A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Jean Sturm Gymnasium
The Jean Sturm Gymnasium is a private Protestant school in Strasbourg, teaching children from the third year of secondary education through to the Baccalaureat. The school, the precursor of the University of Strasbourg, was founded in 1538 by the humanist Johannes Sturm, just a year after he had arrived in the city. In March 1538, the chief town councillor of Strasbourg, the unrelated Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck, asked Sturm to reorganize education in the city. In March 1538 Jean Sturm published his treatise'De literarum ludis recte aperiendis liber' to justify the creation of a unique school in Strasbourg; the Chapter of St Thomas Church in Strasbourg was involved in the creation of the school. Jean Sturm was the first rector of the school. One of the members of the Chapter of St Thomas, Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, is still responsible for ensuring that the religious instruction in the school is given according to the proper Protestant doctrine; the medium of instruction for many years was uniquely in Latin.
The school was set up in its present location, which at the time was part of the Dominican Convent where Meister Eckhart and Joannes Tauler once taught. The original name was Schola Argentoratensis, from Argentoratum, the former Latin name of Strasbourg. From the outset the school offered teaching in the new humanist tradition, it provided the model for the modern German gymnasium. In 2005 the school was merged with the Lucie-Berger school, under the name'Pôle éducatif Jan-Amos-Comenius', enabling the school to extend the age-range of its teaching to cover kindergarten through to the Baccalaureat and making it the largest private Protestant educational institution in France. Today the school, boasts a 100 % success rate in the Baccaleureat. School website
Nicholas Hare Architects
Nicholas Hare Architects is a UK architectural practice, with a portfolio of award-winning projects. These include schools, higher education, commercial projects, buildings for the arts. Founded by Nicholas Hare in 1977, the practice is now a limited liability partnership with over 50 employees; the office is based in an old book-binding factory in Barnsbury Square in Islington. Nicholas Hare Architects LLP is a member of the UK Green Building Council and achieves BREEAM Excellent rating for several of its completed buildings. Notable buildings include: Golden Lane Campus next to the Barbican Brunei Gallery for the University of London UK Headquarters building for NOKIA in Farnborough for SEGRO Science Building & Drama Centre for St Paul's School, London Joseph Chamberlain Sixth Form College Birmingham Sadler's Wells Theatre in Islington Richard Doll Building for the University of Oxford Education & Simulation Centre for the Royal College of Surgeons of England Student Services Centre for the University of Southampton The David Attenborough Building at the University of Cambridge Alison Richard Building on the Sidgwick Site at the University of Cambridge Roald Dahl Plass in Cardiff, Wales Headquarters Complex in Farnborough for SEGRO Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists London Hawkshead Campus Gateway Building, Royal Veterinary CollegeCornelius Vermuyden School on Canvey Island Research and Development building for NOKIA in Farnborough for SEGRO UK Headquarters building in Slough for O2.
Production Workshop and new Costume Centre in Thurrock for the Royal Opera House Royal Courts building in Guernsey The practice won the Prime Minister's'Better Public Building' award for Joseph Chamberlain Sixth Form College in 2009. The same project was awarded the RIBA/Learning and Skills Council Further Education Building Design Excellence Award. Nicholas Hare Architects has won several Civic Trust Awards and commendations for several projects and was named Best School Architect at the British Council for School Environments Awards in 2009. 2017The David Attenborough Building, Winner AJ Retrofit Award, Winner: Offices The David Attenborough Building, Education, RIBA Journal Schüco Excellence Awards The David Attenborough Building, British Construction Industry Award Christies Care Office Building Winner, RIBA Suffolk Craftsmanship Award2016The David Attenborough Building, Cambridge Design & Construction Awards: Best Conservation Alteration or Extension Award & Engineering & Sustainability Project of the Year Royal Opera House, Costume Centre Thurrock Business Awards, Best Community Charity Award2015St Paul's School Science Building, RIBA London Award Gloucester Academy, Gloucester Civic Award Kettering Science Academy, Civic Trust Awards2014Bishop of Rochester Academy Highly Commended, AJ100 Value Excellence Award Woodlands School Winner - BIM Initiative of the Year, Heating & Ventilation Awards St Paul's School Science Building Highly Commended - Design Through Innovation, RICS London Awards St Paul's School Science Building Winner, Civic Trust Awards GreenPark, Reading Winner, Civic Trust Award Noel-Baker and St Martins School Derby Civic Society, Commendation Noel-Baker and St Martins School Winner, RIBA East Midlands Award2013Dormers Wells High School Winner, Ealing Civic Society Award Joseph Chamberlain Sixth Form College Top 20 projects in the West Midlands, MADE20 Design Awards Nicholas Hare Architects Overall Winner, Open City Architecture in Schools Primary Awards Woodlands SchoolWinner BIM Project Application, British Construction Industry Awards Strood Academy Best New Build, Medway Culture & Design Award Alison Richard Building Commendation, Cambridge Design and Construction Awards2012Royal Opera House Production Workshop, RIBA East Spirit of Ingenuity Award Crown Woods College, RIBA London Regional Award Crown Woods College, Civic Trust Awards Commendation Alison Richard Building, Civic Trust Awards Commendation2011High House Production Park Project of the Year and Regeneration & Conservation Award, Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, South East Region 2011 Coleridge Primary School Winner, Civic Trust Awards2009Park Hall School in Solihull Winner - Excellence in BSF: Best Design for a New School, Partnership for Schools O2 Headquarters building in Slough The Architecture Award Winner, International Property and Commercial Awards Best School Architect, British Council for School Environments Winner - Inspiring Design, British Council for School Environments - Golden Lane Campus2007The Richard Doll Building, University of Oxford, RIBA Award Student Services Centre, University of Southampton, RIBA Award Official website Sadlers Wells keeps listing but faces closure, Architects' Journal Golden Lane Campus by Nicholas Hare Architects Joseph Chamberlain Sixth Form College in ArchDaily At Guernsey’s new Royal Court complex, the majesty of the law is given a commanding hill-top position and a contemporary welcoming feel Concrete Quarterly, St Paul's School: "Best days of its life" Sustainability events at Nicholas Hare Architects' offices
Free imperial city
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town, subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince; the evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities for fiscal reasons; those cities, founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had been administered by royal/imperial stewards gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice.
The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, that were subjected to a prince-bishop and progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation until the end of the Empire. Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, control their own trade, they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, sometimes — if — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics.
Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds; some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and others lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen; some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence. A few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this happened after the Reformation, of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia, all but the ten Alsatian cities continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803. There were four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants.
During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord. Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians; these were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time though no formal right to independence existed.
These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet. Free imperial cities were not admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, then their votes were considered only advisory compared to the Benches of the electors and princes; the cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. The following list contains the 50 Free imperial cities that took part in the Imperial Diet of 1792, they are listed according to their voting order on the Swabian benches. These same cities were among the 85 free imperial cities listed on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521: the federal civil and military tax-schedule used for more than a century to assess the contributions of all the Imperial Estates in case
Angelus Silesius, born Johann Scheffler and known as Johann Angelus Silesius, was a German Catholic priest and physician, known as a mystic and religious poet. Born and raised a Lutheran, he adopted the name Angelus and the epithet Silesius on converting to Catholicism in 1653. While studying in the Netherlands, he began to read the works of medieval mystics and became acquainted with the works of the German mystic Jacob Böhme through Böhme's friend, Abraham von Franckenberg. Silesius's mystical beliefs caused tension between him and Lutheran authorities and led to his eventual conversion to Catholicism, he took holy orders under the Franciscans and was ordained a priest in 1661. Ten years in 1671, he retired to a Jesuit house where he remained for the rest of his life. An enthusiastic convert and priest, Silesius worked to convince German Protestants in Silesia to return to the Roman Catholic Church, he composed 55 tracts and pamphlets condemning Protestantism, several of which were published in two folio volumes entitled Ecclesiologia.
He is now remembered chiefly for his religious poetry, in particular for two poetical works both published in 1657: Heilige Seelenlust, a collection of more than 200 religious hymn texts that have been used by Catholics and Protestants. His poetry explores themes of mysticism and pantheism within an orthodox Catholic context. While his exact birthdate is unknown, it is believed that Silesius was born in December 1624 in Breslau, the capital of Silesia; the earliest mention of him is the registration of his baptism on Christmas Day, 25 December 1624. At the time, Silesia was a German-speaking province of the Habsburg Empire. Today, it is the southwestern region of Poland. Baptized Johann Scheffler, he was the first of three children, his parents, who married in February 1624, were Lutheran Protestants. His father, Stanislaus Scheffler, was a member of the lower nobility. Stanislaus dedicated his life to the military, was made Lord of Borowice and received a knighthood from King Sigismund III. A few years before his son's birth, he had retired from military service in Kraków.
In 1624, he was 62. The child's mother, Maria Hennemann, was a 24-year-old daughter of a local physician with ties to the Habsburg Imperial court. Scheffler obtained his early education at the Elisabethsgymnasium in Breslau, his earliest poems were published during these formative years. Scheffler was influenced by the published works of poet and scholar Martin Opitz and by one of his teachers, poet Christoph Köler, he subsequently studied medicine and science at the University of Strasbourg in Alsace for a year in 1643. It was a Lutheran university with a course of study. From 1644 to 1647, he attended Leiden University. At this time, he was introduced to the writings of Jacob Böhme and became acquainted with one of Böhme's friends, Abraham von Franckenberg, who introduced him to ancient Kabbalist writings and hermeticism, to mystic writers living in Amsterdam. Franckenberg had been compiling a complete edition of Böhme's work at the time Scheffler resided in the Netherlands; the Dutch Republic provided refuge to many religious sects and scholars who were persecuted elsewhere in Europe.
Scheffler went to Italy and enrolled in studies at the University of Padua in Padua in September 1647. A year he received a doctoral degree in philosophy and medicine and returned to his homeland. On 3 November 1649, Scheffler was appointed to be the court physician to Silvius I Nimrod, Duke of Württemberg-Oels and was given an annual salary of 175 thalers. Although he was "recommended to the Duke on account of his good qualities and his experience in medicine," it is that Scheffler's friend and mentor, Abraham von Franckenberg, had arranged the appointment given his closeness to the Duke. Franckenberg was the son of a minor noble from the village of Ludwigsdorf near Oels within the duchy. Franckenberg returned to the region the year before, it is possible that Scheffler's brother-in-law, Tobias Brückner, a physician to the Duke of Württemberg-Oels, may have recommended him. Scheffler soon was not happy in his position as his personal mysticism and critical views on Lutheran doctrine caused friction with the Duke and members of the ducal court.
The Duke was characterized in history as being "a zealous Lutheran and bigoted." Coincidentally, it was at this time that Scheffler began to have mystical visions, which along with his public pronouncements led local Lutheran clergy to consider him a heretic. After Franckenberg's death in June 1652, Scheffler resigned his position—he may have been forced to resign—and sought refuge under the protection of the Roman Catholic Church; the Lutheran authorities in the Reformed states of the Empire were not tolerant of Scheffler's increasing mysticism, he was publicly attacked and denounced as a heretic. At this time, the Habsburg rulers were pushing for a Counter Reformation and advocated a re-Catholicisation of Europe. Scheffler sought to convert to Catholicism and was received by the Church of Saint Matthias in Breslau on 12 June 1653. Upon being received, he took the name Angelus, the Latin form of "angel", derived from the Greek ángelos.
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Albert Schweitzer, OM was an Alsatian theologian, writer, humanitarian and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular view of Jesus as depicted by the historical-critical method current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view, his contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Paul's mysticism of "being in Christ" as primary and the doctrine of Justification by Faith as secondary. He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life", becoming the eighth Frenchman to be awarded that prize, his philosophy was expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding and sustaining the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, in the part of French Equatorial Africa, now Gabon. As a music scholar and organist, he studied the music of German composer Johann Sebastian Bach and influenced the Organ Reform Movement. Schweitzer was born in the province of Alsace, a part of the Holy Roman Empire up to the Thirty Year War.
In 1648, with the Treaty of Westphalia, the Habsburgs renounced their claims to its territory, when it became a part of France for the first time. In 1871, through the Treaty of Frankfurt, Alsace became a part of the German Empire, becoming French a second time in 1919, after Germany's defeat during the First World War. Schweitzer considered himself French, but wrote in German, his mother-tongue was Alsatian, a Low Alemannic German dialect, although he was fluent in French and High-German. Schweitzer was born in the son of Louis Schweitzer and Adèle Schillinger, he spent his childhood in the Alsatian village of Gunsbach, where his father, the local Lutheran-Evangelical pastor of the EPCAAL, taught him how to play music. The tiny village became home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer; the medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays. This compromise arose after the Thirty Years' War.
Schweitzer, the pastor's son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of faith and purpose. Schweitzer's first language was the Alsatian dialect of German language. At the Mulhouse gymnasium he received his "Abitur" in 1893, he studied organ in Mulhouse from 1885 to 1893 with Eugène Munch, organist at the Protestant cathedral, who inspired Schweitzer with his profound enthusiasm for the music of German composer Richard Wagner. In 1893 he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor, for whom Johann Sebastian Bach's organ music contained a mystic sense of the eternal. Widor impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, a great and influential friendship thus began. From 1893 Schweitzer studied Protestant theology at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg. There he received instruction in piano and counterpoint from professor Gustav Jacobsthal, associated with Ernest Munch, the brother of his former teacher, organist of St William church, a passionate admirer of J.
S. Bach's music. Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in 1894. Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg and in 1896 he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth Festival to see Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal, which impressed him. In 1898 he went back to Paris to write a PhD dissertation on The Religious Philosophy of Kant at the Sorbonne, to study in earnest with Widor. Here he met with the elderly Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, he studied piano at that time with Marie Jaëll. In 1899, Schweitzer spent the summer semester at the University of Berlin and obtained his theology degree in University of Strasbourg, he published his PhD thesis at the University of Tübingen in 1899. In 1905, Schweitzer began his study of medicine at the University of Strasbourg, culminating in the degree of M. D. in 1913. Schweitzer gained prominence as a musical scholar and organist, dedicated to the rescue and study of historic pipe organs. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J. S. Bach's religious music.
In 1899 he astonished Widor by explaining figures and motifs in Bach's Chorale Preludes as painter-like tonal and rhythmic imagery illustrating themes from the words of the hymns on which they were based. They were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns; the exposition of these ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzer's last task, appeared in the masterly study J. S. Bach: Le Musicien-Poète, written in French and published in 1905. There was great demand for a German edition, instead of translating it, he decided to rewrite it; the result was two volumes, which were published in 1908 and translated into English by Ernest Newman in 1911. Ernst Cassirer, a contemporaneous German philosopher, called it "one of the best interpretations" of Bach. During its preparation Schweitzer became a friend of Cosima Wagner resident in Strasbourg, with whom he had many theological and musical conversations, exploring his view of Bach's descriptive music, playing the major Chorale Preludes for her at the Temple Neuf.
Schweitzer's interpretative approach influenced the modern understanding of Bach's music. He became a welcome guest at Wahnfried. He