Kingdom of Galicia
The Kingdom of Galicia was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Founded by Suebic king Hermeric in 409, the Galician capital was established in Braga, being the first kingdom which adopted Catholicism officially and it was part of the Kingdom of the Spanish Visigothic monarchs from 585 to 711. Compostela became capital of Galicia in the 11th century, while the independence of Portugal determined its southern boundary, the representative assembly of the Kingdom was the Junta or Cortes of the Kingdom of Galicia, which briefly declared itself sovereign when Galicia alone remained free of Napoleonic occupation. The kingdom and its Junta were dissolved by Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, the origin of the kingdom lies in the 5th century, when the Suebi settled permanently in the former Roman province of Gallaecia. Their king, probably signed a foedus, or pact, with the Roman Emperor Honorius, the Suebi set their capital in the former Bracara Augusta, setting the foundations of a kingdom which was first acknowledged as Regnum Suevorum, but as Regnum Galliciense.
The independent Suebic kingdom of Galicia lasted from 410 to 585, in 410 Gallaecia was divided, ad habitandum, among two Germanic people, the Hasdingi Vandals, who settled the eastern lands, and the Suebi, who established themselves in the coastal areas. As with most Germanic invasions, the number of the original Suebi is estimated to be low, generally fewer than 100,000. They settled mainly in the regions around modern northern Portugal and Western Galicia, in the towns of Braga and Porto, in 419 a war broke out between the Vandal king Gunderic and the Suebis Hermeric. After a blockade alongside the Nervasian Mountains, the Suebi obtained Roman help, in the absence of competitors, the Suebi began a period of expansion, first inside Gallaecia, and into other Roman provinces. In 438 Hermeric ratified a treaty with the Gallaeci, the native. In 448 Rechila died, leaving the state to his son Rechiar. Rechiar married a Visigothic princess, and was the first Germanic king to mint coins in ancient Roman territories, Rechiar led further expansions to the east, marauding through the Provincia Tarraconensis, which was still held by Rome.
The Roman emperor Avitus sent an army of foederates, under the direction of the Visigoth Theoderic II. Rechiar fled, but he was pursued and captured, executed in 457, in the aftermath of Rechiars death, multiple candidates for the throne appeared, finally grouping into two allegiances. By 465 Remismund, who established a policy of friendship with the Goths, five of the attendant bishops used Germanic names, showing the integration of the different communities of the country. After clashing in frontier lands and Leovigild agreed upon a temporary peace, the Suebi maintained their independence until 585, when Leovigild, on the pretext of conflict over the succession, invaded the Suebic kingdom and finally defeated it. Audeca, the last king of the Suebi, who had deposed his brother-in-law Eboric and this same year a nobleman named Malaric rebelled against the Goths, but he was defeated. As with the Visigothic language, there are traces of the Suebi tongue remaining
Rodrigo of Castile
Rodrigo was the first count of Castile, governing from about 862 to his death. He took part in Ordoños Repoblación, repopulating Amaya in 860 and he was at the side of the king in many battles of the Reconquista, including the siege and sack of Albelda in 859. Upon King Ordoños death in May 866, he was succeeded by his son Alfonso III of Asturias who at time was about 18 years old. Alfonso was overthrown and took refuge in Castile, count Rodrigo entered the Kingdom of Asturias with his troops to support the young monarch, and remained at his side for some time. Between 867 and 868, he assisted in the suppression of the Alavés rebellion of the Basque magnate Eglyón, for this service he was made count of Álava. He governed that county until 870, when Vela Jiménez is recorded as count and he last appears in a document dated 18 April 873, and is said to have died 5 November of the same year, being succeeded by his son Diego Rodríguez. Barrau-Dihigo, L. Recherches sur lhistoire politique du royaume Asturien, la historia frente a la leyenda.
Valladolid, Junta de Castilla y León, los Primeros Siglos de la Reconquista in España Christiana, Comienzo de la Reconquista, vol.6 of Historia de España, 204-210
The Douro is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto. The Latinized name Durius, likely came from the Celtic tribes that inhabited the area before Roman times, in modern Welsh, dŵr is water, as well as dour in modern Breton with cognate dobhar in Irish. In Roman times, the river was personified as a god, the Douro vinhateiro, an area of the Douro Valley in Portugal long devoted to vineyards, has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Traditionally, the wine was taken down river in boats called rabelos, to be stored in barrels in cellars in Vila Nova de Gaia. In the 1950s and 1960s, dams were built along the river, now Port wine is transported in tanker trucks. In 1998, Portugal and Spain signed the Albufeira Convention, an agreement on the sharing of trans-boundary rivers to include the Douro, the convention superseded an original agreement on the Douro, signed in 1927, that was expanded in 1964 and 1968 to include tributaries.
It is the third-longest river in the Iberian Peninsula after the Tagus and its total length is 897 kilometres, of which only sections of the Portuguese extension below the fall line are navigable, by light rivercraft. In this region, there are few tributaries of the Douro, the most important are the Pisuerga, passing through Valladolid, and the Esla, which passes through Zamora. This region is generally semi-arid plains, with wheat and in places, especially near Aranda de Duero, with vineyards. Sheep rearing is still important. For 112 kilometres, the forms part of the national border line between Spain and Portugal, in a region of narrow canyons. It formed a barrier to invasions, creating a cultural/linguistic divide. In these isolated areas, in which the Aldeadávila Dam impounds the river, there are protected areas, the International Douro Natural Park and the Arribes del Duero Natural Park. The Douro fully enters Portuguese territory just after the confluence with the Águeda River, once the Douro enters Portugal, except for Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia at the river mouth, the only population centres of any note are Foz do Tua, Pinhão and Peso da Régua.
Tributaries here are small, merging into the Douro along the canyons, the most important are Côa, Sabor, Tavora, Paiva, Tâmega, none of these small, fast-flowing rivers is navigable. The most populous cities along the Douro River are Valladolid and Zamora in Spain, the latter two are located at the mouth of the Douro at the Atlantic Ocean. In Portugal, the Douro flows through the districts of Bragança, Viseu, Vila Real, Porto is the main hub city in northern Portugal. Its historic centre has designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its significant architecture
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, during the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova. The name, was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania, one theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning Island of the Hyrax or island of the hare or island of the rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, in the sense of hidden, and make it indicate a hidden, that is, Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Occasionally Hispania was called Hesperia Ultima, the last western land in Greek, by Roman writers, another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for border or edge, thus meaning the farthest area or place.
The use of Latin Hispania, Castilian España, Catalan Espanya and French Espaigne, a document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as Gracien dEspaigne. You are, Oh Spain and always happy mother of princes and peoples and you, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but the East. Navarre followed soon after in 1512, and Portugal in 1580, during this time, the concept of Spain was still unchanged. The King of Portugal would protest energetically when during a public act King Fernando talked about the Crown of Spain and it was after the independence of Portugal in 1640 when the concept of Spain started to shift and be applied to all the Peninsula except Portugal. Even so, Portugal would still complain when the terms Crown of Spain or Monarchy of Spain were still used in the 18th century with the Treaty of Utrecht. The Iberian peninsula has long inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis.
In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the migrations of modern humans. In the 40th millennium BC, during the Upper Paleolithic and the last ice age and these were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia. When the last Ice Age reached its maximum extent, during the 30th millennium BC, in the millennia that followed, the Neanderthals became extinct and local modern human cultures thrived, producing pre-historic art such as that found in LArbreda Cave and in the Côa Valley. In the Mesolithic period, beginning in the 10th millennium BC and this was an interstadial deglaciation that lessened the harsh conditions of the Ice Age
County of Portugal
A larger entity under the same name was reestablished in the late 11th century and lasted until the mid-12th century, when its count elevated it into an independent Portuguese kingdom. The history of the county of Portugal is traditionally dated from the reconquest of Portus Cale by Vímara Peres in 868 and he was named a count and given control of the frontier region between the Limia and Douro rivers by Alfonso III of Asturias. South of the Douro, another border county would be formed decades when what would become the County of Coimbra was conquered from the Moors by Hermenegildo Gutiérrez. This moved the frontier away from the bounds of the county of Portugal. The recapture of Coimbra by Almanzor in 987 again placed the County of Portugal on the frontier of the Leonese state for most of the rest of the first countys existence. The regions to its south were only conquered in the reign of Ferdinand I of León and Castile, with Lamego falling in 1057, Viseu in 1058. It could have been this Count Gonzalo who assassinated Sancho I of León after inviting the King to a banquet, not all historians, believe that Gonzalo Menéndez was responsible for the kings death and some attribute the regicide to a contemporary count named Gonzalo Muñoz.
In the late 960s Gonzalos lands were ravaged by Vikings, and in 968 and his son Menendo had close relations with Ramiros rival and successor, Bermudo II, being made the kings alférez and tutor of his son, the future king Alfonso V. Following Alfonsos succession, Menendo would serve as regent for the boy king, the former Kingdom of Galicia, including modern Portugal as far south as Coimbra, was given by Alfonso VI as a county to his son-in-law Raymond of Burgundy. Its territory included much of the current Portuguese territory between the Minho River and the Tagus River, Count Henry continued the Reconquista in western Iberia and expanded his countys dominions. In 1111 the Muslims conquered Santarém, when Count Henry died in 1112, the population of the County of Portugal, including the powerful families, favored independence. Henrys widow, took the reigns on behalf of her young son, she was defeated by Urraca in 1121 and forced to accept a position of feudal subservience to the Leonese state.
Her own son, Afonso Henriques, took the reins of the government in 1128 after routing his mothers forces in the Battle of São Mamede, after this battle, he began to exhibit a seal with a cross and the word Portugal. He continued to win battles, supported by the nobles of Entre-Douro-e-Minho, eventually triumphing in the Battle of Ourique in 1139, also, he never used the title of count which would place him in a clear position of dependence vis-à-vis the king of León and Castile. It was finally in 1143 when his nominal overlord Alfonso VII of León, ricos-homens, infanções e cavaleiros, a nobreza medieval portuguesa nos séculos XI e XII. Serrão, Dicionário de História de Portugal Volume II Castanhoso-Fez, Livraria Figueirinhas /Porto
Minho or Miño is the longest river in Galicia, with a length of 340 kilometres. The name comes from Latin minius, meaning cinnibar, lead, or vermilion, the Minno waters vineyards and farmland, is used to produce hydroelectric power, and delineates a section of the Spanish–Portuguese border. In ancient English maps, it appears as Minno, the source of the Minho lies about 50 kilometres north of Lugo in Galicia, in a place called Pedregal of Irimia. The river passes just south of the walls of this old Roman city, the river has been harnessed in reservoirs from Portomarín to Frieira. About 20 kilometres north of Ourense at Os Peares, the Minho receives the waters of its main tributary, passing Ourense, there is one major dam at Frieira near the town of Ribadavia, which is famous for its Ribeiro wine. Later on, the flows in a southwest direction until reaching the Portuguese border near Melgaço. After 260 kilometres through Galicia, the Minho sets the border to Portugal for about other 80 kilometres, the very best of these wines, Alvarinho in Portuguese or Albariño in Spanish and Galician, is produced in the area around Monção, Arbo and Melgaço.
Passing the medieval towns of Melgaço and Monção, the Minho divides the Spanish Tui and Portuguese Valença do Minho, towns that guarded an important bridge for road, both towns preserve fortifications and are national monuments. The Minho reaches the Atlantic between the Galician A Guarda and the Portuguese Caminha and this lagoon is located in the same province, is historically considered as its birthplace. All its upper course has been declared a Biosphere Reserve, the Minho River runs its first 64 kilometres across the plateau of Lugo, a peneplain whose elevation ranges from 450 to 650 metres above the sea level. Its main tributaries are the Sil, Avia, Barbantiño, Búbal, according to E. Bascuas, Miño, registered as Minius and Mineus, is a form belonging to the old European hydronymy, and derived from the Indoeuropean root *mei- walk, go
Peter (given name)
Peter is a common masculine given name. It is derived, via Latin petra, from the Greek word πέτρος meaning stone or rock, according to the New Testament, Jesus gave Saint Peter the name Kephas or Cephas meaning stone in Aramaic. Saint Peter, according to ancient tradition, became the first bishop of Rome, roman Catholics consider him to have been the first Pope and all subsequent popes to have been his successors, and therefore sometimes refer to the Pope or the Papacy itself as Peter. The following names can be interpreted as Peter in English Afrikaans, Petrus Albanian, Pjetër, Pjetri Amharic, ጴጥሮስ Arabic, بطرس, بيار, بيتر Aragonese, Pero, Pier. The name is spelled Pierre and pronounced pyè, meaning stone, diminutives/hypocoristics include Piotrek, Piotruś, and Piotrunio. Piotr has several name days in Poland
Henry, Count of Portugal
Henry, Count of Portugal, was the first member of the Capetian House of Burgundy to rule Portugal and the father of the countrys first king, Afonso I. Born in 1066 in Dijon, Duchy of Burgundy, Count Henry was the youngest son of Henry and his two older brothers, Hugh I and Odo, inherited the duchy. No contemporary record of his mother has survived, richard suggested that she might instead have been called Clémence. It has been suggested that Henrys mother may have been the daughter of Reginald I, Count Henry’s family was very powerful and governed many cities in France such as Chalon, Autun, Dijon, Mâcon and Semur. The birth of King Alfonsos only son, Sancho Alfónsez, was perceived as a threat by the two cousins. They agreed to power, the royal treasury, and to support each other. If he could not deliver Toledo, he would give him Galicia, Henry, in turn, promised to help Raymond obtain all the dominions of King Alfonso and two–thirds of the royal treasury. It seems that news of this reached the king who.
Until then, this region had been governed by count Raymond who saw his power limited to just Galicia. Accordingly, both cousins instead of being allies, became rivals with conflicting interests, the succession pact went up in smoke and, after Raymonds death, Queen Urraca married Alfonso I of Aragon for political and strategic reasons. Henry took advantage of the conflicts and political unrest and declared the independence of the County of Portugal. Caught under siege in Astorga by the King of Aragon, at war with Urraca, Henry died on 22 May 1112, from wounds received during the siege. His remains were transferred, following his previous orders, to Braga where he was buried in a chapel at Braga Cathedral the building of which he had promoted, after his death, his widow governed the county since their son Afonso was only three years old at that time. They occupied relevant ecclesiastical and political positions which provoked a backlash during the last years of the reign of King Alfonso VI. He married Teresa of León around 1095, sancha Henriques, married the nobleman Sancho Nunes de Celanova.
One of their daughters, María, was the abbess at the Monastery of San Salvador de Sobrado de Trives and they were the parents of count Velasco, Gil and Teresa Sánchez. After becoming a widow, she married Fernando Méndez de Braganza and he was named after his maternal grandfather, King Alfonso VI, perhaps as a way of remembering that the blood of the Emperor of all Hispania ran through his veins. Afonso became Count of Portugal in 1112 and King of Portugal in 1139, abbot at the Monastery of Alcobaça where he was buried