Favorites, 1961, Crown Blue Blue Day and Other Steel Guitar Country & Western Favorites, 1962, Crown Steel Guitar Rag and Other Country and Western Favorites, 1963, Crown Red Rhodes Live at The Palomino, 1969, Happy Tiger Velvet Hammer in a Cowboy Band, 1973, Countryside Red Rhodes' Steel Guitar, 1979, Alshire Fantastic Steel Guitar, 1980, Exact Steel Guitar Favorites, 1990, Alshire Skid Row Blues, Nothin', et al.', 1963, Hal Ford Forrest D Halford The Ventures in Space, 1964, The Ventures Begin, 1968, The Millennium Notorious Byrd Brothers, 1968, The Byrds The Wichita Train Whistle Sings, 1968, Michael Nesmith Bubble Gum, Lemonade & Something for Mama, 1969, Cass Elliot Instant Replay, 1969, The Monkees It's Not Killing Me, 1969, Mike Bloomfield John Phillips, 1969, John Phillips Hand Sown...

Home Grown, 1969, Linda Ronstadt Nancy, 1969, Nancy Sinatra Weeds, 1969, Brewer & Shipley The Blue Marble, 1969, Sagittarius Magnetic South, 1970, Michael Nesmith Loose Salute, 1970, Michael Nesmith Sweet Baby James, 1970, James Taylor Tom Rush, 1970, Tom Rush Nevada Fighter, 1971, Michael Nesmith Possum, 1971, Possum Lead Free, 1972, B. W. Stevenson One Man Dog, 1972, James Taylor Hold On Dear Brother, 1972 The Beach Boys Rhymes and Reasons, 1972, Carole King Son of Schmilsson, 1972, Harry Nilsson A Song for You, 1972, The Carpenters Summer Breeze, 1972, Seals & Crofts Tantamount to Treason, 1972, Michael Nesmith And the Hits Just Keep on Comin', 1972, Michael Nesmith Willis Alan Ramsey, 1972, Willis Alan Ramsey Five & Dime, 1973, David Ackles Pure Country, 1973, Garland Frady Pretty Much Your Standard Ranch Stash, 1973, Michael Nesmith Valley Hi, 1973, Ian Matthews There's an Innocent Face, 1973, Curt Boettcher Calabasas, 1974, B. W. Stevenson L. A. Turnaround, 1974, Bert Jansch Black Bach, 1974, Lamont Dozier The Prison, 1974, Michael Nesmith Diamonds & Rust, 1975, Joan Baez Horizon, 1975, The Carpenters Midnight on the Water, 1975, David Bromberg Marriott, 1976, Steve Marriott Sweet America, 1976, Buffy Sainte-Marie Frolicking in the Myth, 1977, Steven Fromholz Road Songs, 1977, Hoyt Axton The Way I Am, 1981, Billy Preston Tropical Campfires, 1992, Michael Nesmith

Altadore, Calgary

Altadore is a residential neighbourhood in the inner-city portion of the southwest quadrant of Calgary, Alberta. It is bounded by 33rd Ave SW and the neighbourhood of South Calgary in the north, River Park and 14 St SW in the east, the Garrison Woods neighbourhood and Crowchild Trail SW in the west, 50th Ave SW in the south. Altadore is part of the Marda Loop Communities Association along with Garrison Woods and South Calgary. Altadore was named one of Calgary's best neighbourhoods in 2010 for its proximity to River Park, one of Calgary's best parks on the Elbow River, Marda Loop, the largest and busiest outdoor shopping area in Calgary, for having a vibrant party and cultural scene; the Marda Loop Business Revitalization Zone is located within the community, along 33 and 34 Avenues SW. The neighbourhood is experiencing a gentrification process with many high-end, semi-detached homes built in the last 15 years. Altadore was established in 1945, it is represented in the Calgary City Council by the Ward 8 councillor.

The community has an area redevelopment plan in place. The meaning of "Altadore" is unclear, it may have been named after a mansion in County Wicklow, Ireland, or it may have been a portmanteau word whose first part derived either from "Alta", the standard English abbreviation of Alberta, or "alta" for high, whose second part was derived from "dore", a version of the French "d'or", or "of gold". In the City of Calgary's 2018 municipal census, Altadore had a population of 6,831 living in 3,218 dwellings. Including Garrison Woods, with a land area of 2.9 km2, it had a population density of 3,140/km2 in 2012. Altadore neighbourhood demographics from the 2018 municipal census document: median personal income of $63,281, median household income of $130,638, 7% of residents are low income, 13% of residents are immigrants. 29% of dwellings are rentals, 38% of dwellings are detached, 30% semi-detached/duplex, 9% row housing, 23% apartments. Altadore contains two schools operated by the Calgary Board of Education.

Altadore Elementary, on 16th Street S. W. serves students from kindergarten to grade six and was opened in 1952. Dr. Oakley School, on 20th Street S. W. serves students with learning disabilities from grades three to nine. Dr. Oakley School was once an elementary and junior high school, but was re-purposed in the early 1980s due to low attendance; the designated public junior high school is Mount Royal Junior High in the Mount Royal neighbourhood, the designated public senior high school is Central Memorial High School located in the North Glenmore Park neighbourhood. There are no schools operated by the Calgary Catholic School District located in Altadore. Separate school students attend St. James Elementary and Junior High School and Bishop Carroll High School. There are a number of private schools in Altadore, including the french Lycée Louis Pasteur, Rundle Academy; the community was once the home of I. L. Peretz School, a Jewish elementary school operated under the aegis of the Board of Education.

List of neighbourhoods in Calgary Altadore Community Association