Kashrut is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws. Food that may be consumed according to halakha is termed kosher, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér, meaning "fit". Among the numerous laws that form kashrut are prohibitions on the consumption of certain animals, mixtures of meat and milk, the commandment to slaughter mammals and birds according to a process known as shechita. There are laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact the suitability of food for consumption. Most of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah's Books of Deuteronomy, their details and practical application, are set down in the oral law and elaborated on in the rabbinical literature. Although the Torah does not state the rationale for most kashrut laws, some suggest that they are only tests for man's obedience, while others have suggested philosophical and hygienic reasons. Over the past century, many rabbinical organizations have started to certify products and restaurants as kosher using a symbol to indicate their support.
About a sixth of American Jews or 0.3% of the American population keep kosher, there are many more who do not follow all the rules but still abstain from some prohibited foods. The Seventh-day Adventist Church, a Christian denomination, have a health message that expects adherence to the kosher dietary laws. Jewish philosophy divides the 613 commandments into three groups—laws that have a rational explanation and would be enacted by most orderly societies, laws that are understood after being explained but would not be legislated without the Torah's command, laws that do not have a rational explanation; some Jewish scholars say that kashrut should be categorized as laws for which there is no particular explanation since the human mind is not always capable of understanding divine intentions. In this line of thinking, the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of God's authority, man must obey without asking why. However, Maimonides believed; some theologians have said that the laws of kashrut are symbolic in character: Kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices.
The 1st-century BCE Letter of Aristeas argues that the laws "have been given... to awake pious thoughts and to form the character". This view reappears in the work of the 19th century Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch; the Torah prohibits "seething the kid in its mother's milk". While the Bible does not provide a reason, it has been suggested that the practice was perceived as cruel and insensitive. Hasidic Judaism believes that everyday life is imbued with channels connecting with Divinity, the activation of which it sees as helping the Divine Presence to be drawn into the physical world; these sparks of Holiness are released. The Hasidic argument is that animals are imbued with signs that reveal the release of these sparks, the signs are expressed in the biblical categorization of ritually clean and ritually unclean. According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Wenham, the purpose of kashrut was to help Jews maintain a distinct and separate existence from other peoples. Wenham argued that since the impact of the food laws was a public affair, this would have enhanced Jewish attachment to them as a reminder of their distinct status as Jews.
There have been attempts to provide empirical support for the view that Jewish food laws have an overarching health benefit or purpose. One of the earliest is that of Maimonides in The Guide for the Perplexed. In 1953, David Macht, an Orthodox Jew and proponent of the theory of biblical scientific foresight, conducted toxicity experiments on many kinds of animals and fish, his experiment involved lupin seedlings being supplied with extracts from the meat of various animals. At the same time, these explanations are controversial. Scholar Lester L. Grabbe, writing in the Oxford Bible Commentary on Leviticus, says "n explanation now universally rejected is that the laws in this section have hygiene as their basis. Although some of the laws of ritual purity correspond to modern ideas of physical cleanliness, many of them have little to do with hygiene. For example, there is no evidence that the'unclean' animals are intrinsically bad to eat or to be avoided in a Mediterranean climate, as is sometimes asserted."
The laws of kashrut can be classified according to the origin of the prohibition and whether the prohibition concerns the food itself or a mixture of foods. Biblically prohibited foods include: Non-kosher animals and birds: mammals require certain identifying characteristics, while birds require a tradition that they can be consumed. Fish require fins. All invertebrates are non-kosher apart from certain types of locust, on w
Kebabs are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine. Many variants are popular throughout Asia, around the world. In most English-speaking countries, a kebab is the internationally-known shish kebab or shashlik, though outside of North America a kebab may be the ubiquitous fast-food doner kebab or its variants. In contrast, in Indian English and in the languages of the Middle East, other parts of Asia, the Muslim world, a kebab is any of a wide variety of grilled meat dishes; some dishes derived from Middle Eastern kebab may have different names in their local languages, such as the Chinese chuanr. Although kebabs are cooked on a skewer, many types of kebab are not. Kebab dishes can consist of ground meat or seafood, sometimes with fruits and vegetables; the traditional meat for kebabs is most mutton or lamb, but regional recipes may include beef, chicken, fish, or more due to religious prohibitions, pork. Evidence of hominin use of fire and cooking in the Middle East dates back as far as 790,000 years, prehistoric hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones were spread across Europe and the Middle East by at least 250,000 years ago.
Excavations of the Minoan settlement of Akrotiri unearthed stone supports for skewers used before the 17th century BC. In ancient times, Homer in the Iliad mentions pieces of meat roasted on spits, the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian text mentions large pieces of meat roasted on spits. In Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's 10th-century Baghdadi cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, a compendium of much of the legacy of Mesopotamian and Arab cuisine, there are descriptions of kabāb as cut-up meat, either fried in a pan or grilled over a fire; the method of cooking smaller chunks or slices of meat on skewers has a long history in the region, where it would be practical in cities where small cuts of meat were available in butchers' shops, where fuel for cooking was scarce, compared to Europe, where extensive forests enabled farmers to roast large cuts of meat whole. Indeed, many cultures have dishes consisting of chunks of meat cooked over a fire on skewers, such as the anticucho, prepared in South America since long before contact with Europe and Asia.
However, while the word kebab or shish kebab may sometimes be used in English as a culinary term that refers to any type of small chunks of meat cooked on a skewer, kebab is associated with a diversity of meat dishes that originated in the medieval kitchens of Persia and Turkey. Though the word has ancient origins, it was popularized by Turks to refer to this range of grilled and broiled meat, which may be cooked on skewers, but as stews and other forms; this cuisine has spread in parallel with Muslim influence. According to Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan traveller, kebab was served in the royal houses during the Delhi Sultanate, commoners would enjoy it for breakfast with naan. Kebab dishes have been adopted and integrated with local cooking styles and innovations, from the now-ubiquitous doner kebab fast food, to the many variations of shish kebab, such as the satays of Southeast Asia; the word kebab came to English in the late 17th century from the Arabic kabāb through Urdu and Turkish. According to linguist Sevan Nişanyan, the Turkish word kebap is derived from the Arabic word kabāb, meaning roasted meat.
It appears in Turkish texts as early as the 14th century, in Kyssa-i Yusuf, though still in the Arabic form. Nişanyan states that the word has the equivalent meaning of "frying/burning" with "kabābu" in the old Akkadian language, "kbabā/כבבא" in Aramaic. In contrast, food historian Gil Marks says that the medieval Arabic and Turkish terms were adopted from the Persian kabab, which derived from the Aramaic; the American Heritage Dictionary gives a probable East Semitic root origin with the meaning of "burn", "char", or "roast", from the Aramaic and Akkadian. The Babylonian Talmud instructs; these words point to an origin in the prehistoric Proto-Afroasiatic language: *kab-, to burn or roast. Suya is a spicy kebab, a popular food item in West Africa, it is traditionally prepared by the Hausa people of northern Nigeria, Niger and some parts of Sudan. Kyinkyinga is popular in West Africa, it is a Ghanian dish similar to or synonymous with the Hausa suya kebab known as sooya, chichinga, tsire agashi, chachanga or tankora.
Sosatie is a traditional South African dish of meat cooked on skewers. The term derives from sate and saus, it is of Cape Malay origin. Sosatie recipes vary, but the ingredients can include cubes of lamb, chicken, dried apricots, red onions and mixed peppers. Afghan kebab is most found in restaurants and outdoor vendor stalls; the most used meat is lamb. Recipes differ with every restaurant. Afghan kebab is served with naan rice, customers have the option to sprinkle sumac or ghora, dried ground sour grapes, on their kebab; the quality of kebab is dependent on the quality of the meat. Pieces of fat from the sheep's tail are added with the lamb skewers to add extra flavor. Other popular kebabs include the lamb chop, beef and chicken, all of which are found in better restaurants. Chapli kebab, a specialty of Eastern Afghanistan, is a patty made from beef mince, it is a popula
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, stems, leaves and seeds; the alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits and cereal grains, but include fruits from others such as tomatoes and courgettes and seeds such as pulses. Vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.
China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day being recommended; the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, was applied to all plants, it derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis "growing, flourishing", a semantic change from a Late Latin meaning "to be enlivening, quickening". The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.
In 1767, the word was used to mean a "plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root". The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie"; as an adjective, the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, leaves, flowers and seeds; the broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of, used for food", a secondary meaning being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food, not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal". Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are treated as vegetables.
In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", used in everyday language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive. "Fruit" has a precise botanical meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items called "vegetables", such as eggplants, bell peppers, tomatoes, are botanically fruits; the question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is identified as, thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of 1883 on imported produce; the court did acknowledge, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers, they foraged for edible fruit, stems, leaves and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Forest gardening in a tropical jungle clearing is thought to be the first example of agriculture.
Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. While the first evidence for the domestication of grasses such as wheat and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is that various peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. Subsistence agriculture continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, South America, elsewhere using their plots of land to produce enough food for their families, while any surplus produce is used for exchange for other goods. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was dull comprising some staple product made from rice, barley, millet or maize; the addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.
In Peru, the Incas subsisted on maize in the lowla
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, long shelf life. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, figs, peaches and pears; these are referred to as "conventional" or "traditional" dried fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, cherries and mango are infused with a sweetener prior to drying; some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi fruit and pineapple are most candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most of the nutritional value of fresh fruits; the specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart and the processing method.
Traditional dried fruit such as raisins, dates and apples have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. This is due to their early cultivation in the Middle Eastern region known as the Fertile Crescent, made up by parts of modern Iran, southwest Turkey, Lebanon and northern Egypt. Drying or dehydration happened to be the earliest form of food preservation: grapes and figs that fell from the tree or vine would dry in the hot sun. Early hunter-gatherers observed that these fallen fruit took on an edible form, valued them for their stability as well as their concentrated sweetness; the earliest recorded mention of dried fruits can be found in Mesopotamian tablets dating to about 1700 BC, which contain what are the oldest known written recipes. These clay slabs, written in Akkadian, the daily language of Babylonia, were inscribed in cuneiform and tell of diets based on grains and fruits such as dates, apples and grapes; these early civilizations used dates, date juice evaporated into syrup and raisins as sweeteners.
They included dried fruits in their breads for which they had more than 300 recipes, from simple barley bread for the workers to elaborate, spiced cakes with honey for the palaces and temples. Because cuneiform was complex and only scribes who had studied for years could read it, it is unlikely that the tablets were meant for everyday cooks or chefs. Instead they were written to document the culinary art of the times. Many recipes are quite elaborate and have rare ingredients so we may assume that they represent "Mediterranean haute cuisine"; the date palm was one of the first cultivated trees. It was domesticated in Mesopotamia more than 5,000 years ago, it grew abundantly in the Fertile Crescent and it was so productive that dates were the cheapest of staple foods. Because they were so valuable they were well recorded in Assyrian and Babylonian monuments and temples; the villagers in Mesopotamia ate them as sweets. Whether fresh, soft-dried or hard-dried, they helped to give character to meat dishes and grain pies.
They were recommended as stimulants against fatigue. Figs were prized in early Mesopotamia and Egypt where their daily use was greater than or equal to that of dates; as well as appearing in wall paintings, many specimens have been found in Egyptian tombs as funerary offerings. In Greece and Crete, figs grew readily and they were the staple of poor and rich alike in their dried form. Grape cultivation first began in Armenia and the eastern regions of the Mediterranean in the 4th century BC. Here, raisins were manufactured by burying grapes in the desert sun. Viticulture and raisin production spread across northern Africa including Morocco and Tunisia; the Phoenicians and the Egyptians popularized the production of raisins due to the perfect environment for sun drying. They allotted them to the different temples by the thousands, they included them in their breads and their various pastries, some made with honey, some with milk and eggs. From the Middle East, these fruits spread through Greece to Italy where they became a major part of the diet.
Ancient Romans ate raisins in spectacular quantities and all levels of society, including them as a key part of their common meals, along with olives and fruits. Raisined breads were common for breakfast and were consumed with their grains and cultured milks. Raisins were so valued that they transcended the food realm and became rewards for successful athletes as well as premium barter currency. Having dried fruits was a must in ancient Rome as these instructions for housekeepers around 100 BC tell: "She must keep a supply of cooked food on hand for you and the servants, she must have plenty of eggs. She must have a large store of dried pears, figs, sorbs in must, preserved pears and grapes and quinces, she must keep preserved grapes in grape-pulp and in pots buried in the ground, as well as fresh Praenestine nuts kept in the same way, Scantian quinces in jars, other fruits that are preserved, as well as wild fruits. All these she must store away diligently every year."Figs again were popular in Rome.
Dried figs were formed a major part of the winter food of country people. They were rubbed with spices such as cumin and fennel seeds, or toasted sesame, wrapped in fig leaves and stored in jars. Plums and peaches had their origins in Asia. Th
The onion known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable, the most cultivated species of the genus Allium. Its close relatives include the garlic, leek and Chinese onion; this genus contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, the tree onion, the Canada onion. The name "wild onion" is applied to a number of Allium species, but A. cepa is known from cultivation. Its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions; the onion is most a biennial or a perennial plant, but is treated as an annual and harvested in its first growing season. The onion plant has a fan of hollow, bluish-green leaves and its bulb at the base of the plant begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached; the bulbs are composed of shortened, underground stems surrounded by fleshy modified scale that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem. In the autumn, the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become dry and brittle.
The crop is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for use or storage. The crop is prone to attack by a number of pests and diseases the onion fly, the onion eelworm, various fungi cause rotting; some varieties of A. cepa, such as shallots and potato onions, produce multiple bulbs. Onions are used around the world; as a food item, they are served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish, but can be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys. They are pungent when contain certain chemical substances which irritate the eyes; the onion plant known as the bulb onion or common onion, is the most cultivated species of the genus Allium. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum. A number of synonyms have appeared in its taxonomic history: Allium cepa var. aggregatum – G. Don Allium cepa var. bulbiferum – Regel Allium cepa var. cepa – Linnaeus Allium cepa var. multiplicans – L. H. Bailey Allium cepa var. proliferum – Regel Allium cepa var. solaninum – Alef Allium cepa var. viviparum – Mansf.
A. Cepa is known from cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia; the most related species include A. vavilovii and A. asarense from Iran. However and Hopf state that "there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop."The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the "common onion group" and are referred to as "onions". The Aggregatum group of cultivars includes both shallots and potato onions; the genus Allium contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, Egyptian onion, Canada onion. Cepa is accepted as Latin for "onion" and has an affinity with Ancient Greek: κάπια and Albanian: qepë and is ancestral to Aromanian: tseapã, Catalan: ceba, Occitan: ceba, Spanish: cebolla, Romanian: ceapă; the English word chive is derived from the Old French cive, which derived from cepa. The onion plant has been selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years.
It is a biennial plant, but is grown as an annual. Modern varieties grow to a height of 15 to 45 cm; the leaves are yellowish - to bluish green and grow alternately in a fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy and cylindrical, with one flattened side, they are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up, beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of each leaf is a flattened white sheath that grows out of a basal disc. From the underside of the disc, a bundle of fibrous roots extends for a short way into the soil; as the onion matures, food reserves begin to accumulate in the leaf bases and the bulb of the onion swells. In the autumn, the leaves die back and the outer scales of the bulb become dry and brittle, so the crop is normally harvested. If left in the soil over winter, the growing point in the middle of the bulb begins to develop in the spring. New leaves appear and a long, hollow stem expands, topped by a bract protecting a developing inflorescence; the inflorescence takes the form of a globular umbel of white flowers with parts in sixes.
The seeds are glossy triangular in cross section. The average pH of an onion is around 5.5 Because the wild onion is extinct and ancient records of using onions span western and eastern Asia, the geographic origin of the onion is uncertain, with domestication worldwide. Food uses of onions date back thousands of years in China and Persia. Traces of onions recovered from Bronze Age settlements in China suggest that onions were used as far back as 5000 BCE, not only for their flavour, but the bulb's durability in storage and transport. Ancient Egyptians revered the onion bulb, viewing its spherical shape and concentric rings as symbols of eternal life. Onions were used in Egyptian burials, as evidenced by onion traces found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Pliny the Elder of the first century CE wrote about the use of onions and cabbage in Pompeii, he documented Roman beliefs about the onion's ability to improve ocular ailments, aid in sleep, heal everything from oral sores and toothaches to dog bites and dysentery.
Dough is a thick, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops. Dough is made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings; the process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs breads and bread-based items, but including biscuits, cookies, flatbreads, pasta, pizza and similar items. Doughs are made from a wide variety of flours wheat but flours made from maize, rye, legumes and other cereals and crops used around the world. Doughs vary depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent, how the dough is mixed, cooking or baking technique. There is no formal definition of. Leavened or fermented doughs are used all over the world to make various breads. Salt, oils or fats, sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are common ingredients in bread dough.
Commercial bread doughs may include dough conditioners, a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product. Flatbreads such as pita, lavash, matzah or matzo, roti, sangak and yufka are eaten around the world and are made from dough; some flatbreads, such as naan, use leavening agents. Crackers are made from dough, some are leavened. Pasta and noodles are based on unleavened doughs that are worked until they are dry and smooth, shaped into their final form; the finished pasta may be cooked or dried before cooking. Doughs with higher fat content have a lesser water content, develop less gluten and are therefore less elastic than bread doughs; this category includes many pie crust doughs, such as shortcrust pastry. In many parts of central India, people use the quick method of making an instant roasted dough ball or baati. In countries in the Sahel region of Africa, dough balls called aiysh or biya are made from sorghum or millet, are ground and boiled. Quick breads use leavening agents other than yeast, include most cookies, cakes and more.
Techniques used in dough production depend on the type of final product. For yeast-based and sponge breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed and left to rise. Many bread doughs call for a second stage, where the dough is kneaded again, shaped into the final form, left to rise a final time before baking. Kneading is the process of working a dough to produce a elastic dough by developing gluten; this process is both time-dependent. Pasta is made from a dry dough, kneaded and shaped, either through extrusion, rolling out in a pasta machine, or stretched or shaped by hand. Pasta may be cooked directly after dried, which renders it shelf-stable. Doughs for biscuits and many flatbreads which are not leavened with yeast are mixed but not kneaded or left to rise. While breads and other products made from doughs are baked, some types of dough-based foods are cooked over direct heat, such as tortillas, which are cooked directly on a griddle. Fried dough foods are common in many cultures.
Pancakes, some kinds of bar cookies such as brownies, many cakes and quick breads are made with a semi-liquid batter of flour and liquid, poured into the final shape, rather than a solid dough. Unlike bread dough, these batters are not stabilized by the formation of a gluten network. Acetone peroxide is an oxidizing agent used to strengthen flour; this product speeds up the oxidation process which allows companies to produce baked goods faster and more efficiently. Ammonium persulfate is used in baking, which acts to improve baking color of flour; this additive supplies nitrogen for the yeast which improves consistency and shelf life. It serves to control the pH of flour and baked products. Ascorbic acid, otherwise known as vitamin C, is used as an antioxidant in dough. By controlling the amount of oxygen reacting with the bread products, it acts to promote optimal taste and texture, it is used as an ingredient preservative in baked goods, as it increases the shelf life by controlling oxidation.
This additive can boost a product's vitamin content, when used in bread, it enhances the elasticity and size of the loaf when baked. Azodicarbonamide is used as a bleaching agent in flour and helps the dough rise through its conditioning properties. There is however public concern over the use of azodicarbonamide being used in yoga mats and other plastic foams, as it has been associated with respiratory problems. A Canadian expert argues that respiratory problems associated with azodicarbonamide are associated with workers in industrial plants who inhale the chemical, the reason some countries have banned th