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Urdu – known as Lashkari – or Modern Standard Urdu is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. Urdu is the official national language, lingua franca, of Pakistan. In India, it is one of 22 constitutionally recognised official languages, having official status in the five states of Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi; as both registers are composed of the same Indo-Aryan vocabulary base, colloquial Urdu is mutually intelligible with colloquial Hindi, with the two registers being grouped together as Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu. With respect to literary vocabulary, formal Urdu draws from Persian vocabulary and requires knowledge of some simple Persian grammatical structures, while formal Hindi draws from Sanskrit for its formal and technical vocabulary. Urdu became the official language of government in northern and northwest British India, along with English, from 1837 onwards in place of Persian, used by various Indo-Islamic empires as their language of government.

Religious and political factors arose during the colonial period that advocated for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million who speak it as their native language. According to Ethnologue's 2018 estimates, Urdu, is the 11th most spoken language in the world, with 170 million total speakers, including those who speak it as a second language. If grouped along with Hindi, Hindustani would be the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers of both Urdu and Hindi. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani; some linguists have suggested that the earliest forms of Urdu evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. In the Delhi region of India the native language was Khariboli, whose earliest form is known as Old Hindi.

It belongs to the Western Hindi group of the Central Indo-Aryan languages. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language in India, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on Hindustani; the contact of the Hindu and Muslim cultures during the period of Islamic administrative rule in India led to the development of Hindustani as a product of a composite Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. In cities such as Delhi, the Indian language Old Hindi began to acquire many Persian loanwords and continued to be called "Hindi" and also "Hindustani" and "Urdu". From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century the language now known as Urdu was called Hindi, Hindustani, Dehlavi and Lashkari. By the end of the reign of Aurangzeb in the early 18th century, the common language around Delhi began to be referred to as “Zaban-e-Urdu,” a name derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda and is said to have arisen as the "language of the camp", or "Zaban-i-Ordu" or natively "Lashkari Zaban".

The name Urdu was first introduced by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. As a literary language, Urdu took shape in elite settings. While Urdu retained the grammar and core Indic vocabulary of the local Indian dialect Khariboli, it adopted the Nastaleeq writing system –, developed as a style of Persian calligraphy. Urdu, referred to by the British administrators in India as the Hindustani language, was promoted in colonial India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian. In the colonial India, "ordinary Muslims and Hindus alike spoke the same language in the United Provinces in the nineteenth century, namely Hindustani, whether called by that name or whether called Hindi, Urdu, or one of the regional dialects such as Braj or Awadhi." Adherents of both Muslim and Hindu religious communities wrote the language in the Perso-Arabic script in courts and government offices, though Hindus continued to employ the Devanagari script in certain literary and religious contexts.

Urdu replaced Persian as the official language of India in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. In colonial Indian Islamic schools, Muslims taught Persian and Arabic as the languages of Indo-Islamic civilisation. Hindus in northwestern India, under the Arya Samaj agitated against the sole use of the Perso-Arabic script and argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script, which triggered a backlash against the use of Hindi written in Devanagari by the Anjuman-e-Islamia of Lahore. "Hindi" in the Devanagari script replaced Urdu written in the Perso-Arabic script as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalised with the partition of colonial India into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan after independence. Urdu was chosen as an official language of Pakistan in 1947 as it was the lingua franca for Muslims in north and northwest British India, although Urd

Frederick Cardozo

Lt. Col Frederick Henry Cardozo MC was a British soldier and SOE veteran. Cardozo was brought up in the Loire Valley between 1923 and 1933. In 1949 Cardozo married Simone Bigot - they had two children - one of whom, Col. Geoffrey Cardozo MBE, is the secretary of the veterans charity, Veterans Aid. At the time of his birth, his father Charles was the commander of a local army garrison, having been wounded in 1915, at the battle of Loos. In recognition of his work for the French resistance, Cardozo was awarded both the Legion of Honour and the Croix de Guerre. Cardozo's Portuguese ancestors had become established in the London tobacco trade in the late 17th century. A century or so his forebears, were merchants for the East India Company in Madras. Cardozo's mother, was the daughter of Henry Daniell, who ran a china and antiques business in Wigmore Street, London. Cardozo joined the British Army's Supplementary Reserve before the outbreak of war and upon receiving his call up was posted with his regiment, The South Lancashire Regiment to France.

He was evacuated from Dunkirk and on his return to Britain was posted to coastline duties, in anticipation of the expected German invasion. Whilst on exercises in Scotland, Cardozo was approached by Henry Thackthwaite, a senior SOE officer, who recruited him for operations in France. In May 1944 his team was parachuted onto Mont Mouchet in France to liaise with the maquis in the Auvergne. Relations with the maquis were not always easy and they had to cope with a series of vicious German counterattacks on Mont Mouchet and the surrounds. Once Paris had fallen to the allies, Cardozo led a maquis operation to stop a German battalion leaving Aurillac. Cardozo stayed in the army after the war, retiring in 1958, when he worked as a press attaché for American forces in France. Before this he had served in India and in Palestine with the 6th Airborne Division, in Paris where he was an instructor at École de guerre, he subsequently served as a college commander at Sandhurst. When France left the command structure of NATO in 1966, he returned to England and became secretary to the president of the Latin Mass Society, Harman Grisewood, his first cousin.

He moved to Morocco and began working for the Save the Children Fund. Still, he worked for De Beers in Sierra Leone; when he retired, he moved back to his childhood home of the Loire Valley

Scott A. Shikora

Scott Alan Shikora, MD FACS is an American bariatric surgeon. He is the Director of the Center for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and a Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School. Shikora was born on January 3, 1959, he attended Muhlenberg College, from which he graduated in 1981. He graduated from Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in 1985 with a Medical Doctorate. Following medical School, Dr. Shikora completed both his surgical residency and a fellowship in hyperalimentation at the New England Deaconess Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. After completing his fellowship, Shikora spent the next four years in the United States Air Force, where he worked as a staff surgeon. Since 2011, Shikora has been working at Brigham and Women’s Hospital as a bariatric surgeon and Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School. Shikora has worked on advisory boards for several medical companies including Medtronic and EnteroMedics, he has served on the editorial board for several journals and is the Editor-in-chief for the journal Obesity Surgery.

Shikora is a former president of the surgical societies the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. He has over 120 publications in various medical journals. Scott Shikora married his college sweetheart Susan in 1983, they have three children. John V. Shankweiler Biology Award, Muhlenberg College, 1981 Meritorious Service Medal, United States Air Force, 1995 The Air Force Commendation Medal, 1995 Excellence in Teaching Award, Tufts Medical Center Department of Surgery 2008-2009 Distinguished Alumni Award, Muhlenberg College, September 2011 Helen and David Bernie Visiting Professorship - Department of Surgery, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Ohio 2014 Outstanding Achievement Award, ASMBS Foundation, 2015 Obesity Surgery Bariatric surgery List of Scott A. Shikora's Publications Scott Shikora page in Brigham Women's Hospital Directory Scott Shikora at Brigham Women's Hospital

Well Done 3

Well Done 3 is a mixtape by American rapper Tyga. It was released on August 2012, by Young Money Entertainment and Cash Money Records; the mixtape features guest appearances from 2 Chainz, Honey Cocaine, a Brick Squad Monopoly member Joe Moses, Kirko Bangz, D-Lo, Game and Future. The mixtape received a diamond certification from its DatPiff website, with over 1,000,000 downloads; the mixtape contains several freestyles, including Rick Ross's "Diced Pineapples", E-40's "Function", as well as Kanye West's single "Mercy", 2 Chainz' "Riot", his label-mate Nicki Minaj's "I Am Your Leader" and Game's "I Remember". On this track "I Remember", Jeezy's verse was replaced by Tyga's verse, making it his own song

International Detention Coalition

The International Detention Coalition is an incorporated not-for-profit organization, forming a network of more than 400 non-governmental organizations, faith-based groups and individuals that provide legal, social and other services, carry out research and reporting, undertake advocacy and policy work on behalf of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. These groups and individuals from more than 50 countries, have come together to form the IDC to share information and promote good practices and the greater use of international and regional human rights standards and principles as they relate to the detention of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants; this includes advocating for greater respect for the human rights of detainees and limiting the use of, seeking alternatives to, using the least restrictive forms of, immigration detention. The IDC Secretariat is based in Melbourne, with regional consultants based internationally; the IDC aims to promote greater protection of and respect for the human rights of those held in detention and to raise awareness of detention policies and practices.

It aims to promote the use of international and regional human rights standards and principles as they relate to the detention of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. The Coalition reaches these objectives through networking, raising public awareness and researching and reporting on issues worldwide relating to the detention of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. For the period 2008-2010, IDC members identified three core priorities: Ending and limiting detention for children Developing and promoting alternatives to immigration detention Improving rights and monitoring of detention facilitiesIn light of these priorities, the Coalition has focused its work on three core strategic areas: Coalition building Advocacy and campaign Building Capacity building Since the late 1990s organisations working in the field of immigration detention have discussed the need for better regional and international networking. In September 2003, several NGO representatives attending the UNHCR NGO Consultations in Geneva met to explore the formation of an international civil society coalition on immigration detention.

During the 2004/05 Consultations, the process of establishing the coalition continued, in September 2006 the International Detention Coalition was formally launched with an appointed Steering Committee. The IDC was voluntarily run until September 2007, when the Steering Committee agreed to have the IDC hosted by another organization to help formalize it as an incorporated body; the Steering Committee received expressions of interest from five members before agreeing on a partnership with Oxfam Australia. Grant Mitchell was appointed as interim Coordinator in May 2008. In March 2009, the IDC became incorporated and established a Secretariat based in Melbourne, Australia; the Steering Committee became the International Advisory Committee, the IDC Secretariat was formalised at this time, with Grant Mitchell appointed as Director, responsible for implementing IDC operations and providing executive support. The Secretariat is supported by eleven Regional Representatives from twelve sub-regions, who support and help develop the work of the IDC at the regional level in a voluntary capacity.

Work is now being undertaken to have the IDC become a recognised international development organization. The IDC has been involved in training governments in Asia, Europe, MENA and Africa on human rights in immigration detention and alternatives to detention, sits on the US government’s detention reform working group of the Department of Homeland Security as the only non-US group participating; the IDC’s work has been influential in putting alternatives to detention on the international UN agenda and on immigration detention policy reform and developments in USA, Japan, Netherlands and elsewhere. The IDC works on building the capacity of NGOs in more than 50 countries, including on alternatives to the detention of children. Many IDC members are under-resourced, have limited capacity and expertise in immigration detention. IDC work has included supporting and building the capacity of members through training, advocacy strategy meetings, regional network development and project development; the IDC co-chairs the Asia Pacific Refugee Right Network's Immigration Detention Working Group.

Following the strategic plan in the IDC's vision, the Coalition has worked on coalition building and campaign building, capacity building. The membership has grown to more than 250 members - including NGOs, service providers, community groups and individuals. A large number of non-members receive updates on IDC activities, including the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, National Human Rights Institutions and various other stakeholders; the IDC distributes an e-newsletter, the International Detention Monitor, covering international detention news divided into regions, useful resources, member updates and a calendar of detention-relevant events, including the UN Special Procedures visits to various countries. The IDC's work has focused on the impact of immigration detention on children and the need for alternatives to detention, it advocates through lobbying, research, member advocacy support and strategy meetings. This includes meetings and reports to numerous governments, national and international bodies, including the European Union, the Association of South-East Asian Nations, UNHCR.

The IDC facilitates training and skills-sharing, as well as targeted partner projects with

Kagoshima United FC

Kagoshima United FC is a football club in Japan, formed from the merger of the old Volca Kagoshima and FC Kagoshima clubs, both have been playing in Kyushu Soccer League before the merger. The top team play in J2 League, their secondary team play in Kyushu Soccer League. Volca Kagoshima had been playing in Kyushu Soccer League since 1973 and advanced to the Regional League promotion series five times, but never succeeded to promote to the upper tier, Japan Football League, known as the Japan Soccer League until the 1980s. Osumi NIFS United FC affiliated with the National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya in nearby Kanoya, have promoted to Kyushu Soccer League as early as 2004, but both Volca and NIFS have been seeking the way to promote to JFL separately; the idea of a merged team of Volca and FC Kagoshima had been discussed by the Kagoshima Prefectural Football Association as early as 2012, but failed to reach an agreement then. Although Volca and FC Kagoshima had applied for J. League Associate Membership separately, both sides restarted their talk about the merger finally agreed with merging their teams to aim promotion to the J. League, in response of the advisory by the J. League organization.

As both clubs had advanced to the final round of Regional League promotion series in 2013, the merged team earned the promotion to 2014 Japan Football League. In November 2015, after concluding in promotion zone in 2015, they receive a J. League license to participate to J3; the club crest has the illustrations of Sakurajima and Kagoshima Bay, both symbolize Kagoshima Prefecture, on its background design, with red color, which represents Volca, light blue color, represents FC Kagoshima. KeyTms. = Number of teams Pos. = Position in league Attendance/G = Average league attendance As of 17 June 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official website