Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but some of the most common usages are 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park, 125th Street or 155th Street. Upper Manhattan is taken to include the neighborhoods of Marble Hill, Washington Heights, East Harlem and parts of the Upper West Side; the George Washington Bridge connects Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan across the Hudson River to Fort Lee, New Jersey, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge. In the late 19th century, the IRT Ninth Avenue Line and other elevated railroads brought people to the rustic Upper Manhattan; until the late 20th century it was less influenced by the gentrification that had taken place in other parts of New York over the previous 30 years. Like other residential areas, Upper Manhattan is not a major center of tourism in New York City, although some tourist attractions lie within it, such as Grant's Tomb, the Apollo Theater, The Cloisters, Sylvia's Restaurant, the Hamilton Grange, the Morris–Jumel Mansion, Minton's Playhouse, Sugar Hill, Riverside Church, the National Jazz Museum in Harlem and the Dyckman House, along with Fort Tryon Park, most of Riverside Park, Riverbank State Park, Sakura Park, other parks.
Lower Manhattan Midtown Manhattan
Trade unions in the United Kingdom were first decriminalised under the recommendation of a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organisations was to the advantage of both employers and employees. Legalised in 1871, the Trade Union Movement sought to reform socio-economic conditions for working men in British industries, the trade unions' search for this led to the creation of a Labour Representation Committee which formed the basis for today's Labour Party, which still has extensive links with the Trade Union Movement in Britain. Margaret Thatcher's governments weakened the powers of the unions in the 1980s, in particular by making it more difficult to strike and some within the British trades union movement criticised Tony Blair's Labour government for not reversing some of Thatcher's changes. Most British unions are members of the TUC, the Trades Union Congress, or where appropriate, the Scottish Trades Union Congress or the Irish Congress of Trade Unions, which are the country's principal national trade union centres.
Membership declined steeply in the 1980s and 1990s, falling from 13 million in 1979 to around 7.3 million in 2000. In September 2012 union membership dropped below 6 million for the first time since the 1940s. Much like corporations, trade unions were regarded as criminal until the Combination Act 1825, were regarded as quasi-legal organisations, subjected to the restraint of trade doctrine, until the Trade Union Act 1871; this Act abolished common-law restrictions, but took an abstentionist stance to unions' internal affairs. The Trade Disputes Act 1906 exempted trade-union funds from liability in action for damages for torts, this freedom gave future union pickets a great deal of power; the principle that the common law enforced a union's own rules, that unions were free to arrange their affairs, is reflected in the ILO Freedom of Association Convention and in article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, subject to the requirement that regulations "necessary in a democratic society" may be imposed.
Unions must have an executive body and that executive must, under the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 sections 46 to 56, be elected at least every five years, directly in a secret, equal postal vote of union members. The structure of the unions was based in contract, the rights of members depended on being able to show some proprietary interest to be enforced; this meant that the express terms of the union rule book can, like any contract, be supplemented with implied terms by the courts as necessary to reflect the reasonable expectations of the parties, for instance, by implying the Electoral Reform Service's guidance to say what happens in a tie break situation during an election when the union rules are silent. If there are irregular occurrences in the affairs of the union, for instance if negligence or mismanagement is not alleged and a majority could vote on the issue to forgive them members have no individual rights to contest executive decision making. However, if a union's leadership acts ultra vires, beyond its powers set out in the union constitution, if the alleged wrongdoers are in control, if a special supra-majority procedure is flouted, or a member's personal right is broken, the members may bring a derivative claim in court to sue or restrain the executive members.
So in Edwards v Halliwell a decision of the executive committee of the National Union of Vehicle Builders to increase membership fees, which were set in the constitution and required a ⅔ majority vote, was able to be restrained by a claim from individual members because this touched both a personal right under the constitution and flouted a special procedure. ASLEF v United Kingdom ECHR 184 McVitae v UNISON IRLR 33 Roebuck v NUM No 2 ICR 676, Templeman J Esterman v NALGO ICR 625, Templeman J Radford v NATSOPA ICR 484, Plowman J Hamlet v GMBATU ICR 150, Harman J Longley v NUJ IRLR 109 Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 ss 28-31, true and fair view of accounts, member's right to inspect, complaints to Certification Officer. Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 ss 62-65, right to require a ballot before industrial action, no detriment may follow Knowles v Fire Brigades Union ICR 595 Edwards v Society of Graphical and Allied Trades Ch 354 Cheall v APEX 2 AC 180 Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 s 174 ASLEF v United Kingdom ECHR 184 Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants v Osborne AC 87, political donations Trade Union Act 1913 Birch v National Union of Railwaymen Ch 602 Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 s 72-73 and 82 Paul v NALGO IRLR 413 Weaver v NATFHE ICR 599 EAT Members' subscriptions are paid by DOCAS i.e. deduction from salary.
Implementation of the draft Trade Union Regulations 2017 has been delayed until 2019. Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government, first elected in 1979, saw trade unions as an obstacle to economic growth and passed legislation of the sort the Conservatives had long avoided. Membership declined steeply in the 1980s and 1990s, falling from 13 million in 1979 to around 7.3 million in 2000. In 2012 union membership dropped below 6 million for the first time since the 1940s. From 1980 to 1998, the proportion of employees who were union members fell from 52 per cent to 30 per cent. Union membership declined in parallel with the reduction in size of many traditional industries, unionised, such as steel, coal and the docks. In 2016, the Conservative government
Philip Gordon Robert Carr-Harris, nicknamed Beef, was a Canadian football player who played for the Toronto Argonauts for four seasons over five years, his entire professional football career. Carr-Harris won the Grey Cup with Toronto in 1945, 1946 and 1947, which were the first three of his four years on the club roster. For his first two years with the club, he was a halfback. In his third year, he was both a tackle, he was not as a halfback. His jersey number was 60. In his first year with the Argonauts, in 1945, Carr-Harris played in four of the six regular season games. In 1946, Carr-Harris played in only one of twelve regular season games, having been injured early in the season in a game against the Hamilton Tigers, as the team was known. In 1947, Carr-Harris played in eleven of twelve regular season games. Upon his return to the team roster in 1949, following a one-year hiatus, Carr-Harris only played in one of the twelve regular season games. While included as a member of the 1947 winning team, Carr-Harris had to miss the 1947 Grey Cup game, due to examination obligations in relation to becoming a Chartered Accountant.
In 1993, Carr-Harris died of cancer