Revolution of the Lances
The Revolution of the Lances occurred in Uruguay from September 12, 1870 to April 6, 1872. Led by Timoteo Aparicio, leader of the National Party of Uruguay and a former army officer, it was named after the tacuara, an improvised weapon used by South American militias, consisting of a knife tied to a stalk of cane similar to bambu, resulting in a rudimentary lance; the series of events known as the Revolution of the Lances ended with a power-sharing agreement between the Blanco and Colorado Parties. This agreement in one form or another was to last until the early 20th century, when the Blanco forces were defeated at the Battle of Masoller in 1904. Battle of Paso Severino Battle of Corralito Taking of the Fortaleza del Cerro Battle of Sauce Battle of Manantiales Combate de Paso de los Loros de Arroyo Grande Uruguayan Civil War#Later conflicts
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
The July Monarchy was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration, it began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X, the last king of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe, a member of the more liberal Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon, proclaimed himself as Roi des Français rather than "King of France", emphasizing the popular origins of his reign; the king promised to follow the "juste milieu", or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of either the conservative supporters of Charles X and radicals on the left. The July Monarchy was dominated by numerous former Napoleonic officials, it followed conservative policies under the influence of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with Great Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. By 1848, a year in which many European states had a revolution, the king's popularity had collapsed, he was overthrown.
Louis Phillipe was pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris. However, at the end of his reign, the so-called "Citizen King" was overthrown by similar citizen uprisings and use of barricades during the February Revolution of 1848; this resulted in the proclamation of the Second Republic. After Louis-Philippe's ousting and subsequent exile to Britain, the liberal Orleanist faction continued to support a return of the House of Orléans to the throne, but the July Monarchy proved to be the last Bourbon-Orleans monarchy of France. The Legitimists withdrew from politics to their castles, leaving the way open for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans; the July Monarchy is seen as a period during which the haute bourgeoisie was dominant, marked the shift from the counter-revolutionary Legitimists to the Orleanists. They were willing to make some compromises with the changes brought by the 1789 Revolution. For instance, Louis-Philippe was crowned "King of the French", instead of "King of France": this marked his acceptance of popular sovereignty.
Louis-Philippe, who had flirted with liberalism in his youth, rejected much of the pomp and circumstance of the Bourbons and surrounded himself with merchants and bankers. The July Monarchy, ruled during a time of turmoil. A large group of Legitimists on the right demanded the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne. On the left and Socialism, remained a powerful force. Late in his reign Louis-Philippe became rigid and dogmatic and his President of the Council, François Guizot, had become unpopular, but the king refused to remove him; the situation escalated until the Revolutions of 1848 resulted in the fall of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic. However, during the first few years of his reign, Louis-Philippe was taking action to develop legitimate, broad-based reform; the government found its source of legitimacy within the Charter of 1830, written by reform-minded members of Chamber of Deputies and committed to a platform of religious equality among Catholics and Protestants.
Louis-Phillipe and his ministers adhered to policies that seemed to promote the central tenets of the constitution. However, the majority of these policies were veiled attempts to shore up the power and influence of the government and the bourgeoisie, rather than legitimate attempts to promote equality and empowerment for a broad constituency of the French population. Thus, though the July Monarchy seemed to move toward reform, this movement was illusory. During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement doubled, from 94,000 under Charles X to more than 200,000 men by 1848. But, this number still represented only one percent of population and a small number of those men of eligible age; as the qualifications for voting was related to payment of a certain level of taxes, only the wealthiest men gained this privilege. The extended franchise tended to favor the wealthy merchant bourgeoisie more than any other group. Beyond resulting in the election of more bourgeoisie to the Chamber of Deputies, this electoral expansion meant that the bourgeoisie could politically challenge the nobility on legislative matters.
Thus, while appearing to honor his pledge to increase suffrage, Louis-Philippe acted to empower his supporters and increase his hold over the French Parliament. The election of only the wealthiest men tended to undermine any possibility for growth of a radical faction in Parliament, served conservative ends; the reformed Charter of 1830 limited the power of the king—stripping him of his ability to propose and decree legislation, as well as limiting his executive authority. However, Louis believed in a kind of monarchy in which the king was more than a figurehead for an elected Parliament, as such, he was involved in legislative affairs. One of his first acts in creating his government was to appoint the conservative Casimir Perier as the premier of his cabinet. Perier, a banker, was instrumental in shutting down many of the Republican secret societies and labor unions that had formed during the early years of the regime. In addition, he oversaw the dism
History of Uruguay
The history of Uruguay comprises different periods: the pre-Columbian time or early history, the colonial period, the period of nation-building, the history of Uruguay as an independent country. The earliest traces of human presence are about 10,000 years old, belong to the hunter-gatherer cultures of Catalanense and Cuareim cultures which are extensions of cultures originating in Brasil. Earliest discovered. Examples of ancient rock art have been found at Chamangá. About 4000 years ago Charrua and Guarani people arrived here. During pre-colonial times Uruguayan territory was inhabited by small tribes of nomadic Charrua, Chana and Guarani peoples who survived by hunting and fishing and never reached more than 10 000 – 20 000 people, it is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Native peoples had disappeared by the time of Independence as a result of European diseases and constant warfare. European genocide culminated on April 11, 1831 with the Massacre of Salsipuedes, when most of Charrua men were killed by Uruguayan army on the orders by President Fructuoso Rivera, the remaining 300 Charrua women and children were divided as household slaves and servants among Europeans.
During the colonial era the present-day territory of Uruguay was known as Banda Oriental and was a buffer territory between the competing colonial pretensions of Portuguese Brazil and Spanish Empire. The Portuguese first explored the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512–1513; the first European explorer to land here was Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516, but he was killed by natives. Ferdinand Magellan anchored at the future site of Montevideo in 1520. Sebastian Cabot in 1526 explored. Absence of gold and silver limited settlement of the region during the 17th centuries. In 1603 cattle and horses were introduced here by the order of Hernando Arias de Saavedra and by the mid-17th century their number had multiplied; the first permanent settlement on the territory of present-day Uruguay was founded by the Spanish Jesuits in 1624 at Villa Soriano on the Río Negro, where they tried to establish a Misiones Orientales system for the Charruas. Portuguese colonists in 1680 established Colônia do Sacramento on the northern bank of La Plata river, on the opposite coast from Buenos Aires.
Spanish colonial activity increased as Spain sought to limit Portugal's expansion of Brazil's frontiers. In 1726 Spanish established San Felipe de Montevideo on the northern bank and its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial center competing with Buenos Aires, they moved to capture Colonia del Sacramento. Treaty of Madrid secured Spanish control over Banda Oriental, settlers were given land here and a local cabildo was created. In 1776 the new Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata was established with capital in Buenos Aires and it included territory of Banda Oriental. By this time the land was used by cattle ranchers to raise cattle. By 1800 more than 10,000 people lived in another 20,000 in the rest of the province. Out of these about 30% were African slaves. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights between the British, Spanish and local colonial forces for dominance of the La Plata basin. In 1806 and 1807, the British as a part of Anglo-Spanish War, launched the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
Buenos Aires was invaded in 1806, liberated by forces from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers. A new and stronger British attack in 1807 aimed to Montevideo, occupied by a 10,000-strong British force; the British forces were unable to invade Buenos Aires for the second time, Liniers demanded the liberation of Montevideo in the terms of capitulation. The British gave up their attacks when the Peninsular War turned Britain and Spain into allies against Napoleon; the May Revolution of 1810 in Buenos Aires marked the end of Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty and establishment of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. The Revolution divided inhabitants of Montevideo, many of whom remained royalists, loyal to the Spanish crown and revolutionaries who supported independence of provinces from Spain; this soon led to the First Banda Oriental campaign between the Spanish viceroy. Local patriots under José Gervasio Artigas issued the Proclamation of 26 February 1811 which called for a war against the Spanish rule.
With the help from Buenos Aires, Artigas defeated Spaniards on May 18, 1811 at the Battle of Las Piedras and began Siege of Montevideo. At this point Spanish viceroy invited Portuguese from Brazil to launch a military invasion of Banda Oriental. Afraid to lose this province to the Portuguese, Buenos Aires made peace with the Spanish viceroy. Only British pressure persuaded Portuguese to withdraw in late 1811, leaving royalists in control of Montevideo. Angered by this betrayal from Buenos Aires, Artigas with some 4000 supporters retreated to Entre Ríos Province. During the Second Banda Oriental campaign in 1813 Artigas joined José Rondeau's army from Buenos Aires and started the second siege of Montevideo, resulting in its surrender to Río de la Plata. Artigas participated in formation of League of the Free People, which united several provinces that wanted to be free from Buenos Aires dominance and centralized state, envisioned by the Congress of Tucumán. Artigas was proclaimed Protector of this League.
Guided by his political ideas he launched a land reform. The steady growth of influence and prestige of the Liga Federal frightened the Portuguese gover
Dr. Gabriel Terra Leivas was the President of Uruguay from 1931 to 1938. Born in Montevideo to a wealthy family, he graduated from the University of Uruguay in 1895, subsequently joined the faculty, he began his career as a member of the Colorado Party under his predecessor as president, José Batlle y Ordóñez in a number of government roles. From 1925 he was the minister for Employment, his nephew Horacio Terra Arocena served as a Senator. His great-nephew Juan Pablo Terra served as a Senator. After being selected to lead the country by the congress in 1930, he came to power in 1931. On March 1, 1931 he assumed the Presidency of the Republic for the period 1931-1938. From the beginning, he opposed the Constitution of 1918. On March 31, 1933, with the support of the police, the Army, the majority sector of the National Party he brought about a coup d'etat; the Parliament was dissolved, he disbanded the National Council of Administration, a special body set up in 1919 to provide checks and balances.
This was soon followed by the total abolition of the constitution, the censorship of the press, the merger of state powers with the presidency. He set up a government of conservative and illiberal character, in opposition to Batllismo and to the left, he produced a new constitution in 1934 and he put himself up for election, was elected under a shroud of suspicion. The period opened by the coup is called the Terra Dictatorship. After 1933, Terra was tellingly closer politically to his nominal National Party opponent Dr. Luis Alberto de Herrera than he was to many of his Colorado Party colleagues. Terra predominantly ruled harshly and by diktat, but continued most of the socialist reforms begun by his predecessor. During 1934 and 1935 there were many moments of political tension, with attempts at rebellion that failed, such as the Revolutionary Putsch of 1935; the main confrontation of this event was the Paso Morlan Skirmish, on February 28, 1935, suppressed by the police forces. Paso Morlan was followed by the arrest and confinement of 70 political prisoners on the Isla de Flores, including the Socialist Emilio Frugoni, nationalist Gustavo Gallinal, the batllista Luis Batlle Berres, the writer Francisco "Paco" Espinola and veterinary researcher Miguel C.
Rubino. They were arrested, imprisoned or lost their public office those university graduates who do not sign a letter expressing allegiance to Terra's regime. Many had to escape to Argentina to avoid being interned on the Isla de Flores. Another victim of the Terra Dictatorship was Doctor Julio Caesar Grauert, who shot by police upon returning from a political event on October 26, 1933, was left without medical attention and died of gangrene. Terra's interior minister was Alberto Demichelli, who much was himself to become President of Uruguay as an interim measure in 1976. Demichelli's wife, Sofía Álvarez Vignoli de Demicheli, was noted for her diplomatic activity during Terra's Presidency. Terra's Vice President was César Charlone, who served from 1934 to 1938. Terra was noted for bringing into his government former opposition figures such as Martín Echegoyen, who himself became President of Uruguay and, like Alberto Demicheli subsequently participated prominently in the civilian-military rule which took office under Juan María Bordaberry after 1973.
He broke off relations with the USSR and the Spanish Republic, while he met Roosevelt and Britain regarding his debts to them. He made a close friendship with Hitler and Mussolini who lent him a loan with no return to construct the Rincón del Bonete Lake Hydro Dam and Power Plant. Constitution of Uruguay of 1934 Politics of Uruguay List of political families#Uruguay Geneall Escuadrilla de Alta Acrobacia de Italia en Uruguay on YouTube Avión Breda "Leonardo Da Vinci" Aviación Civil Uruguaya. On YouTube http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Terra1913.jpg
Pascual Echagüe, was an Argentine soldier and politician. He served as Governor of Entre Ríos and Santa Fe provinces and Minister of War and Navy during the governments of Urquiza and Derqui, he participated in the Uruguayan Civil War. Echagüe was born in Santa Fe in 1797 and received a doctorate in theology in 1818 from the National University of Córdoba, he was a teacher for a short time secretary and afterward provincial minister to Governor Estanislao López. He represented his province at the signing of the treaties with Entre Ríos, at the Pacto Federal in January 1831, he served several times as interim governor, joined the army with the honorary rank of lieutenant colonel. He took part in the 1829 campaign against the Unitarian Juan Lavalle, fighting at the Battle of Márquez Bridge, he went with the army against Córdoba Province, was in charge of the negotiations for the surrender of the provincial capital after the imprisonment of general José María Paz, being influential on the good treatment given to the captives.
Echagüe went to Entre Ríos Province, where he owned property, in December 1831, sent by López to obtain peace in the province. He defeated an obscure soldier who had named himself governor and was elected governor on 22 February 1832, his administration started a period of progress and peace, with good relations with the Buenos Aires provincial governor, Juan Manuel de Rosas. During this period, Echagüe was re-elected twice to the post, he promoted Urquiza to commander of the Uruguay River's coastal forces. He founded the towns of La Diamante. Peace in his province was threatened by Fructuoso Rivera's revolt against Manuel Oribe, the Uruguayan president. Rivera was defeated in June 1838, Echagüe confiscated the possessions of the Entre Ríos citizens who had supported Rivera. On, he attacked the capital city of Corrientes, where the governor Genaro Berón de Astrada had rebelled against Rosas and had allied himself with Rivera. Echagüe defeated him at Pago Largo, as a result more than one thousand enemy soldiers were killed, among them Berón de Astrada.
With the support of Juan Antonio Lavalleja and the members of the White Party, he crossed the Uruguay river in order to attack Rivera, but the latter defeated him at the Battle of Cagancha, on 29 December 1839, in San José Department, Uruguay near the Cagancha creek. He returned on to invade Corrientes Province, but general Paz defeated him decisively on 28 November 1841, at the Battle of Caaguazú; the Entre Ríos cavalry could not maneuver and was completely lost. Echagüe took refuge in Buenos Aires. Urquiza was named governor as his replacement. Echagüe went with Oribe in his campaign to Santa Fe Province at the end of 1841. After the defeat of Juan Pablo López, Echagüe was elected Governor on 16 April 1842, he conducted a progressive and orderly government, as he had done in Entre Ríos, fomenting education in both provinces, in a time when this endeavor was given little though by the governing bodies. In June 1845, López invaded Echagüe's province from Chaco, occupied the capital city for a month, but Echagüe counter-attacked and defeated him, with Buenos Aires' support at Malabrigo.
The rest of his term as Governor was a period of stability. When Urquiza declared himself to be against Rosas in 1851, declared war, Echagüe was en route from Entre Ríos to Buenos Aires, was attacked in December 1851. Echagüe and colonel Martín Santa Coloma reached Buenos Aires, while Domingo Crespo was named governor. After a short period, where it is not know where he lived – there are several versions that he might have travelled to Europe along with Rosas, that both of them had met with Pope Pius IX – he took refuge in Montevideo. In 1854 he went to Entre Ríos, where he lived with a special permit from President Urquiza, who in 1856 named him Minister of War. Echagüe organized a campaign against the native tribes in the Southern Chaco region. From 1859 he was a national Senator, that same year, federal Interventor in Mendoza Province, from 16 April until 23 August. Echagüe represented La Rioja Province at the Constitutional Convention of 1860. Served as interim Minister of War during the administration of President Santiago Derqui and retired to Entre Ríos after the Battle of Pavón.
He volunteered for the Paraguayan War against Paraguay. He died in Entre Ríos at the "San Gabriel" ranch, owned by Manuela Puig de Echagüe. Gianello, Leoncio. Historia de Santa Fe. Buenos Aires: Plus Ultra. Bosch, Beatriz. Historia de Entre Ríos. Buenos Aires: Plus Ultra. Zinny, José Antonio. Historia de los gobernadores de las Provincias Argentinas. Buenos Aires: Hyspamérica. Martínez, Benjamín. Generales de Urquiza, desfile de valientes. Buenos Aires: Tor