Book of Genesis
The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament. It is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history; the primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God. The Ancestral History tells of God's chosen people. At God's command Noah's descendant Abraham journeys from his home into the God-given land of Canaan, where he dwells as a sojourner, as does his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. Jacob's name is changed to Israel, through the agency of his son Joseph, the children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with their households, God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of the Exodus; the narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, successively narrowing in scope from all mankind to a special relationship with one people alone.
In Judaism, the theological importance of Genesis centers on the covenants linking God to his chosen people and the people to the Promised Land. Christianity has interpreted Genesis as the prefiguration of certain cardinal Christian beliefs the need for salvation and the redemptive act of Christ on the Cross as the fulfillment of covenant promises as the Son of God. Tradition credits Moses as the author of Genesis, as well as the books of Exodus, Leviticus and most of Deuteronomy, but modern scholars see them as a product of the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Genesis appears to be structured around the recurring phrase elleh toledot, meaning "these are the generations," with the first use of the phrase referring to the "generations of heaven and earth" and the remainder marking individuals—Noah, the "sons of Noah", etc. down to Jacob. It is not clear, what this meant to the original authors, most modern commentators divide it into two parts based on subject matter, a "primeval history" and a "patriarchal history".
While the first is far shorter than the second, it sets out the basic themes and provides an interpretive key for understanding the entire book. The "primeval history" has a symmetrical structure hinging on chapters 6–9, the flood story, with the events before the flood mirrored by the events after. God consecrates the seventh as a day of rest. God creates the first humans Adam and Eve and all the animals in the Garden of Eden but instructs them not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. A talking serpent portrayed as a deceptive creature or trickster, entices Eve into eating it anyway, she entices Adam, whereupon God throws them out and curses them—Adam to getting what he needs only by sweat and work, Eve to giving birth in pain; this is interpreted by Christians as the fall of humanity. Eve bears two sons and Abel. Cain kills Abel but not Cain's. God curses Cain. Eve bears Seth, to take Abel's place. After many generations of Adam have passed from the lines of Cain and Seth, the world becomes corrupted by human sin and Nephilim, God determines to wipe out humanity.
First, he instructs the righteous Noah and his family to build an ark and put examples of all the animals on it, seven pairs of every clean animal and one pair of every unclean. God sends a great flood to wipe out the rest of the world; when the waters recede, God promises he will never destroy the world with water again, using the rainbow as a symbol of his promise. God sees mankind cooperating to build a great tower city, the Tower of Babel, divides humanity with many languages and sets them apart with confusion. God instructs Abram to travel from his home in Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There, God makes a covenant with Abram, promising that his descendants shall be as numerous as the stars, but that people will suffer oppression in a foreign land for four hundred years, after which they will inherit the land "from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates". Abram's name is changed to Abraham and that of his wife Sarai to Sarah, circumcision of all males is instituted as the sign of the covenant.
Due to her old age, Sarah tells Abraham to take Hagar, as a second wife. Through Hagar, Abraham fathers Ishmael. God resolves to destroy the cities of Gomorrah for the sins of their people. Abraham gets God to agree not to destroy the cities for the sake of ten righteous men. Angels save Abraham's nephew Lot and his family, but his wife looks back on the destruction against their command and turns into a pillar of salt. Lot's daughters, concerned that they are fugitives who will never find husbands, get him drunk to become pregnant by him, give birth to the ancestors of the Moabites and Ammonites. Abraham and Sarah go to the Philistine town of Gerar, pretending to be sister; the King of Gerar takes Sarah for his wife, but God warns him to return her, a
Edessa was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca. 302 BC. It was known as Antiochia on the Callirhoe from the 2nd century BC, it was the capital of the semi-independent kingdom of Osroene from c. 132 BC and fell under direct Roman rule in ca. 242. It became an important early centre of Syriac Christianity, it fell to the Muslim conquest in 638, was retaken by Byzantium in 1031 and became the center of the Crusader state of the County of Edessa from 1098–1144. It fell to the Turkic Zengid dynasty in 1144 and was absorbed by the Ottoman Empire in 1517; the modern name of the city is Urfa and it is located in Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. The earliest name of the city was Admaʾ recorded in Assyrian cuneiform in the seventh century BC. A Hellenistic settlement was founded on the location of the Syrian town by Seleucus I Nicator in 304 BC, named Edessa after the ancient capital of Macedonia due to its abundant water, just like its Macedonian eponym.
It was renamed Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe in the 2nd century BC. This same name appears as Armenian: Ուռհա, transliterated Urha or Ourha, in Syriac as Orhay, in Arabic as الرُّهَا ar-Ruha, Riha the Kurdish languages, Latinized as Rohais, adopted in Turkish as Urfa or Şanlıurfa, its present name, it was named Justinopolis in the early 6th century. According to Jewish and Muslim traditions, it is Ur of the birthplace of Abraham. In the second half of the second century BC, as the Seleucid Empire disintegrated durings wars with Parthia, Edessa became the capital of the Abgar dynasty, who founded the kingdom of Osroene; this kingdom was established by Arabs from the northern Arabian Peninsula and lasted nearly four centuries, under twenty-eight rulers, who sometimes called themselves "king" on their coinage. Edessa was at first more or less under the protectorate of the Parthians of Tigranes of Armenia, Edessa was Armenian Mesopotamia's capital city from the time of Pompey under the Roman Empire.
Following its capture and sack by Trajan, the Romans occupied Edessa from 116 to 118, although its sympathies towards the Parthians led to Lucius Verus pillaging the city in the 2nd century. From 212 to 214 the kingdom was a Roman province; the Roman emperor Caracalla was assassinated on the road from Edessa to Carrhae by one of his guards in 217. Edessa became one of the frontier cities of the province of Osroene and lay close to the border of the Sasanian Empire; the Battle of Edessa took place between the Roman armies under the command of Emperor Valerianus and the Sasanian forces under Emperor Shapur I in 260. The Roman army was defeated and captured in its entirety by the Persian forces, including Valerian himself, an event which had never happened; the literary language of the tribes that had founded this kingdom was Aramaic, from which Syriac developed. Traces of Hellenistic culture were soon overwhelmed in Edessa, which employed Syriac legends on coinage, with the exception of the client king Abgar IX, there is a corresponding lack of Greek public inscriptions.
The precise date of the introduction of Christianity into Edessa is not known. However, there is no doubt that before AD 190 Christianity had spread vigorously within Edessa and its surroundings and that shortly after the royal house joined the church. According to a legend first reported by Eusebius in the fourth century, King Abgar V was converted by Thaddeus of Edessa, one of the seventy-two disciples, sent to him by "Judas, called Thomas". However, various sources confirm that the Abgar who embraced the Christian faith was Abgar IX. Under him Christianity became the official religion of the kingdom, he was succeeded by Aggai by Saint Mari, ordained about 200 by Serapion of Antioch. Thence came to us in the second century the famous Peshitta, or Syriac translation of the Old Testament. Among the illustrious disciples of the School of Edessa, Bardaisan, a schoolfellow of Abgar IX, deserves special mention for his role in creating Christian religious poetry, whose teaching was continued by his son Harmonius and his disciples.
A Christian council was held at Edessa as early as 197. In 201 the city was devastated by a great flood, the Christian church was destroyed. In 232 the relics of the apostle Thomas were brought from Mylapore, India, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written. Under Roman domination many martyrs suffered at Edessa: Sharbel and Barsamya, under Decius. Gûrja, Shâmôna, others under Diocletian. In the meanwhile Christian priests from Edessa had evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, established the first Churches in the Sasanian Empire. Atillâtiâ, Bishop of Edessa, assisted at the First Council of Nicaea; the Peregrinatio Silviae gives an account of the many sanctuaries at Edessa about 388. Under Byzantine rule, as metropolis of Osroene, Edessa had eleven. Michel Le Quien mentions thirty-five bishops of Edessa; the Eastern Orthodox episcopate seems to have disappeared after the 11th century. Of its Jacobite bishops, twenty-nine are mentioned by Le Quien, many others in the Revue de l'Orient chrétien, some in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländ
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadith is the Arabic word for speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith.
A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam, the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadith is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative", its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.
Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Mohammed himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Mohammed himself."Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation. However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet." This means that in Shia Islam, the sunnah draws on the sayings and deeds of the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. the Imams.
The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad, used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars."
According to Schacht, in the first generations after the death of Muhammad, use of hadith from Sahabah and Tabi‘un "was the rule", while use of hadith of Muhammad himself by Muslims was "the exception". Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh — with establishing the principle of the use of the ahadith of the Muhammad for Islami
A homeland is the concept of the place where a: cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can mean one's country of birth; when used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languages have ethnic nationalist connotations. A homeland may be referred to as a fatherland, a motherland, or a mother country, depending on the culture and language of the nationality in question. Motherland refers to a mother country, i.e. the place of one's birth, the place of one's ancestors, the place of origin of an ethnic group or immigrant, or a Metropole in contrast to its colonies. People refer to Mother Russia as a personification of the Russian nation. Within the British Empire, many natives in the colonies came to think of Britain as the mother country of one, large nation. India is personified as Bharat Mata; the French refer to France as "la mère patrie". Romans and the subjects of Rome saw Italy as the motherland of the Roman Empire, in contrast to Roman provinces.
Fatherland is the nation of one's "fathers" or "forefathers." The word can mean one's country of birth depending on how the individual uses it. The term fatherland is used throughout German-speaking Europe, as well as in Dutch. For example, "Wien Neêrlands Bloed", national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932, makes extensive and conspicuous use of the parallel Dutch word; because of the use of Vaterland in Nazi-German war propaganda, the term "Fatherland" in English has become associated with domestic British and American anti-Nazi propaganda during World War II. This is not the case in Germany itself. Terms equating "Fatherland" in other Germanic languages: Afrikaans Vaderland Danish fædreland Dutch vaderland West Frisian heitelân German Vaterland Icelandic föðurland Norwegian fedreland Scots heauinlie Swedish fäderneslandet A corresponding term is used in Slavic languages, in: Russian otechestvo or otchizna Polish ojczyzna Czech otčina Ukrainian batʹkivshchyna or vitchyzna. Serbian otadžbina Croatian domovina Bulgarian татковина as well as otechestvo Macedonian татковина In Romance languages, a common way to refer to one's home country is Patria/Pátria/Patrie which has the same connotation as Fatherland, that is, the nation of our parents/fathers.
As patria has feminine gender, it is used in expressions related to one's mother, as in Italian la Madrepatria, Spanish la Madre Patria or Portuguese a Pátria Mãe. The Soviet Union created homelands for some minorities in the 1920s, including the Volga German ASSR and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. In the case of the Volga German ASSR, these homelands were abolished and their inhabitants deported to either Siberia or the Kazakh SSR. In the case of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast this was not necessary, since it had been created from the start at the far-Eastern end of Siberia, where no Jew had lived. In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security was created soon after the 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks, as a means to centralize response to various threats. In a June 2002 column, Republican consultant and speechwriter Peggy Noonan expressed the hope that the Bush administration would change the name of the department, writing that, "The name Homeland Security grates on a lot of people, understandably.
Homeland isn't an American word, it's not something we used to say or say now". In the apartheid era in South Africa, the concept was given a different meaning; the white government had designated 25% of its non-desert territory for black tribal settlement. Whites and other non-blacks were restricted from settling in those areas. After 1948 they were granted an increasing level of "home-rule". From 1976 several of these regions were granted independence. Four of them were declared independent nations by South Africa, but were unrecognized as independent countries by any other nation besides each other and South Africa; the territories set aside for the African inhabitants were known as bantustans. In Australia, the term refers to small Aboriginal settlements where people with close kinship ties share lands significant to them for cultural reasons. Many such homelands are found across Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland. The'homeland movement' gained momentum in the 1970s, it is estimated that homeland numbers range around 500 to 700, with not all homelands being permanently occupied owing to seasonal or cultural reasons.
In Turkish, the concept of "homeland" in the patriotic sense, is "ana vatan", while "baba ocağı" is used to refer to one's childhood home. Diaspora politics Homeland security Mother tongue Separatism Secession Landscape and Memory by Simon Schama Nationalism and Ethnicity – A Theoretical Overview
Moses ben Maimon known as Maimonides and referred to by the acronym Rambam, was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages. In his time, he was a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Córdoba, Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve, 1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi and philosopher in Morocco and Egypt, he died in Egypt on December 12, 1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias. During his lifetime, most Jews greeted Maimonides' writings on Jewish law and ethics with acclaim and gratitude as far away as Iraq and Yemen. Yet, while Maimonides rose to become the revered head of the Jewish community in Egypt, his writings had vociferous critics in Spain. Nonetheless, he was posthumously acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical decisors and philosophers in Jewish history, his copious work comprises a cornerstone of Jewish scholarship, his fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law.
He is sometimes known as "ha Nesher ha Gadol" in recognition of his outstanding status as a bona fide exponent of the Oral Torah. Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides figures prominently in the history of Islamic and Arab sciences and is mentioned extensively in studies. Influenced by Al-Farabi and his contemporary Averroes, he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and scientists, he became a prominent polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds. His full Hebrew name is Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, whose acronym forms "Rambam", his full Arabic name is Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin Maimūn bin ʿUbaidallāh al-Qurtabī, or Mūsā bin Maymūn for short. In Latin, the Hebrew ben becomes the Greek-style patronymic suffix -ides, forming "Moses Maimonides". Maimonides was born in Córdoba during what some scholars consider to be the end of the golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, after the first centuries of the Moorish rule. At an early age, he developed an interest in sciences and philosophy.
He read those Greek philosophers accessible in Arabic translations, was immersed in the sciences and learning of Islamic culture. Though the Gaonic tradition in its North African version, formed the basis of his legal thought, some scholars have argued in the 21st century that Muslim law, including Almohad legal thought had a substantial influence. Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism, although a strong intellectual type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy, he expressed disapproval of poetry, the best of which he declared to be false, since it was founded on pure invention. This sage, revered for his personality as well as for his writings, led a busy life, wrote many of his works while travelling or in temporary accommodation. Maimonides studied Torah under his father Maimon, who had in turn studied under Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash, a student of Isaac Alfasi. A Berber dynasty, the Almohads, conquered Córdoba in 1148, abolished dhimmi status in some of their territories.
The loss of this status left the Jewish and Christian communities with conversion to Islam, death, or exile. Many Jews were forced to convert, but due to suspicion by the authorities of fake conversions, the new converts had to wear identifying clothing that set them apart and made them subject to public scrutiny. Maimonides's family, along with most other Jews, chose exile; some say, that it is that Maimonides feigned a conversion to Islam before escaping. This forced conversion was ruled invalid under Islamic law when brought up by a rival in Egypt. For the next ten years, Maimonides moved about in southern Spain settling in Fez in Morocco. During this time, he composed his acclaimed commentary on the Mishnah, during the years 1166–1168. Following this sojourn in Morocco, together with two sons, he sojourned in the Holy Land, before settling in Fustat, Egypt around 1168. While in Cairo, he studied in a yeshiva attached to a small synagogue. In the Holy Land, he prayed at the Temple Mount, he wrote that this day of visiting the Temple Mount was a day of holiness for him and his descendants.
Maimonides shortly thereafter was instrumental in helping rescue Jews taken captive during the Christian King Amalric's siege of the Egyptian town of Bilbays. He sent five letters to the Jewish communities of Lower Egypt asking them to pool money together to pay the ransom; the money was collected and given to two judges sent to Palestine to negotiate with the Crusaders. The captives were released. Following this triumph, the Maimonides family, hoping to increase their wealth, gave their savings to his brother, the youngest son David ben Maimon, a merchant. Maimonides directed his brother to procure goods only at the Sudanese port of ‘Aydhab. After a long arduous trip through the desert, David was unimpressed by the goods on offer there. Against his brother's wishes, David boarded a ship for India, since great wealth was to be found in the East. Before he could reach his destination, David drowned at sea sometime between 1169 and 1177; the death of his brother caused Maimonides to become sick with grief.
In a letter, he wrote: The greatest misfortune that has befallen me during my entire life—worse than anything else—was the demise of the saint, may his memory be blessed, who drowned in the Indian sea
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East. After the early Muslim conquests of the mid-7th century, the region has been known by the traditional Arabic name of al-Jazira and the Syriac variant Gāzartā or Gozarto; the Euphrates and Tigris rivers transform Mesopotamia into an island, as they are joined together at the Shatt al-Arab in the Basra Governorate of Iraq, their sources in eastern Turkey are in close proximity. The region extends south from the mountains of Anatolia, east from the hills on the left bank of the Euphrates river, west from the mountains on the right bank of the Tigris river and includes the Sinjar plain, it extends down the Euphrates to Hīt. The Khabur runs for over 400 km across the plain, from Turkey in the north, feeding into the Euphrates; the major settlements are Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, al-Hasakah, Diyarbakır and Qamishli. The western, Syrian part, is contiguous with the Syrian al-Hasakah Governorate and is described as "Syria's breadbasket".
The eastern, Iraqi part and extends beyond the Iraqi Nineveh Governorate. In the north it includes the Turkish provinces of Şanlıurfa and parts of Diyarbakır Province; this area now has large swaths controlled by Rojava. The name al-Jazira has been used since the 7th century AD by Islamic sources to refer to the northern section of Mesopotamia, which together with the Sawād, made up al-‘arāq; the name means "island", at one time referred to the land between the two rivers, which in Aramaic is Bit Nahren. The name could be restricted to the Sinjar plain coming down from the Sinjar Mountains, or expanded to embrace the entire plateau east of the coastal ranges. In pre-Abbasid times the western and eastern boundaries seem to have fluctuated, sometimes including what is now northern Syria to the west and Adiabene in the east. Al-Jazira is characterised as an outwash or alluvial plain, quite distinct from the Syrian Desert and lower-lying central Mesopotamia; the region has several parts to it. In the northwest is one of the largest salt flats in the world, Sabkhat al-Jabbul.
Further south, extending from Mosul to near Basra is a sandy desert not unlike the Empty Quarter. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the region has been plagued by drought. Al-Jazirah is important archeologically; this is the area where the earliest signs of agriculture and domestication of animals have been found, thus the starting point leading to civilization and the modern world. Al-Jazirah includes the mountain Karaca Dağ in southern Turkey, where the closest relative to modern wheat still grows wild. At several sites we can see a continuous occupation from a hunter-gathering lifestyle to an economy based on growing wheat and legumes from around 9000 BC. Domestication of goats and sheep followed within a few generations, but didn't become widespread for more than a millennium. Weaving and pottery followed about two thousand years later. From Al-Jazirah the idea of farming along with the domesticated seeds spread first to the rest of the Levant and to North-Africa and eastwards through Mesopotamia all the way to present-day Pakistan.
Earlier archeologists worked on the assumption that agriculture was a prerequisite to a sedentary lifestyle, but excavations in Israel and Lebanon surprised science by showing that a sedentary lifestyle came before agriculture. Further surprises followed in the 1990s with the spectacular finds of the megalithic structures at Göbekli Tepe in south-eastern Turkey; the earliest of these ritual buildings are from before 9000 BC—over five thousand years older than Stonehenge—and thus the absolute oldest known megalithic structures anywhere. As far as we know today no well-established farming societies existed at the time. Farming seemed to be still experimental and only a smallish supplement to continued hunting and gathering. So either were sedentary hunter-gatherers rich enough and many enough to organize and execute such large communal building projects, or well-established agricultural societies existed much further back than hitherto known. After all, Göbekli Tepe lies just 32 km from Karaca Dağ.
The questions raised by Göbekli Tepe have led to intense and creative discussions among archeologists of the Middle East. Excavations at Göbekli Tepe continues, only about 5 percent has been revealed so far. Sumerians are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia is the heartland of ancient Assyria, founded circa the 25th century BC. From the late 24th Century BC it was part of the Akkadian Empire, separated into three eras: Old Assyrian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, Neo Assyrian Empire; the Uruk period existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in Mesopotamia, including a section of the upper region. The region fell to the Assyrians' southern brethren, the Babylonians in 605 BC, from 539 BC it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. From 323 BC, it was ruled by the Greek Seleucid Empire, the Greeks corrupting the name to Syria, which they applied to Aram, it fell to the Parthians and Romans and was renamed Assyria by both.
The area was still known as Asōri
Haran (biblical place)
Haran is a place mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Haran is universally identified with Harran, a city whose ruins lie within present-day Turkey. Haran first appears in the Book of Genesis as the home of Terah and his descendants, as Abraham's temporary home. Biblical passages list Haran among some cities and lands subjugated by Assyrian rulers and among Tyre's trading partners. Haran was a place where Terah temporarily settled with his son the Patriarch Abraham, his nephew Lot, Abram's wife Sarai, all of them descendants of Arpachshad son of Shem, during their journey from Ur Kaśdim to the Land of Canaan; the region of this Haran is referred to variously as Aram Naharaim. Abram lived there. Although Abram's nephew Lot accompanied him to Canaan, other descendants of Terah remained in Paddan-Aram, where Abraham's grandson Jacob sought his parents' relatives, namely Laban, for whom he worked for twenty years in Haran. In 2 Kings and Isaiah Haran reappears in the late 8th to early 7th century BC context of the Neo-Assyrian Empire's conquests.
It appears again in the Book of Ezekiel as a former trading partner of the Phoenician city Tyre. In the New Testament, Haran is mentioned in the Book of Acts, in a recounting of the story in Genesis wherein it first appears. In Genesis 28:10 -- 19, Abraham's grandson Jacob went toward Haran. Along the way he had his dream of Jacob's Ladder. Though the placename can be found in English as Haran and Charran, it should not be confused with the personal name Haran, borne by Abram's brother, among others; the biblical placename is חָרָן in Hebrew and can mean "parched". The personal name Haran is spelled הָרָן in Hebrew and means "mountaineer". Haran is identified with Harran, now a village of Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Since the 1950s, archeological excavations of Harran have been conducted, which have yielded insufficient discoveries about the site's pre-medieval history or of its supposed Patriarchal era; the earliest records of Harran come from the Ebla tablets, c. 2300 BC. Harran's name is said to be from Akkadian ḫarrānum, "road".
Sabians "Haran". New International Encyclopedia. 1905