The University of Turin is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe, continues to play an important role in research and training, it is ranked among the top 5 Italian universities and it is ranked third for research activities in Italy, according to the latest data by ANVUR. The University of Turin was founded as a studium in 1404, under the initiative of Prince Ludovico di Savoia. From 1427 to 1436 the seat of the university was transferred to Savigliano, it was closed in 1536, reestablished by Duke Emmanuel Philibert thirty years later. It started to gain its modern shape following the model of the University of Bologna, although significant development did not occur until the reforms made by Victor Amadeus II, who created the Collegio delle Province for students not natives of Turin. With the reforms carried out by Victor Amadeus II, the University of Turin became a new reference model for many other universities.
During the 18th century, the University faced an enormous growth in faculty and endowment size, becoming a point of reference of the Italian Positivism. Notable scholars of this period include Carlo Forlanini and Arturo Graf. In the 20th century, the University of Turin was one of the centers of the Italian anti-fascism. After the post-war period, the increase in the number of students and the improvement of campus structure were imposing, although losing some of its importance until a new wave of investments carried out in the end of that century; the new impulse was performed in collaboration with other national and international research centers, as well as with local organizations and the Italian Minister of Public Instruction. By the end of the 1990s, the local campuses of Alessandria and Vercelli became autonomous units under the new University of Eastern Piedmont. In the beginning of the 15th century, instability in the Lombard region caused by the political and military crisis, coupled with the untimely death of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, induced the teaching staff of the Universities of Pavia and Piacenza to propose to Ludovico di Savoia-Acaia the creation of a new Studium generale.
Choice of the location fell on Turin for a number of reasons: first it was at the crossroads between the Alps and Lombardy. In autumn 1404, a bull issued by Benedict XIII, the Avignon Pope, marked the actual birth of a centre of higher learning, formally ratified in 1412 by the Emperor Sigmund's certification and subsequently, in 1413, by a bull issued by antipope John XXIII, the Pisan Pope, by another issued in 1419 by Martin V, Pope of Rome, by a series of papal privileges; the new institution, which only held courses in civil and canon law, was authorized to confer both the academic "licentia" and "doctoratus" titles that became a single "laurea" title. The Bishop, as Rector of Studies and conferred the title on the new doctors; the early decades were marked by discontinuity, due to epidemics and crises that plagued the region between the 1420s and the 1430s following the annexation of the Piedmont territories to the Duchy of Savoy and by difficult relations between the University and the local Public Administration.
After a series of interruptions in its activities, the university was moved to Chieri and in 1434, to Savigliano. In 1436, when the institution returned to Turin, Ludovico di Savoia, who succeeded Amedeo VIII, introduced a new order of studies whereby the Government gained greater control over the University; the ducal licenses of 6 October 1436 set up the three faculties of Theology and Medicine, Law, twenty-five lectureships or chairs. The growth and development of the role of Turin as the subalpine capital led to the consolidation of the University and a stability that lasted for a hundred years. From 1443 the University was housed in a modest building purchased and refurbished by the City for this purpose on the corner of via Doragrossa and via dello Studio directly behind the Town Hall, until the opening of the university premises in via Po, in 1720; the Study, closed at the beginning of 1536 with the French occupation, reopened in 1558 with lecturers at Mondovì. With Emmanuel Philibert and Charles Emmanuel I, the University enjoyed a season of great prosperity due to the presence of illustrious teachers and a sizeable and culturally motivated student body.
However, a lengthy period of decline set in around the second half of the 17th century because of plagues and continual wars: courses were irregular or temporarily suspended, the number of chairs was reduced, for those temporarily vacant, it was necessary to resort to private instruction. The opening of the new premises marked a major turning point in the history of the greatest Piedmontese educational institution; the inauguration building in via Po, close to Piazza Castello, the seats of power and other educational institutions of the City, coincided with the academic year 1720–1721, the first year of the reform of university studies passed by Victor Amadeus II in the context of a radical renewal at all levels of public administration and education. Victor Amadeus II was convinced that an efficient university controlled directly by the State was the only way to form a faithful and well-trained ruling class that could support him in the process of modernizing the Nation. While the War of Span
Lidio John Fogolin Sr. was a Canadian professional ice hockey player for the Detroit Red Wings and Chicago Black Hawks of the National Hockey League. Fogolin started his professional career with the Omaha Knights of the United States Hockey League in 1946; the next year he played for the Indianapolis Capitals of the American Hockey League. He saw his first NHL action for the Detroit Red Wings in the 1948 playoffs, he began the 1949 season with Indianapolis before being called up to the NHL full-time. He played the next three seasons with Detroit winning the Stanley Cup with them in 1950. In 1951 he was traded to the Chicago Black Hawks along with Steve Black for Bert Olmstead and Vic Stasiuk, he played the final six years of his career on less-than-impressive Black Hawks teams. In 1957, he signed on as a player-coach of the Calgary Stampeders of the Western Hockey League, he broke his elbow that season and decided to retire at its conclusion to concentrate on coaching full-time. Fogolin coached one season in the WHL in 1957.
He did not return to coaching until 1971 with the Thunder Bay Twins of the United States Hockey League, where he coached for two seasons. Fogolin played in two NHL All Star Games, in 1950 and 1951, his son Lee Fogolin won two Stanley Cups, with the Edmonton Oilers in 1984 and 1985. His grandson Michael Fogolin played for the Prince George Cougars in the WHL and died in his sleep on May 26, 2004 of a possible heart condition. Fogolin died November 29, 2000. Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database Picture of Lee Fogolin's Name on the 1950 Stanley Cup Plaque
Rashid Rehman was a prominent Pakistani lawyer and a regional coordinator for the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. He was well known for his work with clients who were poor or who were charged under Pakistan's vigorous blasphemy laws. After he became the defence lawyer for Junaid Hafeez in a controversial and publicized blasphemy case, he received death-threats, lastly in court in April 2014 by prosecution lawyers, but Rehman refused to abandon his client; as a result of this incident, complaints were laid with police and the District Bar Association but no action had been taken or protection provided when he was shot and killed by gunmen on 7 May 2014, two colleagues injured. Rashid Rehman Murdered BBC News Pakistan'blasphemy lawyer' shot dead in Multan office Times of India. Rights advocate Rashid Rehman Khan gunned down in Pakistan Gunmen kill Pakistan lawyer defending blasphemy case In memoriam: Civil society, lawyers protest murder of Rashid Rehman Let's wait for the next Rashid Rehman to be murdered Rights advocate Rashid Rehman Khan gunned down in Multan