Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs and institutions. It describes, compares and explains religion, emphasizing systematic based, cross-cultural perspectives. While theology attempts to understand the nature of transcendent or supernatural forces, religious studies tries to study religious behavior and belief from outside any particular religious viewpoint. Religious studies draws upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, psychology and history of religion. Religious studies originated in the 19th century, when scholarly and historical analysis of the Bible had flourished, Hindu and Buddhist texts were first being translated into European languages. Early influential scholars included Friedrich Max Müller, in England, Cornelius P. Tiele, in the Netherlands. Today religious studies is practiced by scholars worldwide. In its early years, it was known as "comparative religion" or the science of religion and, in the USA, there are those who today know the field as the History of religion.
The religious studies scholar Walter Capps described the purpose of the discipline as to provide "training and practice... in directing and conducting inquiry regarding the subject of religion". At the same time, Capps stated that its other purpose was to use "prescribed modes and techniques of inquiry to make the subject of religion intelligible." Religious studies scholar Robert A. Segal characterised the discipline as "a subject matter", "open to many approaches", thus it "does not require either a distinctive method or a distinctive explanation to be worthy of disciplinary status."Different scholars operating in the field have different interests and intentions. Some scholars of religious studies are interested in studying the religion to which they belong. Scholars of religion have argued that a study of the subject is useful for individuals because it will provide them with knowledge, pertinent in inter-personal and professional contexts within an globalised world, it has been argued that studying religion is useful in appreciating and understanding sectarian tensions and religious violence.
The term "religion" originated from the Latin noun religio, nominalized from one of three verbs: relegere. Because of these three different potential meanings, an etymological analysis alone does not resolve the ambiguity of defining religion, since each verb points to a different understanding of what religion is. During the Medieval Period, the term "religious" was used as a noun to describe someone who had joined a monastic order. Throughout the history of religious studies, there have been many attempts to define the term "religion". Many of these have been monothetic, seeking to determine a key, essential element which all religions share, which can be used to define "religion" as a category, which must be necessary in order for something to be classified as a "religion". There are two forms of monothetic definition; the second are functional, seeking to define "religion" in terms of what it does for humans, for instance defining it by the argument that it exists to assuage fear of death, unite a community, or reinforce the control of one group over another.
Other forms of definition are polythetic, producing a list of characteristics that are common to religion. In this definition there is no one characteristic. Causing further complications is the fact that there are various secular world views, such as nationalism and Marxism, which bear many of the same characteristics that are associated with religion, but which consider themselves to be religious. Conversely, other scholars of religious studies have argued that the discipline should reject the term "religion" altogether and cease trying to define it. In this perspective, "religion" is argued to be a Western concept, forced upon other cultures in an act of intellectual imperialism. According to scholar of religion Russell T. McCutcheon, "many of the peoples that we study by means of this category have no equivalent term or concept whatsoever". There is, for instance, no word for "religion" in languages like Sanskrit. Before religious studies became a field in its own right, flourishing in the United States in the late 1960s, several key intellectual figures explored religion from a variety of perspectives.
One of these figures was the famous pragmatist William James. His 1902 Gifford lectures and book The Varieties of Religious Experience examined religion from a psychological-philosophical perspective and is still influential today, his essay The Will to Believe defends the rationality of faith. Max Weber studied religion from an economic perspective in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, his most famous work; as a major figure in sociology, he has no doubt influenced sociologists of religion. Émile Durkheim holds continuing influence as one of the fathers of sociology. He explored Protestant and Catholic attitudes and doctrines regarding suicide i
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the plural name of marca referring to the medieval March of Ancona and nearby marches of Camerino and Fermo. Marche is well known for its shoemaking tradition, with the finest and most luxurious Italian footwear being manufactured in this region; the region is located in the Central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic of San Marino to the north, Tuscany to the west, Umbria to the southwest and Lazio to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Except for river valleys and the very narrow coastal strip, the land is hilly. A railway from Bologna to Brindisi, built in the 19th century, runs along the coast of the entire territory. Inland, the mountainous nature of the region today, allows little travel north and south, except by twisting roads over the passes; the Umbrian enclave of Monte Ruperto is surrounded by the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, which constitutes the northern part of the region.
Urbino, one of the major cities of the region, was the birthplace of Raphael, as well as a major center of Renaissance history. Marche extends over an area of 9,694 square kilometres of the central Adriatic slope between Emilia-Romagna to the north and Umbria to the west, Lazio and Abruzzo to the south, the entire eastern boundary being formed by the Adriatic. Most of the region is mountainous or hilly, the main features being the Apennine chain along the internal boundary and an extensive system of hills descending towards the Adriatic. With the sole exception of Monte Vettore, 2,476 metres high, the mountains do not exceed 2,400 metres; the hilly area covers two-thirds of the region and is interrupted by wide gullies with numerous – albeit short – rivers and by alluvial plains perpendicular to the principal chain. The parallel mountain chains contain deep river gorges, the best known being those of the Furlo, the Rossa and the Frasassi; the coastal area is 173 kilometres long and is flat and straight except for the hilly area between Gabicce and Pesaro in the north, the eastern slopes of Monte Conero near Ancona.
Climate is temperate. Inland, in the mountainous areas, is more continental with cold and snowy winters. Precipitation varies from 1000–1500 mm. per year inland and 600–800 mm. per year on the Adriatic coast. Marche was known in ancient times as the Picenum territory; the Picens or Picentes were the Italic tribe. Many artefacts from their time are exhibited in National Archaeological Museum of the Marche Region in Ancona. In the fourth century BC, the northern area was occupied by a tribe of Gauls; the Battle of Sentinum was fought in Marche in 295 BC. Ascoli was a seat of Italic resistance during the Social War. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Goths. After the Gothic War, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. After the fall of the Exarchate, it was in the possession of the Lombards, but was conquered by Charlemagne in the late eighth century. In the ninth to eleventh centuries, the marches of Camerino and Ancona were created, hence the modern name.
Marche was nominally part of the Papal States, but most of the territory was under local lords, while the major cities ruled themselves as free communes. In the twelfth century, the commune of Ancona resisted both the imperial authority of Frederick Barbarossa and the Republic of Venice, was a maritime republic on its own. An attempt to restore Papal suzerainty by Gil de Albornoz in the fourteenth century was short-lived. During the Renaissance, the region was fought over by rival aristocratic families, such as the Malatesta of Rimini, Pesaro and the house of Montefeltro of Urbino; the last independent entity, the Duchy of Urbino, was dissolved in 1631, from on, Marche was part of the Papal States except during the Napoleonic period. This saw the short lived Republic of Ancona, in 1797–98. After Napoleon's defeat, Marche returned to Papal rule until 4 November 1860, when it was annexed to the unified Kingdom of Italy by a plebiscite. After the referendum of 2006, 7 municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join the Province of Rimini on 15 August 2009.
The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. Towns in Marche were devastated by the 2016 Central Italy earthquake which occurred on 24 August 2016. Prior to the 1980s, Marche was considered a rather poor region, although economically stable in some sectors, thanks to its agricultural output and to the contribution of traditional crafts. Today the contribution of agriculture to the economy of the region is less significant and the gross value generated by this sector remains above the national average. Marche has never suffered from the extremes of fragmented land ownership or'latifondo'. Diffused in the past, the sharecropping never produced an extreme land fragmentation; the main products are cereals, animal products and grapes. Truffle hunting is popular.
Alessandra Moretti is an Italian politician. Moretti graduated in law at the University of Urbino and has worked as a divorce lawyer since 2001. Since her young age, Moretti was interested in politics, following her father, active in the Italian Communist Party, she first entered politics with the Democrats of the Left. After some failed electoral campaigns, in 2008 Moretti, who had joined the Democratic Party, was elected to the municipal council of Vicenza from the list "Variati Mayor" and was appointed deputy mayor in charge of education and youth. In 2012 Moretti gained national prominence when she was appointed by Pier Luigi Bersani spokeswoman of his campaign for the centre-left primary election. In the event, Bersani lost the 2013 general election. Moretti was however elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the PD. In the 2014 European Parliament election Moretti was elected to the European Parliament but resigned in February 2015 to contest local elections and was replaced by Damiano Zoffoli.
In the 2015 Venetian regional election Moretti ran for President of Veneto, but gained a mere 22.7% of the vote and was thus defeated by incumbent President Luca Zaia of Liga Veneta–Lega Nord, who secured 50.1% of the vote. Media related to Alessandra Moretti at Wikimedia Commons Official website European Parliament - Alessandra Moretti
Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Times Higher Education magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds to publish the joint THE–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009 before it turned to Thomson Reuters for a new ranking system; the publication now comprises the world's overall and reputation rankings, alongside three regional league tables, Latin America, BRICS & Emerging Economies which are generated by different weightings. THE Rankings is considered as one of the most observed university rankings together with Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankings, it is praised for having a new, improved ranking methodology since 2010. The creation of the original Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World, to then-editor of Times Higher Education, John O'Leary.
Times Higher Education chose to partner with educational and careers advice company QS to supply the data. After the 2009 rankings, Times Higher Education took the decision to break from QS and signed an agreement with Thomson Reuters to provide the data for its annual World University Rankings from 2010 onwards; the publication developed a new rankings methodology in consultation with its readers, its editorial board and Thomson Reuters. Thomson Reuters will collect and analyse the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education; the first ranking was published in September 2010. Commenting on Times Higher Education's decision to split from QS, former editor Ann Mroz said: "universities deserve a rigorous and transparent set of rankings – a serious tool for the sector, not just an annual curiosity." She went on to explain the reason behind the decision to continue to produce rankings without QS' involvement, saying that: "The responsibility weighs heavy on our shoulders...we feel we have a duty to improve how we compile them."Phil Baty, editor of the new Times Higher Education World University Rankings, admitted in Inside Higher Ed: "The rankings of the world's top universities that my magazine has been publishing for the past six years, which have attracted enormous global attention, are not good enough.
In fact, the surveys of reputation, which made up 40 percent of scores and which Times Higher Education until defended, had serious weaknesses. And it's clear that our research measures favored the sciences over the humanities."He went on to describe previous attempts at peer review as "embarrassing" in The Australian: "The sample was too small, the weighting too high, to be taken seriously." THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings; the Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential."In 2014 Times Higher Education announced a series of important changes to its flagship THE World University Rankings and its suite of global university performance analyses, following a strategic review by THE parent company TES Global.
The inaugural 2010-2011 methodology contained 13 separate indicators grouped under five categories: Teaching, citations, international mix, industry income. The number of indicators is up from the Times-QS rankings published between 2004 and 2009, which used six indicators. A draft of the inaugural methodology was released on 3 June 2010; the draft stated that 13 indicators would first be used and that this could rise to 16 in future rankings, laid out the categories of indicators as "research indicators", "institutional indicators", "economic activity/innovation", "international diversity". The names of the categories and the weighting of each was modified in the final methodology, released on 16 September 2010; the final methodology included the weighting signed to each of the 13 indicators, shown below: The Times Higher Education billed the methodology as "robust and sophisticated," stating that the final methodology was selected after considering 10 months of "detailed consultation with leading experts in global higher education," 250 pages of feedback from "50 senior figures across every continent" and 300 postings on its website.
The overall ranking score was calculated by making Z-scores all datasets to standardize different data types on a common scale to better make comparisons among data. The reputational component of the rankings came from an Academic Reputation Survey conducted by Thomson Reuters in spring 2010; the survey gathered 13,388 responses among scholars "statistically representative of global higher education's geographical and subject mix." The magazine's category for "industry income – innovation" came from a sole indicator, institution's research income from industry scaled against the number of academic staff." The magazine stated that it used this data as "proxy for high-quality knowledge transfer" and planned to add more indicators for the category in future years. Data for citation impact, comprising 32
"Small Town" is a 1985 song written by John Mellencamp and released on his 1985 album Scarecrow. The song reached #6 on the U. S. Billboard Hot # 13 Adult Contemporary. Mellencamp wrote the song about his experiences growing up in a small town in Indiana, having been born in Seymour and living in Bloomington, which, at the time of the release of the song, was larger; the music video has references to both towns. "I wrote that song in the laundry room of my old house," Mellencamp told American Songwriter magazine in 2004. "We had company, I had to go write the song. And the people upstairs could hear me writing and they were all laughing when I came up, they said,'You've got to be kidding.' What else can you say about it?" Mellencamp told The Wall Street Journal that he had written the lyrics using an electronic typewriter that beeped whenever he misspelled a word, which had amused the people listening upstairs. In 2013, Mellencamp told Rolling Stone, "I wanted to write a song that said,'You don't have to live in New York or Los Angeles to live a full life or enjoy your life.'
I was never one of those guys that grew up and thought,'I need to get out of here.' It never dawned on me. I just valued having a family and staying close to friends." NBA legend and fellow Indiana native Larry Bird used the song during his retirement ceremony in 1993, referring to his hometown of French Lick, Indiana, as a "small town." The Sports Illustrated-produced VHS tape NBA Superstars featured a highlight reel of Bird set to the song. While he was married to Elaine Irwin, Mellencamp would change the lyrics from "married an L. A. doll and brought her to this small town/Now she's small town just like me" to "my wife was 13 years old when I wrote this song/Now she's small town just like me." Irwin was 18 years Mellencamp's junior, so she was a teenager when Mellencamp wrote the song in the mid-1980s, although they didn't meet until 1991. The "L. A. Doll" Mellencamp sings of in the original version. "Small Town" was used as the theme song for the Discovery Times documentary series Off to War, which covered Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers, most of them from rural Clarksville, during their tour of duty in Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re