An unmanned aerial vehicle is an aircraft without a human pilot on board and a type of unmanned vehicle. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system; the flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers. Compared to crewed aircraft, UAVs were used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for humans. While they originated in military applications, their use is expanding to commercial, recreational and other applications, such as policing and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography, infrastructure inspections and drone racing. Civilian UAVs now vastly outnumber military UAVs, with estimates of over a million sold by 2015. Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, which refer to the same concept; the term drone, more used by the public, was coined in reference to the early remotely-flown target aircraft used for practice firing of a battleship's guns, the term was first used with the 1920s Fairey Queen and 1930's de Havilland Queen Bee target aircraft.
These two were followed in service by the similarly-named Airspeed Queen Wasp and Miles Queen Martinet, before ultimate replacement by the GAF Jindivik. The term unmanned aircraft system was adopted by the United States Department of Defense and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 according to their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030; the International Civil Aviation Organization and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term used in the European Union's Single-European-Sky Air-Traffic-Management Research roadmap for 2020. This term emphasizes the importance of elements other than the aircraft, it includes elements such as data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned-aircraft vehicle system, remotely piloted aerial vehicle, remotely piloted aircraft system. Many similar terms are in use. A UAV is defined as a "powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload".
Therefore, missiles are not considered UAVs because the vehicle itself is a weapon, not reused, though it is uncrewed and in some cases remotely guided. Under new regulations which came into effect June 1, 2019, the term RPAS has been adopted by the Canadian Government to mean "a set of configurable elements consisting of a remotely piloted aircraft, its control station, the command and control links and any other system elements required during flight operation"; the relation of UAVs to remote controlled model aircraft is unclear. UAVs may not include model aircraft; some jurisdictions base their definition on weight. For recreational uses, a drone is a model aircraft that has first-person video, autonomous capabilities, or both; the earliest recorded use of an unmanned aerial vehicle for warfighting occurred on July 1849, serving as a balloon carrier in the first offensive use of air power in naval aviation. Austrian forces besieging Venice attempted to launch some 200 incendiary balloons at the besieged city.
The balloons were launched from land. At least one bomb fell in the city. UAV innovations started in the early 1900s and focused on providing practice targets for training military personnel. UAV development continued during World War I, when the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company invented a pilotless aerial torpedo that would explode at a preset time; the earliest attempt at a powered UAV was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" in 1916. Nikola Tesla described a fleet of uncrewed aerial combat vehicles in 1915. Advances followed including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane; this development inspired the development of the Kettering Bug by Charles Kettering from Dayton, Ohio. This was meant as an uncrewed plane that would carry an explosive payload to a predetermined target; the first scaled remote piloted vehicle was developed by film star and model-airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935. More emerged during World War II – used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany used various UAV aircraft during the war.
Jet engines entered service after World War II in vehicles such as the Australian GAF Jindivik, Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft offered their Model 1001 for the U. S. Navy in 1955, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam War. In 1959, the U. S. Air Force, concerned about losing pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of uncrewed aircraft. Planning intensified after the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 in 1960. Within days, a classified UAV program started under the code name of "Red Wagon"; the August 1964 clash in the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U. S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's classified UAVs int
Water supply and sanitation in Malaysia is characterised by numerous achievements, as well as some challenges. Universal access to water supply at affordable tariffs is a substantial achievement; the government has shown a commitment to make the sector more efficient, to create a sustainable funding mechanism and to improve the customer orientation of service providers through sector reforms enacted in 2006. The reform creates a modern institutional structure for the water sector, including an autonomous regulatory agency, an asset management company and commercialised state water companies that have to reach certain key performance indicators that will be monitored by the regulatory agency; the government has stated its intention not to embark on new private sector contracts for water provision, after a bout of such contracts during the 1990s showed mixed results. A number of challenges remain, only some of. First, tariffs are low, thus making cost recovery impossible at current levels so that the sector continues to depend on government subsidies.
Second, water losses as well as per capita water use remain high despite efforts at water demand management. Third, a large-scale water transfer project from the Pahang River to Kuala Lumpur is controversial because of its negative social and environmental impacts. Fourth, the development of sewerage and wastewater treatment has lagged behind the development of water infrastructure. For example, much of the collected wastewater is not yet being treated; the sanitation sub-sector has been excluded in the 2006 reforms of the water supply sub-sector. Water resources in Malaysia are available throughout the year, they are estimated at 580 km3/year, equivalent to more than 3,000 cubic meters per year. In 1995, total water withdrawal was estimated at 12.5 km3, or less than 3 percent of available resources. 76 percent of water was used for agriculture, 11 percent for municipal water supply and 13 percent for industries. Thus only less than 1% of available water resources is used for drinking water supply.
Malaysia is geographically divided in Eastern Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia is drained by a dense network of rivers and streams, the longest being the Pahang River. Other major rivers in the peninsular Malaysia are the Kelantan River, Terengganu River, Endau River, Sedili Besar River and Selangor River; the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is more urbanised and industrialised than the sparsely populated and water-rich East Coast. Major rivers in Eastern Malaysia include the Rajang River in Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur example; the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state, which surrounds the capital, are the industrial heartland of the country and home to half its population. The constant growth of the metropolitan area increases its water needs. In 1998 the main sources of water supply for the area were the Ampang intake built in 1906, the Klang Gates Dam built in 1928, the Semenyih Dam completed in 1984. In February 1998 a water crisis had occurred as water levels in all three reservoirs dropped simultaneously.
Water rationing had to be introduced shortly. The crisis was blamed on a drought induced by El Nino. However, actual rainfall in the preceding months had not been below average; the government used the crisis to justify plans to build a mega project, the Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Project. The project includes the construction of the Kelau dam on the Pahang river in the neighbouring state bearing the same name, as well as the transfer of water via a tunnel through a mountain range. Only months after the 1998 Klang Valley water crisis, the Sungai Tinggi Dam had been completed with a capacity of 475 megaliters per day, thus increasing the supply to the Klang Valley by about 80%; the dam was part of the first phase of the Selangor River water supply project. The second phase of the project was completed in December 2000, providing another 475 megaliters per day; the third phase was completed in July 2005, providing an additional capacity of 1050 megaliters per day. The three phases of the project thus increased the water supply capacity in the Klang Valley by 1950 megaliters per day.
It thus more than tripled the water supply capacity to the Klang Valley in only seven years. As of 2005, total water resources for the Kuala Lumpur and Selangor area were 2541 megaliter per day for 7.3 million inhabitants. This corresponds to 348 litre per capita and day, three times as high as, for example, per capita water use in Germany; the government states that the existing sources will meet supply only until 2007. Therefore, it continued to pursue the Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Project, which had received a boost from the 1998 Klang Valley water crisis. An environmental assessment for the project was completed in 1999. In 2005 the Japan Bank for International Cooperation signed an agreement to provide a soft loan with 40 year maturity for the construction of the dam. However, following international protests the building of the Kelau dam was on hold in 2010. Critics argue that water demand management through the reduction of water losses and higher tariffs that would encourage water conservation can postpone the need for the transfer or make it unnecessary.
Water losses, or more non-revenue water, were estimated at about 40% in 1997. Following a comprehensive loss reduction program initiated in 2000, physical water losses were reduced by 117,000 cubic meters per day until 2006 from half a million before the program. However, non-revenue water at
Associazione Calcio Pisa 1909 referred to as Pisa, is an Italian football club based in Pisa, Tuscany. The team plays in Serie B; the club was founded in 1909 as Pisa Sporting Club and refounded in 1994 as Pisa Calcio, after the cancellation of the former because of economical troubles. It was excluded again from Italian football in 2009, after the property failed to collect enough money to pay off the club's debts. In summer 2009 it was refounded with the current denomination. Pisa won two Mitropa Cups, in 1986 and 1988, they play their home matches at Arena Garibaldi - Stadio Romeo Anconetani, named after Romeo Anconetani, the chairman who brought and led the club in Serie A during the 1980s. In 2016, Giuseppe Corrado planned the new Pisa stadium. At the end of the 2008 season, Pisa lost to U. S. Lecce in a two-legged promotion playoff final to Serie A. At the end of 2016 season, managed by Gennaro Gattuso, Pisa secured the promotion to Serie B by winning the final match against Foggia at Zaccheria Stadium.
After promotion to Serie B in 1965, Pisa took three years to reach Serie A for the first time. Despite a brave effort, Pisa was relegated on the final day of the 1968–69 season. Spending much of the 1970s in Serie C, Pisa returned to Serie B in 1979 and were promoted to Serie A in 1982, embarking on a period of six out of nine seasons in Serie A. With Danish international Klaus Berggreen among their stars, Pisa managed a credible 11th place in the 1982–83 Serie A with 27 points and 27 goals scored and conceded in 30 games; the following season brought relegation with 15,000 fans travelling to Milan for the fateful penultimate game. Promotion followed in 1985, the team seemed capable of staying up until losing their last three games; the cycle was repeated in 1987, only for a side containing players like Dunga and Paul Elliott to stay up. The last promotion to Serie A was achieved in 1990, with the talents of players like Maurizio Neri, Michele Padovano and Lamberto Piovanelli up front and Diego Simeone, Henrik Larsen and Aldo Dolcetti in midfield, the side started well and was atop the standings, only to suffer another relegation.
Relegation brought considerable financial strains to the club, by 1994 they had lost a relegation play-off and were condemned to Serie C1. Bankruptcy saw Pisa reformed in Eccellenza, only to return to Serie C2 in 1996 and C1 in 1999. Pisa have since worked towards attaining Serie B status, achieved in 2007, their crowds have been among the better in Italy's lower divisions owing to the dedication of their fans. In 2005–06, the team thought to be a protagonist for the promotion, were in continuous struggles, avoided relegation after playoffs in two dramatic regional derbies against Massese; the 2006–07 season, with new boss Piero Braglia, brought Pisa back to fight for a promotion spot: the nerazzurri ended the regular season in third place, won the promotion playoffs by defeating Venezia in the semi-finals and Monza in the finals. For the 2007–08 Serie B campaign, the first in 13 years, Giampiero Ventura was named to replace Braglia at the helm of the nerazzurri. Despite initial predictions of a mid-low table place, Pisa's impressive performances brought the team to fight for a direct promotion spot thanks to a forward line composed by Alessio Cerci, José Ignacio Castillo and Vitali Kutuzov which proved to be among the finest in the league.
The club ended the regular season in sixth place, therefore achieving a spot to the promotion playoffs, where Pisa was defeated by Lecce. In 2008–09, the club was acquired by Rome entrepreneur Luca Pomponi, who failed into appointing Alessandro Costacurta as new head coach, thus confirming Ventura as nerazzurri boss; the club, weakened by the departures of Cerci, Castillo and several other players, did not manage to repeat its performances, with Ventura being sacked in March 2009, with the club in mid-table place. The appointment of Bruno Giordano, made to improve the team results, however proved to be disappointing in terms of results, as Pisa lost positions in the table, shockingly got directly relegated in the final game of the season due to an injury-time home defeat to Brescia which left the Tuscans in 18th place; the unexpected relegation unveiled a number of massive financial issues which prevented the club from registering in the Lega Pro Prima Divisione, in July 2009 the club was excluded by the Italian Football Federation for the second time in its history.
Pisa has been refounded with the current denomination of A. C. Pisa 1909 S. S. D. to start again from Serie D under new ownership. At the end of the season Pisa won Group D of Serie D and was promoted to Lega Pro Seconda Divisione for the 2010–11 season; the team was admitted to Lega Pro Prima Divisione for the 2010–11 season to fill vacancies created by a row of club exclusions in second and third tier of Italian football league system. On 12 June 2016 Pisa gained promotion to Serie B after seven years by defeating Maceratese and Foggia in the two-legged play-off final, the club was relegated to Serie C the following season after finishing second-last; as of 31 January 2020Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Mitropa CupWinners: 1985–86, 1987–88Serie BWinners: 1984–85, 1986–87Copp