click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Utrecht Psalter

The Utrecht Psalter is a ninth-century illuminated psalter, a key masterpiece of Carolingian art. It is famous for its 166 lively pen illustrations, with one accompanying each psalm and the other texts in the manuscript; the precise purpose of these illustrations, the extent of their dependence on earlier models, have been matters of art-historical controversy. The psalter spent the period between about 1000 to 1640 in England, where it had a profound influence on Anglo-Saxon art, giving rise to what is known as the "Utrecht style", it was copied at least three times in the Middle Ages. A complete facsimile edition of the psalter was made in 1875, another in 1984; the other texts in the book include some canticles and hymns used in the office of the hours, including various canticles, the Te Deum and Athanasian Creed. The latter text was the subject of intense study by Thomas Duffus Hardy and others after scholarly interest in the psalter grew in the 19th century; the entire volume contains 108 vellum leaves 13 by 10 inches in size.

The pages are formed by quires of 8 pages folded. There was at least an "author portrait" of David at the start, the surviving text begins with a large initial with insular-style interlace; the psalter was at one time thought to be a 6th-century work because of the use of archaic conventions in the script. The Psalter is written in rustic capitals, a script which by the 9th century had fallen out of favour in Carolingian manuscripts; these are now viewed as imitation rustic capitals, the manuscript is dated no earlier than the 9th century. It has been suggested that because of the capitals and the book's size, the Utrecht Psalter was intended as a choir book for several monks to read at the same time while singing; the psalter is believed to have been made near Reims, as its style is similar to that of the Ebbo Gospels. It may have been sponsored by Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims, so is dated between 816 and 835. Others have argued for a date c. 850, saying that the psalm illustrations draw from the travels of Gottschalk of Orbais, the illustration with the Athanasian Creed and other details pertain more to Ebbo's successor, Hincmar.

A period spent in the late 9th century in the area of Metz at the court of Charles the Bald, has been suggested on the basis of apparent influences from the manuscript in the art of the area. The manuscript had reached Canterbury Cathedral by c. 1000, at which time a copy began to be made of it. The Psalter was copied in full three times in the Middle Ages, the second copy being the Eadwine Psalter of 1155–60, with additions 1160–70, the texts extended to five versions of each psalm; the last copy is a fine version in full colour with gold backgrounds, known as the "Anglo-Catalan Psalter" or MS Lat. 8846 in the BnF, of 1180-90. This was half-illustrated by an English artist in about 1180-1200, completed by a Catalan artist in 1340-50 using a different Gothic style; the images are somewhat simplified, the number of figures reduced. Earlier there were derivative works in other media; the original manuscript spent at least two centuries at Canterbury from the year 1000, after the English Dissolution of the Monasteries came into the possession of Robert Bruce Cotton, the famous English antiquary, at which point it was rebound, with his arms on the cover.

Cotton lent the manuscript to the great collector Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, who took it into exile with him during the English Civil War. It reached Utrecht University in 1716, at which point it was incorporated into the University Library, it was rediscovered in the library in 1858. The Utrecht Psalter is lavishly illustrated with lively ink drawings for each psalm; the miniatures consist of outline drawings in plain bistre, a technique which gained popularity in the Carolingian Renaissance. However the Gospel book still remained the main focus of illumination at this period, the Utrecht Psalter is unusual both in the number of illustrations, their size, the large groups of small figures they contain; the Utrecht Psalter is important to the development of Anglo-Saxon art in the late tenth century, as the artistic style of its artwork seems to have been drawn on and adapted by Anglo-Saxon artists of this time. Although it is hardly that this single manuscript was responsible for beginning an entire new phase, the style which developed from it is sometimes known as the'Utrecht' style of outline drawing, survived unchanged into the 1020s.

The style of the outline drawings is dramatic, marked by activity, leaping creatures and fluttering folds of drapery set in faintly sketched landscape backgrounds stretching the full span of a page. Unlike tradit

European Society for Neurochemistry

The European Society for Neurochemistry is a learned society for neurochemists and neuroscientists from Europe whose research concerns the role and interactions of small molecules in the function and pathology of the nervous system. The society was founded in 1976 with the aim of helping to advance the field of neurochemistry for the public benefit, in particular to facilitate exchange of ideas and interests amongst its members. In the years before the establishment of the ESN, many European neurochemists were centrally involved in the development of the subject, for example in the discussions which led to the establishment of the Journal of Neurochemistry in 1956 and in the formation of the International Society for Neurochemistry in 1967. In the same year as the foundation of ISN, the Neurochemical Group of the British Biochemical Society was established, many of its meetings with an international and European flavour. During the years 1974 to 1975, in particular at a meeting of clinical neurochemists organised by Armand Lowenthal in Brussels in 1974, many participants expressed the need for a Society of Neurochemistry in Europe, which would not only provide a forum for exchanging ideas and new developments in the subject, but provide a vehicle for strong contact between clinically oriented and basic neurochemists.

The various views were co-coordinated at a meeting organised by Lars Svennerholm at the Billinghus conference centre in Skövde, Sweden, in May 1975. Some general principles were agreed upon: that the society should be open to members from all European countries and West, who were interested in neurochemistry and allied subjects, that it should pay special attention to clinical and applied aspects of the subject; the working party accepted an invitation, through Alan Davison from the Neurochemical Group of the British Biochemical Society, to organise the first meeting to be held in Bath, UK, in September 1976. The organising committee were all members of the Neurochemical Group of the British Biochemical Society; the working party had requested that the meeting should have a clinical theme, so the general area of "Basic Aspects of Neurochemistry Related to the Epilepsies" was chosen. 350 participants attended the meeting. Meetings are held every two years. From 1999, every six years the ESN helps organise a joint meeting with the International Society for Neurochemistry.

ESN meetings are designed to promote scientific discussions. Special efforts are taken to encourage young investigator participation. Short oral presentations are selected from the submitted abstracts. There are daily poster sessions. Official website

Paul Williams (Buddhist studies scholar)

Paul Williams is Emeritus Professor of Indian and Tibetan Philosophy at the University of Bristol, England. Until his retirement in 2011 he was director for the University's Centre for Buddhist Studies, is a former President of the UK Association for Buddhist Studies. Williams studied at the University of Sussex's School of African & Asian Studies where he graduated with a first class BA in 1972, he went on to study Buddhist Philosophy at Wadham College, University of Oxford, where he was awarded his DPhil in 1978. His main research interests are Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophy, Mahayana Buddhism, Medieval philosophical and mystical thought. Williams was a Buddhist himself for many years but has since converted to Roman Catholicism, an experience he wrote about in his book The Unexpected Way and in an article, "On converting from Buddhism to Catholicism – One convert's story." He is now a professed lay member of the Dominican Order. Williams married Sharon in 1971, they have three children: Myrddin and Tara, several grandchildren.

Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. ISBN 978-0-415-35653-4. Translations of First Edition in Italian and Korean; the Reflexive Nature of Awareness: A Tibetan Madhyamaka Defence. ISBN 978-0-7007-1030-0 Altruism and Reality: Studies in the Philosophy of the Bodhicaryavatara. ISBN 978-0-7007-1031-7 Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition. ISBN 978-0-415-57179-1. Translations of First Edition in Italian and Czech; the Unexpected Way: On Converting from Buddhism to Catholicism. ISBN 978-0-567-08830-7. Translations in German and Polish. Songs of Love, Poems of Sadness: The Erotic Verse of the 6th Dalai Lama. ISBN 978-1-85043-479-5 Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Edited and with a new introduction by Paul Williams. Eight volumes. ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2 Buddhism from a Catholic Perspective. ISBN 978-1-86082-404-3'Catholicism and Buddhism', in The Catholic Church and the World Religions Edited by Gavin D'Costa, pp. 141-177. ISBN 978-0-567-46697-6 Buddhist Funeral Cultures of Southeast Asia and China Edited by Paul Williams and Patrice Ladwig.

ISBN 978-1-107-00388-0 Paul Williams at University of Bristol Department of Theology and Religious Studies

1992 Andorran parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Andorra on 5 April 1992, with a second round of voting on 12 April. Following the elections, Òscar Ribas Reig remained Prime Minister. All 28 seats of the General Council were up for election; each parish formed a constituency. Members of the Parliament were elected using a two-round plurality voting system; the voting age was 18 years old. As political parties were not legalised until 1993, all candidates ran as independents, although press and newspapers considered some candidates to be government endorsed or opponents. Following the elections, the General Council elected the Prime Minister of Andorra and the General Syndic. Voter turnout was 82.4%. A total of 19 candidates were elected on the first round, with the remaining nine seats – one seat in Canillo, four in La Massana and four in Escaldes-Engordany – elected in the second round. Relation of the elected candidates with the standing government: Òscar Ribas Reig was re-elected as Prime Minister

2016 Euro Beach Soccer Cup

The 2016 Euro Beach Soccer Cup was the fifteenth edition of the Euro Beach Soccer Cup, one of Europe's main, regular international beach soccer championships, organised every two years by Beach Soccer Worldwide. It was held in June 2016, in Belgrade, the first time the country has hosted and played in a BSWW sanctioned event. Eight nations took part which were the best nations in Europe based on their finish in last years 2015 Euro Beach Soccer League, plus hosts Serbia. France, pulled out and were replaced by Hungary; the competition reverted to being a straight knock-out tournament instead of involving a group stage first as in the previous edition in 2014, with classifying matches to determine the final standings of those who didn't reach the final. Spain were the defending champions, accepting the invite to play, but lost in the quarter finals finishing seventh. Portugal won the championship, claiming their first in 10 years. Italy reached their first final, finishing as runners-up; the following teams took part in the tournament.

Bold indicates champion for that year. Italic indicates host for that year. * = hosts of this year All times are CEST Main tournament bracket Classification matches The winners proceeded on in the main tournament into the semi-finals. The losers progressed into a series of classifying matches to determine the standings of fifth down to eighth place; the losers of the classifying semi finals contested 7th place. The winners of the classifying semi finals contested 5th place; the losers of the main tournament semi finals contested 3rd place. The winners of the main tournament semi finals contested the championship final

Satyam Patel

Satyam Patel was a social worker and activist for the cause of labourers, farmers and religious unity in the western state of Gujarat in India. Satyam Patel was born to Dr. Kishorbhai Patel and Maniben Patel in Vadodara, India, he was the 4th of the seven children. His father, Dr. Kishorbhai Patel, was a pathologist to the Baroda State, he spent his childhood in many Indian cities, including Pune and Sojitra. Satyam Patel started his career as a prominent young leader of Mahagujarat Movement, demanding a separate state of Gujarat; the movement culminated in separation of the old state of Bombay into two states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960. During the movement, he was a member of Praja Socialist Party, led by Jayprakash Narayan and Ram Manohar Lohia; as an ardent orator for the cause of Maha Gujarat, whose fiery speeches drew more crowd and attention than competing rallies of the prime-minister Jawaharlal Nehru. After completing undergraduate degree in history, he studied law at Gujarat University and received LLB.

He settled in Ahmedabad. In 1957, during his student movement years, he met and married, Prabhatshobha Majithia, with whom he had four children, their marriage took place in the town of Nadiad, which served as constituencies for his bids to the state and national legislative bodies. After the formative years as a lawyer, Satyam Patel became a member of Indian National Congress, went on to lead the Seva Dal under the leadership of Indira Gandhi, he remained a close fervent supporter of Indira Gandhi all through his life. Under the umbrella of Seva Dal, he arranged many unity camps all throughout Gujarat encouraging participation of youth members of Hindu and Muslim communities; the camps allowed a chance for the youth to live for an extended period with one another, interact with one another and discover the similarities and differences amongst themselves. He was the Secretary of Gujarat chapter of the Indian Federation of United Nations Associations. In 1988, he attended the General Assembly meeting of the UN on disarmament on behalf of India.

He was a prominent member of peace delegation to China to promote peace through cultural and economic exchanges. His follow-up work resulted in first high-level visit to China by Rajiv Gandhi, the prime minister of India, opening a new page of peace talks between the two countries. Late 1980 onwards, along with his wife Prabhatshobha, he took keen interest in promoting the Gandhian way of life by activities of the Pra-Yog Trust; the Pra-Yog Trust was established to further the work of Late Mr. V. P. Gidwani, who devoted all his life for scientific quest for alternative and natural cures for human ailments; the organization, housed at the Gandhi Ashram in the city of Ahmedabad, promotes simpler and healthier way of life through natural therapies and non-intrusive prevention techniques. At the time of his death, he was the General Secretary of World Gujarati Society, ardently promoting the Gujarati culture amongst the Gujarati diaspora around the world. On the home front, he was leading a fight for the poor farmers of Gujarat under the umbrella of Committee of Protesting Farmers