The Uyghurs, alternately Uygurs, Uighurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic minority ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia. The Uyghurs are recognized as native to the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Northwest China, they are considered to be one of China's 55 recognized ethnic minorities. The Uyghurs are recognized by the Chinese government only as a regional minority within a multicultural nation; the Chinese government rejects the notion of the Uyghurs being an indigenous group. The Uyghurs have traditionally inhabited a series of oases scattered across the Taklamakan Desert within the Tarim Basin, a territory, controlled by many civilizations including China, the Mongols, the Tibetans, various Turkic polities; the Uyghurs started to become Islamized in the 10th century and most Uyghurs identified as Muslims by the 16th century. Islam has since played an important role in Uyghur culture and identity. An estimated 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs still live in the Tarim Basin.

The rest of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in Ürümqi, the capital city of Xinjiang UAR, located in the historical region of Dzungaria. The largest community of Uyghurs living in another region of China are the Uyghurs living in Taoyuan County, in North-Central Hunan. Significant diasporic communities of Uyghurs exist in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Smaller communities live in Canada, Belgium, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, the United States and the Netherlands. Since 2016, it is estimated that over a million Uyghurs have been detained in Xinjiang re-education camps; the camps were established under General Secretary Xi Jinping’s administration. According to Chinese government operating procedures, the main feature of the camps is to ensure adherence to Chinese Communist Party ideology. Inmates are continuously held captive in the camps for a minimum of 12 months depending on their performance in Chinese ideology tests. In 2017, Human Rights Watch released a report saying "The Chinese government agents should free people held in unlawful'political education' centers in Xinjiang, shut them down."

United Nations and many media reports said as many as one million people are held in such "re-education camps" in this region. As of November 2019, 1 in 10 Uyghurs are being detained in re-education camps. In the Uyghur language, the ethnonym is written ئۇيغۇر in Arabic script, Уйгур in Russian, Уйғур in Uyghur Cyrillic and Uyghur or Uygur in Latin. In Chinese, this is transcribed into characters as 维吾尔 / 維吾爾, romanized in pinyin as Wéiwú'ěr. In English, the name is spelled "Uyghur" by the Xinjiang government but appears as "Uighur", "Uigur" and "Uygur"; the name is pronounced in English as, although some Uyghurs and Uyghur scholars advocate for using the closer pronunciation instead. The original meaning of the term is unclear. Old Turkic inscriptions record a word uyɣur, transcribed into Tang annals as 回纥 / 回紇, it was used as the name of one of the Turkic polities formed in the interim between the First and Second Göktürk Khaganates. The Old History of the Five Dynasties records in 788 or 809, the Chinese acceded to a Uyghur request, emended their transcription to 回鹘 / 回鶻.

Modern etymological explanations for the name "Uyghur" range from derivation from the verb "follow, accommodate oneself"" and adjective "non-rebellious" to the verb meaning "wake, rouse, or stir". None of these is thought to be satisfactory because the sound shift of /ð/ and /ḏ/ to /j/ does not appear to be in place by this time; the etymology therefore cannot be conclusively determined, its referent is difficult to fix. The "Huihe" and "Huihu" seem to be a political rather than a tribal designation, or it be may be one group among several others collectively known as the Toquz Oghuz; the name fell out of use in the 15th century, but was reintroduced in the early 20th century by the Soviet Bolsheviks to replace the previous terms "Turk" and "Turki". The name is presently used to refer to the settled Turkic urban dwellers and farmers of the Tarim Basin who follow traditional Central Asian sedentary practices, distinguishable from the nomadic Turkic populations in Central Asia; the Uyghurs appear in Chinese records under other names.

The earliest record of a Uyghur tribe appears in accounts from the Northern Wei. They are described as the 高车 / 高車, read as Gāochē in Mandarin Chinese but with the reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation *; this in turn has been connected to the Uyghur Qangqil. They were known as the Tiele. Throughout its history, the term Uyghur has an expansive definition. Signifying only a small coalition of Tiele tribes in Northern China and the Altai Mountains, it denoted citizenship in the Uyghur Khaganate, it was expanded into an ethnicity whose ancestry originates with the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 842, causing Uyghur migration from Mongolia into the Tarim Basin. This migration assimilated and replaced the various Indo-European speakers of the region to create a distinct identity because the language and culture of the Turkic

Porphobilinogen deaminase

Porphobilinogen deaminase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HMBS gene. Porphobilinogen deaminase is involved in the third step of the heme biosynthetic pathway, it catalyzes the head to tail condensation of four porphobilinogen molecules into the linear hydroxymethylbilane while releasing four ammonia molecules: 4 porphobilinogen + H2O ⇌ hydroxymethylbilane + 4 NH3 Functionally, porphobilinogen deaminase catalyzes the loss of ammonia from the porphobilinogen monomer and its subsequent polymerization to a linear tetrapyrrole, released as hydroxymethylbilane: The structure of 40-42 kDa porphobilinogen deaminase, conserved amongst organisms, consists of three domains. Domains 1 and 2 are structurally similar: each consisting of five beta-sheets and three alpha helices in humans. Domain 3 has a flattened beta-sheet geometry. A dipyrrole, a cofactor of this enzyme consisting of two condensed porphobilinogen molecules, is covalently attached to domain 3 and extends into the active site, the cleft between domains 1 and 2.

Several positively charged arginine residues, positioned to face the active site from domains 1 and 2, have been shown to stabilize the carboxylate functionalities on the incoming porphobilinogen as well as the growing pyrrole chain. These structural features favor the formation of the final hydroxymethylbilane product. Porphobilinogen deaminase exists in dimer units in the cytoplasm of the cell; the first step is believed to involve an E1 elimination of ammonia from porphobilinogen, generating a carbocation intermediate. This intermediate is attacked by the dipyrrole cofactor of porphobilinogen deaminase, which after losing a proton yields a trimer covalently bound to the enzyme; this intermediate is open to further reaction with porphobilinogen. Once a hexamer is formed, hydrolysis allows hydroxymethylbilane to be released, as well as cofactor regeneration; the most well-known health issue involving porphobilinogen deaminase is acute intermittent porphyria, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder where insufficient hydroxymethylbilane is produced, leading to a build-up of porphobilinogen in the cytoplasm.

This is caused by a gene mutation. However, mutations where less-active enzymes and/or different isoforms have been described. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase Deficiency Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P08397 at the PDBe-KB

De Luca Bossa clan

The De Luca Bossa clan is a Neapolitan Camorra clan operating in the eastern suburbs of Naples, more in the area of Ponticelli and in municipality of Cercola. As of 2020 the organization is said to have a complete monopoly on the illegal activities in its domain areas; the clan was founded by Antonio De Luca Bossa, known as ‘O sicco, in the 1990s. Antonio is the son of Umberto De Luca Bossa, a trusted member of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and died from natural causes in 2008 after 18 years in jail. In the late 1980s ‘O sicco started his criminal career as a ferocious killer for the once powerful Sarno clan. At the age of 17, he was arrested, accused of involvement in a massacre led by the Sarnos in which six people died, four of them by mistake. In the early 90s, Antonio became a trusted member of the Sarno clan, however, he decided to create his own clan, which ended in a bloody war between the newly created clan and the Sarnos for the control of the territory; the war has reached its peak, when, in 1998, ‘O sicco made the first attack with a car bomb in the Camorra's history, killing Luigi Amitrano, the nephew of the boss Vincenzo Sarno, the real target of the ambush.

Antonio De Luca Bossa was arrested and sentenced to life in prison. In the 2000s, thanks to the relationship between Teresa De Luca Bossa, mother of Antonio, with Giuseppe Marfella, boss of the Marfella clan, based in Pianura, the forces of the two clans united in fighting the Lago clan; the reorganization in the clan takes place, adding the interest in regaining control over Ponticelli, taking advantage of fall of the Sarno clan, thanks to the large number of arrests and most of their bosses becoming pentiti. However, this time did not last long, in 2010 Teresa De Luca Bossa was arrested and the clan lost control of the territory, disputed by rival clans, such as the D'Amico clan and the De Micco clan. In the years when Teresa De Luca Bossa was in command, the clan made an alliance with the powerful Secondigliano Alliance. Anna De Luca Bossa, sister of Antonio, is married to Ciro Minichini, a member of a criminal group based in Ponticelli, they had a son, Antonio Minichini, killed in 2013 in the middle of the war between the De Luca Bossa and the De Micco clans.

In September 2019, Anna was accused of involvement in the murder of Raffaele Cepparulo, leader of a small criminal group, Ciro Colonna, an innocent victim. She was sentenced to life imprisonment. In the same trial, Michele Minichini, considered one of the leaders of the new era of the organization was sentenced to life in prison. Minichini was known to have a good relationship with Ciro Rinaldi, boss of the Rinaldi clan based in the eastern part of Naples, making an alliance between the two clans. Antonio De Luca Bossa — Serving a life sentence. Teresa De Luca Bossa — Arrested. Anna De Luca Bossa — Serving a life sentence. Umberto De Luca Bossa — Allegedly the current leader of the organization. Emmanuel De Luca Bossa — Released in 2020. Michele Minichini, known as'a tigre — Serving a life sentence. Pasquale Brunese, a drug trafficker working for the clan was arrested in Valencia, Spain, in 2015, after seven years hiding from the Italian police. In Spain, Brunese was living with a false name. On October 31, 2019, Salvatore Ricciardi, considered an affiliate of the clan, was arrested by the Carabinieri on charges of having imposed the racket on a pizzeria in Cercola.

According to investigators, Ricciardi is the "bagman" of the clan, designated to collect the racket money. According to investigations, the leaders of the clan do numerous parties in the Ponticelli area, always inviting singers to live performances, one of their favorite singers is the neomelodic Anthony Ilardo, known for his relations with members of the Camorra. On December 29, 2019, two "loan sharks" of the clan were arrested in Cercola, according to the investigations, in some cases they would impose usurious rates up to 720%. According to the reports of the DIA, by 2019, after a time of strong decline, the De Luca Bossa clan is believed to be gaining power again in the eastern area of Naples, thanks to the merger with emergent groups, in particular with the Minichini. In fact, according to investigations, the group is now considered the most powerful clan in Ponticelli and in much of the Vesuvian area. On August 27, 2019, the Court of Naples issued an order for custody in prison for Emmanuel De Luca Bossa, the youngest son of'O sicco.

Emmanuel was under house arrest for robbery and was found in possession of a gun during a recent search warrant. In September 2019, Umberto De Luca Bossa, son of'O sicco, was released from prison, after more than two years in jail, accused of illegal gun possession. In September 2019, Tommaso Schisa, member of the Schisa's faction of the clan, became pentito. Schisa is said to have a important role in the alliance between the De Luca Bossa clan and the Rinaldi clan. In February 2020, Emmanuel De Luca Bossa, was released from jail. Since Umberto De Luca Bossa became new the leader of the organization, after his release from jail in 2019, was noticed the increase of the continuous and pressing extortion requests, exercised with threatening and violent methods in the areas under the influence of the clan. Camorra List of Camorra clans Ponticelli