Jean Sturm Gymnasium
The Jean Sturm Gymnasium is a private Protestant school in Strasbourg, teaching children from the third year of secondary education through to the Baccalaureat. The school, which was the precursor of the University of Strasbourg, was founded in 1538 by the humanist Johannes Sturm, in March 1538, the chief town councillor of Strasbourg, the unrelated Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck, asked Sturm to reorganize education in the city. In March 1538 Jean Sturm published his treatise De literarum ludis recte aperiendis liber to justify the creation of a school in Strasbourg. The Chapter of St Thomas Church in Strasbourg was involved in the creation of the school, Jean Sturm was the first rector of the school. The medium of instruction for many years was uniquely in Latin, the school was set up in its present location, which at the time was part of the Dominican Convent where Meister Eckhart and Joannes Tauler once taught. The original name was Schola Argentoratensis, from Argentoratum, the former Latin name of Strasbourg, from the outset the school offered teaching in the new humanist tradition.
It provided the model for the modern German gymnasium, today the school, which has some 2,000 pupils, boasts a 100% success rate in the Baccaleureat
Free imperial city
The evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities, essentially for fiscal reasons. The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, and control their own trade, and they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, and sometimes — if rarely — lost, some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds, some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and other lost their privileges during the same period by the same way.
Some cities became free through the created by the extinction of dominant families. Some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler, a few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. There were approximately four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, during the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places ever enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, and some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, from the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were nevertheless the exception among the multitude of territorial towns, Cities of both latter categories normally had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet.
The cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. To avoid the possibility that they would have the vote in case of a tie between the Electors and the Princes, it was decided that these should decide first and consult the cities afterward. Constitutionally, if in no way, the diminutive Free Imperial City of Isny was the equal of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Instead, many found it more profitable to maintain agents at the Aulic Council in Vienna. At the opposite end, the authority of Cologne, Worms, Goslar and they were the most economically significant burgher families who had asserted themselves politically over time. The burgher status was usually a privilege renewed pro-forma in each generation of the family concerned
Angelus Silesius, born Johann Scheffler and known as Johann Angelus Silesius, was a German Catholic priest and physician, known as a mystic and religious poet. Born and raised a Lutheran, he adopted the name Angelus, Silesiuss mystical beliefs caused tension between him and Lutheran authorities and led to his eventual conversion to Catholicism. He took holy orders under the Franciscans and was ordained a priest in 1661, ten years later, in 1671, he retired to a Jesuit house where he remained for the rest of his life. An enthusiastic convert and priest, Silesius worked to convince German Protestants in Silesia to return to the Roman Catholic Church and he composed 55 tracts and pamphlets condemning Protestantism, several of which were published in two folio volumes entitled Ecclesiologia. His poetry explores themes of mysticism and pantheism within an orthodox Catholic context, while his exact birthdate is unknown, it is believed that Silesius was born in December 1624 in Breslau, the capital of Silesia.
The earliest mention of him is the registration of his baptism on Christmas Day,25 December 1624, at the time, Silesia was a German-speaking province of the Habsburg Empire. Today, it is the region of Poland. Baptized Johann Scheffler, he was the first of three children and his parents, who married in February 1624, were Lutheran. His father, Stanislaus Scheffler, was of Polish ancestry and was a member of the lower nobility, Stanislaus dedicated his life to the military was made Lord of Borowice and received a knighthood from King Sigismund III. A few years before his sons birth, he had retired from service in Kraków. The childs mother, Maria Hennemann, was a 24-year-old daughter of a physician with ties to the Habsburg Imperial court. Scheffler obtained his education at the Elisabethsgymnasium in Breslau. His earliest poems were written and published during these formative years, Scheffler was probably influenced by the recently published works of poet and scholar Martin Opitz and by one of his teachers, poet Christoph Köler.
He subsequently studied medicine and science at the University of Strasbourg in Alsace for a year in 1643 and it was a Lutheran university with a course of study that embraced Renaissance humanism. From 1644 to 1647, he attended Leiden University, Franckenberg had been compiling a complete edition of Böhmes work at the time Scheffler resided in the Netherlands. The Dutch Republic provided refuge to religious sects, mystics. Scheffler went to Italy and enrolled in studies at the University of Padua in Padua in September 1647, a year later, he received a doctoral degree in philosophy and medicine and returned to his homeland. On 3 November 1649, Scheffler was appointed to be the physician to Silvius I Nimrod
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
Albert Schweitzer, OM was a French-German theologian, organist and physician. Schweitzer, a Lutheran, challenged both the view of Jesus as depicted by historical-critical methodology current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view. His contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Pauls mysticism of “being in Christ” as primary, as a music scholar and organist, he studied the music of German composer Johann Sebastian Bach and influenced the Organ Reform Movement. Schweitzer was born in Kaysersberg, the son of Ludwig Schweitzer and he spent his childhood in the Alsatian village of Gunsbach, where his father, the local Lutheran-Evangelical pastor of the EPCAAL, taught him how to play music. The tiny village is home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer, the medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays. This compromise arose after the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years War, the pastors son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, and developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of Faith and Purpose.
Schweitzers first language was the Alsatian dialect of German, at the Mulhouse Gymnasium he received his Abitur in 1893. In 1893 he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor, for whom Johann Sebastian Bachs organ-music contained a mystic sense of the eternal, deeply impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, and a great and influential friendship thus began. From 1893 Schweitzer studied Protestant theology at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg. S, Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in 1894. Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg and in 1896 he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth to see Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal which deeply impressed him. In 1898 he went back to Paris to write a PhD dissertation on The Religious Philosophy of Kant at the Sorbonne, here he often met with the elderly Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. He studied piano at that time with Marie Jaëll and he completed his theology degree in 1899 and published his PhD thesis at the University of Tübingen in 1899.
Schweitzer rapidly gained prominence as a scholar and organist, dedicated to the rescue, restoration. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J. S. Bachs religious music and they were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns. The exposition of ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzers last task. There was great demand for a German edition, instead of translating it, the result was two volumes, which were published in 1908 and translated into English by Ernest Newman in 1911. Schweitzers interpretative approach greatly influenced the understanding of Bachs music
National and University Library
The National and University Library is a public library in Strasbourg, France. It is located on Place de la République, the former Kaiserplatz, after the destruction of the municipal library and the citys archives by Prussian artillery during the Siege of Strasbourg, the German Empire founded the BNU on 19 June 1872. The task of arranging its collections was given to historian and professor and it became the regional library for the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine, as, according to German tradition, every region should have at least one library. It was an Academic library, the collections grew quickly, thanks principally to donations from all across Europe and the United States. But, even in spite of these donations, many priceless manuscripts, such as the Hortus Deliciarum had been destroyed. The present-day building, which is a work of architects August Hartel, after the territory of Alsace-Lorraine had been reverted to France following World War I, the question arose as to whether or not this library should be renovated and reopened.
After some hesitation, the French government decided to keep the library, the library now holds about 3,000,000 volumes, which is the second largest collection in France. The collection contains, amongst other things, ca.2,300 incunabula,6.700 manuscripts and 5,200 papyri, media related to Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity.
Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France.
In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIV
Paul Ehrlich was a German physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology and antimicrobial chemotherapy. He invented the technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases. His laboratory discovered arsphenamine, the first effective treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating. Ehrlich popularized the concept of a magic bullet and he made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a method for standardizing therapeutic serums. In 1908, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions to immunology and he was the founder and first director of what is now known as the Paul Ehrlich Institute. Born 14 March 1854 in Strehlen in Silesia in what is now south-west Poland, Paul Ehrlich was the second child of Rosa and Ismar Ehrlich. His father was an innkeeper and distiller of liqueurs and the royal lottery collector in Strehelen and his grandfather, Heymann Ehrlich, had been a fairly successful distiller and tavern manager.
Ismar Ehrlich was the leader of the local Jewish community, after elementary school, Paul attended the time-honored secondary school Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium in Breslau, where he met Albert Neisser, who became a professional colleague. As a schoolboy, he became fascinated by the process of staining microscopic tissue substances and he retained that interest during his subsequent medical studies at the universities of Breslau, Freiburg im Breisgau and Leipzig. He married Hedwig Pinkus in 1883, the couple had two daughters and Marianne. Upon his return he established a medical practice and small laboratory in Berlin-Steglitz. Ehrlich was named its founding director, in 1899 his institute moved to Frankfurt am Main and was renamed the Institute of Experimental Therapy. One of his important collaborators there was Max Neisser, in 1906 Ehrlich became the director of the Georg Speyer House in Frankfurt, a private research foundation affiliated with his institute. Among the foreign guest scientists working with Ehrlich were two Nobel Prize winners, Henry Hallett Dale and Paul Karrer, the institute was renamed Paul Ehrlich Institute in Ehrlichs honour in 1947.
In 1914 Ehrlich signed the controversial Manifesto of the Ninety-Three which was a defense of Germany’s World War I politics, on 17 August 1915 Ehrlich suffered a heart attack and died on 20 August in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe. Paul Ehrlich was buried at the Old Jewish Cemetery, Frankfurt, in the early 1870s, Ehrlich’s cousin Karl Weigert was the first person to stain bacteria with dyes and to introduce aniline pigments for histological studies and bacterial diagnostics. During his studies in Strassburg under the anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer, Ehrlich continued the started by his cousin in pigments