Utopian socialism is the first current of modern socialism and socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet, Robert Owen and Henry George. Utopian socialism is described as the presentation of visions and outlines for imaginary or futuristic ideal societies, with positive ideals being the main reason for moving society in such a direction. Socialists and critics of utopian socialism viewed utopian socialism as not being grounded in actual material conditions of existing society and in some cases as reactionary; these visions of ideal societies competed with Marxist-inspired revolutionary social democratic movements. As a term or label, it is most applied to, or used to define, those socialists who lived in the first quarter of the 19th century who were ascribed the label utopian by socialists as a pejorative in order to imply naiveté and to dismiss their ideas as fanciful and unrealistic. A similar school of thought that emerged in the early 20th century which makes the case for socialism on moral grounds is ethical socialism.
One key difference between utopian socialists and other socialists is that utopian socialists do not believe any form of class struggle or social revolution is necessary for socialism to emerge. Utopian socialists believe that people of all classes can voluntarily adopt their plan for society if it is presented convincingly, they feel their form of cooperative socialism can be established among like-minded people within the existing society and that their small communities can demonstrate the feasibility of their plan for society. The thinkers identified. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were the first thinkers to refer to them as utopian, referring to all socialist ideas that presented a vision and distant goal of an ethically just society as utopian; this utopian mindset which held an integrated conception of the goal, the means to produce said goal and an understanding of the way that those means would be produced through examining social and economic phenomena can be contrasted with scientific socialism, likened to Taylorism.
This distinction was made clear in Engels' work Socialism: Scientific. Utopian socialists were seen as wanting to expand the principles of the French revolution in order to create a more rational society. Despite being labeled as utopian by socialists, their aims were not always utopian and their values included rigid support for the scientific method and the creation of a society based upon scientific understanding; the term utopian socialism was introduced by Karl Marx in "For a Ruthless Criticism of Everything" in 1843 and developed in The Communist Manifesto in 1848, although shortly before its publication Marx had attacked the ideas of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in Das Elend der Philosophie. The term was used by socialist thinkers to describe early socialist or quasi-socialist intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of egalitarian, meritocratic, or other notions of perfect societies without considering how these societies could be created or sustained. In Das Elend der Philosophie, English title The Poverty of Philosophy, Marx criticized the economic and philosophical arguments of Proudhon set forth in The System of Economic Contradictions, or The Philosophy of Poverty.
Marx accused Proudhon of wanting to rise above the bourgeoisie. In the history of Marx's thought and Marxism, this work is pivotal in the distinction between the concepts of utopian socialism and what Marx and the Marxists claimed as scientific socialism. Although utopian socialists shared few political, social, or economic perspectives and Engels argued that they shared certain intellectual characteristics. In The Communist Manifesto and Engels wrote: "The undeveloped state of the class struggle, as well as their own surroundings, causes Socialists of this kind to consider themselves far superior to all class antagonisms, they want to improve the condition of every member of society that of the most favored. Hence, they habitually appeal to society without distinction of class. For how can people, when once they understand their system, fail to see it in the best possible plan of the best possible state of society? Hence, they reject all political, all revolutionary, action. Marx and Engels used the term scientific socialism to describe the type of socialism they saw themselves developing.
According to Engels, socialism was not "an accidental discovery of this or that ingenious brain, but the necessary outcome of the struggle between two developed classes – the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Its task was no longer to manufacture a system of society as perfect as possible, but to examine the historical-economic succession of events from which these classes and their antagonism had of necessity sprung, to discover in the economic conditions thus created the means of ending the conflict". Critics have argued that utopian socialists who established experimental communities were in fact trying to apply the scientific method to human social organization and were therefore not utopian. For instance, Joshua Muravchik on the basis of Karl Popper's definition of science as "the practice of experimentation, of hypothesis and test" argued that "Owen and Fourier and their followers were the real'scientific socialists
R. E. M. Singles Collected is a compilation album from R. E. M. Released in Europe by I. R. S. Records in 1994; the album includes the A-side and B-sides of singles spanning from their debut LP Murmur in 1983, right through to Document in 1987. This was the last R. E. M.-related album to be released by I. R. S. Records, which would fold two years after its release. All songs written by Bill Berry, Peter Buck, Mike Mills and Michael Stipe, except where noted: "Radio Free Europe" – 3:11 "There She Goes Again" – 2:50 "So. Central Rain" – 3:16 "King of the Road" – 3:13 " Rockville" – 3:54 "Catapult" – 3:55 "Cant Get There from Here" – 3:13 "Bandwagon" – 2:16 "Wendell Gee" – 3:02 "Crazy" – 3:03 "Fall on Me" – 2:50 "Rotary Ten" – 2:00 "Superman" – 2:52 "White Tornado" – 1:55 "The One I Love" – 3:16 "Maps and Legends" – 3:15 "It's the End of the World as We Know It" – 3:11 "Last Date" – 2:16 "Finest Worksong" – 3:47 "Time After Time Etc." – 8:22
Denis Delestrac is an award winning director and producer. He is best known for creating feature-length investigative documentaries, his films focus on the ecological and political impacts of natural elements. Sand Wars investigates the legal and illegal depletion of sea sand for construction, which leads to shore erosion. Freightened looks at the perils of freight shipment; the Shadow of Gold exposes the exploitation of workers and the destruction of the environment behind gold mining. Pax Americana addresses the risks of putting nuclear weapons in Space. In Banking Nature, he looks at the growing movement to monetise the natural world, to turn endangered species and threatened areas into instruments of profit. Denis Delestrac graduated from the Toulouse Law School and obtained a Master in Journalism at the University of Dallas, he began working as a photojournalist as a writer, in the United States covering the South Central LA riots, the Waco siege and the 1992 presidential elections. In the last two decades, Delestrac has published in several North American and European publications like Le Monde.
Denis Delestrac made his debut in non-fiction filmmaking in 2001. In addition to his TV and theatrical non-fiction works, Delestrac directs branded content films for luxury brands or events. In 2018, he directed Captain's Dream, about the first Art biennale in Antarctica founded by Alexander Ponomarev. Delestrac resides in Paris. Best film - Inspiration Category - EKO Film 2013 Gold Panda for Best Nature & Environment Protection Award - Sishuan TV Festival 2013 Golden Sun - Barcelona Environmental Film Festival 2013 Japan Prize NHK 2013 - 2nd Prize Greenpeace Prize - Festival du Film Vert 2014 Best film - San Francisco International Ocean Film Festival 2014 Finalist - Monte Carlo 33rd International URTI Grand Prix for Author’s Documentary Rockie Award - Banff World Media Festival 2014 Prix Gémeaux 2014 Winner - Wild and Scenic Film Festival 2015 Best Film - Green Me Film Festival 2015 Winner: "Impact Prize" - FIGRA 2015 Best Environmental Film - Cayman International Film Festival 2015Winner of the Expo Milano Prize 2015 Best Full Length Documentary - 8th Kuala Lumpur Eco Film Fest 2015 Award of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences - Life Sciences Film Festival Prague Grand Prize of the City of Innsbruck 2015 Best International Feature Award - Planet in Focus - Toronto 2015 Golden Sun - FICMA 2015 Special Prize - "Emys Foundation" 2015 Greenpeace Prize - Festival du Film vert de Genève 2016Best Film - Another Way Film Festival 2016 Grands Prix - Ecrans Publics 2016 Winner - Deauville Green Awards 2016 Finalist - DIG Awards 2016 Winner - Deauville Green Awards 2018 Winner - 3rd place On Art Film Festival 2018 Member of the European Film Academy Member of the International Federation of Journalists Founding member of The Barcelona International Documentary Club Membre Sociétaire Stagiaire du collège audiovisuel de la Société Civile des Auteurs Multumédia Official Website Denis Delestrac on IMDb "Captain's Dream" Official Movie Site "Freightened" Official Movie Site "Sand Wars" Official Movie Site "Pax Americana and the Weaponization of Space" Official Movie Site "Breaking the Set" interview by Abby Martin TEDx Talk