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Unrestricted submarine warfare

Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules. Prize rules call for submarines to surface and search merchantmen and place crews in "a place of safety" before sinking them, unless the ship showed "persistent refusal to stop... or active resistance to visit or search". During the First World War, the British introduced Q-ships with concealed deck guns, armed many merchantmen, leading the Germans to ignore the prize rules; the U. S. demanded it stop, Germany did so. Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff, chief of the Admiralty staff, argued in early 1917 to resume the attacks and thus starve the British; the German high command realized the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare meant war with the United States but calculated that American mobilization would be too slow to stop a German victory on the Western Front. Following Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare on February 1, 1917, countries tried to limit or abolish submarines.

Instead, the Declaration of London required submarines to abide by prize rules. These regulations did not prohibit arming merchantmen but having them report contact with submarines made them de facto naval auxiliaries and removed the protection of the prize rules; this rendered the restrictions on submarines useless. While such tactics increase the combat effectiveness of the submarine and improve its chances of survival, some regard them as a breach of the rules of war when employed against neutral vessels in a war zone. There have been four major campaigns of unrestricted submarine warfare, one in World War I and three in World War II: The U-boat campaign of World War I, waged intermittently by Germany between 1915 and 1918 against Britain and her allies. One of the most famous acts was on May 7, 1915 when U-boat U-20 deliberately torpedoed the British Cunard luxury liner RMS Lusitania. Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917, together with the Zimmermann Telegram, brought the United States into the war on the British side.

The Battle of the Atlantic during World War II. Between 1939 and 1945, it was waged between Germany and the Allies and from 1940 to 1943 between Italy and the Allies; the Baltic Sea Campaigns on the Eastern Front, during World War II between 1941 and 1945 from 1942. Waged by Germany and the USSR against each other in the Baltic Sea; the Pacific War during World War II, between 1941 and 1945, waged by the United States against Japan. The four cases were attempts to impose a naval blockade on countries those dependent on merchant shipping to supply their war industries and feed their populations though the countries waging the unrestricted submarine warfare were unable to institute a conventional naval blockade. Submarine warfare Defensively equipped merchant ship Commerce raiding Tonnage war Arabic pledge Sussex pledge Tsushima Maru War Order No. 154 Laconia incident Laconia Order List by death toll of ships sunk by submarines Baralong incidents Karl Dönitz Ronzitti, Natalino. The Law of Naval Warfare: A Collection of Agreements and Documents With Commentaries.

Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-3652-2. Willmott, H. P.. World War I. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7894-9627-0

Forest range

A forest range is a term used to define administrative regions containing one or more demarcated and protected or resource-managed forests. The term was in use in British India, hence India and Bangladesh use this term for administrative purposes. In India, the combined forests in a forest division are divided into non-overlapping forest ranges for the purpose of administration and coordination, in an analogous form of dividing the political area of a subdivision into blocks. Alignment of the ranges to political boundaries is not necessary, as forests overlap political boundaries - but one range cannot span more than one state; each range controls the protected areas and managed resources under its jurisdiction, is presided over by a Forest Range Officer. A forest range may be broken up into one or more'sub-ranges' or'blocks'

Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler

Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler was a Swiss physician and philosopher. Troxler was born in August 1780 in Switzerland, he studied in Göttingen. Among his teachers were Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling. After earning his degree, he worked as a physician in Vienna, where he befriended Ludwig van Beethoven and married Wilhelmine Polborn. During that time, Troxler discovered a phenomenon of visual perception that now bears his name, Troxler's fading. In 1811, he returned to Beromünster. Troxler represented Switzerland at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In 1820 he became a professor for philosophy and history at the lyceum in Lucerne but had to leave after a year due to political problems, he continued working as a physician. In 1830, he returned to this time in Basel. In 1832 he was elected to the legislative assembly of the canton of Aargau, he became a professor at the newly established University of Berne in 1834, where he stayed until 1850. In 1848, Troxler succeeded in altering the Swiss Federal Constitution to include elements of the United States Constitution.

Troxler died in March 6, 1866 in Aarau, is buried there

Celestial marriage

Celestial marriage is a doctrine that marriage can last forever in heaven. This is a unique teaching of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormonism, branches of Mormon fundamentalism. Within the LDS Church, celestial marriage is an ordinance associated with a covenant that takes place inside temples by those authorized to hold the sealing power; the only people allowed to enter the temple, be married there, or attend these weddings are those who hold an official temple recommend. Obtaining a temple recommend requires one to abide by LDS Church doctrine and be interviewed and considered worthy by their bishop and stake president. A prerequisite to contracting a celestial marriage, in addition to obtaining a temple recommend, involves undergoing the temple endowment, which involves making of certain covenants with God. In particular, one is expected to promise to be obedient to all the Lord's commandments including living a clean chaste life, abstaining from any impure thing, willing to sacrifice and consecrate all that one has for the Lord.

In the marriage ceremony a man and a woman make covenants to God and to each other and are said to be sealed as husband and wife for time and all eternity. Mormonism, citing Matthew 16:19 and Matthew 18:18, distinguishes itself on this point from some other religious traditions by emphasizing that marriage relationships and covenants made in this life in the temple will continue to be valid in the next life if they abide by these covenants. In the 19th century, the term "celestial marriage" referred to the practice of plural marriage, a practice which the LDS Church formally abandoned in 1890; the term is still used in this sense by Mormon fundamentalists not affiliated with the LDS Church. In the LDS Church today, both men and women may enter a celestial marriage with only one living partner at a time. A man may be sealed to more than one woman. If his wife dies, he may enter another celestial marriage, be sealed to both his living wife and deceased wife or wives. Many Mormons believe that all these marriages will be valid in the eternities and the husband will live together in the celestial kingdom as a family with all to whom he was sealed.

In 1998, the LDS Church changed the policy and now allows women to be sealed to more than one man. A woman, may not be sealed to more than one man at a time while she is alive, she may only be sealed to subsequent partners. Proxy sealings, like proxy baptisms, are offered to the person in the afterlife. According to church teachings, the celestial marriage covenant, as with other covenants, requires the continued righteousness of the couple to remain in effect after this life. If only one remains righteous that person is promised a righteous eternal companion in eternity. In Matthew 22:28-30, Jesus is asked about the continuing state of marriage after death and he replies that after the resurrection of the dead "people will neither marry nor be given in marriage. Mormons do not interpret Jesus' statement as meaning "that marriages will not exist after the Resurrection, but that marriages will not be performed after the Resurrection. Thus, Mormons believe. Celestial marriage is an instance of the LDS Church doctrine of sealing.

Following a celestial marriage, not only are the couple sealed as husband and wife, but children born into the marriage are sealed to that family. In cases where the husband and wife have been married civilly and there are children from their union, the children accompany their parents to the temple and are sealed to their parents following the marriage ceremony. Mormons believe that through this sealing, man and children will live together forever, if obedient to God's commandments. There is substantial doctrinal dispute between the LDS Church and its offshoots as to whether celestial marriage is plural or monogamous. Sealings for "time and eternity" were being performed for monogamous couples long before 1890. Throughout all time periods of the LDS Church's history, the great majority of temple sealings were between one man and one wife; some critics argue that the official Mormon scripture and Covenants section 132, which describes celestial marriage, specifies that only plural marriages qualify.

Others argue that the text indicates "a wife", which would mean that any temple sealing ordinance of marriage could qualify. The latter view is supported by the official History of the Church, which indicates that marriage for eternity was monogamous except in "some circumstances": t is borne in mind that at this time the new law of marriage for the Church—marriage for eternity, including plurality of wives under some circumstances—was being introduced by the Prophet, it is likely that the following article was written with a view of applying the principles here expounded to the conditions created by introducing said marriage system. In the following quote, apostle Lorenzo Snow, who became president of the LDS Church, refers to "celestial plural marriage" rather than "celestial marriage": He knew the voice of God—he knew the commandment of the Almighty to him was to go forward—to set the example, establish Celestial plural marriage, he knew that he had not only his own prejudices and pre-possessions to combat and to overcome, but those of the whole Christian world....

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Charles Herbert (Royal Navy officer, born 1743)

Charles Herbert was a Royal Navy officer and British politician who sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1775 and 1816. Herbert was the second son of the Hon. William Herbert and his wife Catherine Elizabeth Tewes of Aix-la-Chapelle and was baptized on 28 May 1743, he was educated at Eton College from 1753 to 1754 and subsequently joined the Royal Navy becoming lieutenant in 1761, commander in 1765 and captain in 1768. He married daughter of Robert Montagu, 3rd Duke of Manchester on. 17 July 1775. Herbert was returned as Member of Parliament for Wilton by his kinsmen Henry Herbert, 10th Earl of Pembroke at a by-election on 20 Feb. 1775. From 1775 to 1780 he supported administration and retired at 1780. In 1777 Herbert was held the post until his death, he was secretary to the Lord Chamberlain from 1782 to 1783. In the 1807 general election the George Herbert, 11th Earl of Pembroke returned him at Wilton again in place of his nephew and namesake, acting with the opposition. On 7 March 1808 he unsuccessfully applied to the King to become Master of the Robes.

He was re-elected MP for Wilton in 1812. Herbert died on 5 September 1816

Fishing Creek Township, Columbia County, Pennsylvania

Fishing Creek Township is a township in Columbia County, United States. The population was 1,416 at the 2010 census; the Josiah Hess Covered Bridge No. 122, Twin Bridges-East Paden Covered Bridge No. 120, Twin Bridges-West Paden Covered Bridge No. 121 were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. The Bridge in Fishing Creek Township was listed in 1988. Fishing Creek Township is in northeastern Columbia County, bordered to the east by Luzerne County; the connected ridges of Huntington Mountain and Knob Mountain form the southern boundary. The township surrounds the borough of a separate municipality; the unincorporated communities of Honeytown, Van Camp, Zaner, Forks and Jonestown are in the township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 28.7 square miles, of which 28.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.06%, is water. Major streams in the township are Huntington Creek, its tributary. Fishing Creek flows south to the Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg.

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,393 people, 556 households, 425 families residing in the township. The population density was 48.8 people per square mile. There were 711 housing units at an average density of 24.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.21% White, 0.14% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 556 households, out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.4% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families. 20.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.88. In the township the population was spread out, with 22.3% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.

For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males. The median income for a household in the township was $38,654, the median income for a family was $44,118. Males had a median income of $30,114 versus $23,580 for females; the per capita income for the township was $18,121. About 6.6% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Charles Rollin Buckalew, politician Fishing Creek Township official website