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Vacuum cleaner

A vacuum cleaner known as a vacuum, is a device that causes suction in order to remove debris from floors, upholstery and other surfaces. It is electrically driven; the dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for disposal. Vacuum cleaners, which are used in homes as well as in industry, exist in a variety of sizes and models—small battery-powered hand-held devices, wheeled canister models for home use, domestic central vacuum cleaners, huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred litres of dust before being emptied, self-propelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil. Specialized shop vacuums can be used to suck up liquids. Although vacuum cleaner and the short form vacuum are neutral names, in some countries hoover is used instead as a genericized trademark, as a verb; the name comes from the Hoover Company, one of the first and more influential companies in the development of the device. The device is sometimes called a sweeper although the same term refers to a carpet sweeper, a similar invention.

The vacuum cleaner evolved from the carpet sweeper via manual vacuum cleaners. The first manual models, using bellows, were developed in the 1860s, the first motorized designs appeared at the turn of the 20th century, with the first decade being the boom decade. In 1860 a manual vacuum cleaner was invented by Daniel Hess of Iowa. Called a'carpet sweeper', It gathered dust with a rotating brush and had a bellows for generating suction. Another early model was the "Whirlwind", invented in Chicago in 1868 by Ives W. McGaffey; the bulky device worked with a belt driven fan cranked by hand that made it awkward to operate, although it was commercially marketed with mixed success. A similar model was constructed by Melville R. Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan in 1876, who manufactured carpet sweepers; the company added portable vacuum cleaners to its line of cleaning tools. The end of the 19th century saw the introduction of powered cleaners, although early types used some variation of blowing air to clean instead of suction.

One appeared in 1898 when John S. Thurman of St. Louis, Missouri submitted a patent for a "pneumatic carpet renovator" which blew dust into a receptacle. Thurman's system, powered by an internal combustion engine, traveled to the customers residence on a horse-drawn wagon as part of a door to door cleaning service. Corrine Dufour of Savannah, Georgia received two patents in 1899 and 1900 for another blown air system that seems to have featured the first use of an electric motor. In 1901 powered vacuum cleaners using suction were invented independently by British engineer Hubert Cecil Booth and American inventor David T. Kenney. Booth may have coined the word "vacuum cleaner". Booth's horse drawn combustion engine powered "Puffing Billy", maybe derived from Thurman's blown air design," relied upon just suction with air pumped through a cloth filter and was offered as part of his cleaning services. Kenney's was a stationary 4,000 lb. steam engine powered system with pipes and hoses reaching into all parts of the building.

The first vacuum-cleaning device to be portable and marketed at the domestic market was built in 1905 by Walter Griffiths, a manufacturer in Birmingham, England. His Griffith's Improved Vacuum Apparatus for Removing Dust from Carpets resembled modern-day cleaners. In 1906 James B. Kirby developed his first of many vacuums called the "Domestic Cyclone", it used water for dirt separation. Revisions came to be known as the Kirby Vacuum Cleaner. In 1907 department store janitor James Murray Spangler of Canton, Ohio invented the first portable electric vacuum cleaner, obtaining a patent for the Electric Suction Sweeper on June 2, 1908. Crucially, in addition to suction from an electric fan that blew the dirt and dust into a soap box and one of his wife's pillow cases, Spangler's design utilized a rotating brush to loosen debris. Unable to produce the design himself due to lack of funding, he sold the patent in 1908 to local leather goods manufacturer William Henry Hoover, who had Spangler's machine redesigned with a steel casing and attachments, founding the company that in 1922 was renamed the Hoover Company.

Their first vacuum was the 1908 Model O, which sold for $60. Subsequent innovations included the beater bar in 1919, disposal filter bags in the 1920s, an upright vacuum cleaner in 1926. In Continental Europe, the Fisker and Nielsen company in Denmark was the first to sell vacuum cleaners in 1910; the design could be operated by a single person. The Swedish company Electrolux launched their Model V in 1921 with the innovation of being able to lie on the floor on two thin metal runners. In the 1930s the Germany company Vorwerk started marketing vacuum cleaners of their own design which they sold through direct sales. For many years after their introduction, vacuum cleaners remained a luxury item, but after the Second World War, they became common among the middle classes. Vacuums tend to be more common in Western countries because in most other parts of the world, wall-to-wall carpeting is uncommon and homes have tile or hardwood floors, which are swept, wiped or mopped manually without power assist.

The last decades of the 20th century saw the more widespread use of technologies developed earlier, including filterless cyclonic dirt separation, cent

Rosas del Amor

Rosas del Amor is a 1987 flamenco album, the debut solo album of Spanish guitarist Tomatito. Dedicado a Camarón La Chanca Rosas del Amor La Andonda Puerta de Sevilla Barrio Santiago Alejandría Soledad Richard Nidel considers Rosas del Amor to be an "important, groundbreaking CD." Stewart Mason of Allmusic says of it, "Rosas del Amor is a legendary album in modern flamenco music. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Rosas del Amor takes traditional flamenco music and injects liberal amounts of jazz influence the French gypsy-influenced jazz of Django Reinhardt and Stephane Grappelli; the resulting intermingling of styles works beautifully, as the two forms of music blend harmoniously into a realized, richly textured whole."

North Central Conference (Iowa)

The North Central Conference is an eight team high school athletic conference based in North Central Iowa. The conference's membership is 3A, 2A, sometimes 1A; the conference has a long tradition together and many intense rivalries. For many years, the North Central Conference was an eight team league. Schools from Algona, Clear Lake, Eagle Grove, Humboldt, Iowa Falls, Webster City competed in the conference. In the 1980s Hampton and Clarion both began whole grade sharing with smaller neighboring districts; the districts reorganized into Hampton-Dumont and Clarion-Goldfield in the early 1990s. In 1988, the Boone Valley School District of Renwick dissolved and was split between Humboldt and Clarion. In 1993-94, the league expanded to include two of the region's strongest catholic schools: Bishop Garrigan of Algona and St. Edmond of Fort Dodge. Iowa Falls and Alden began whole grade sharing in 2004 as did Clarion-Goldfield and Dows in 2005. Clarion-Goldfield and Dows consolidated into Clarion-Goldfield-Dows in 2014.

Humboldt and Twin Rivers began whole grade sharing in 2012. Algona and Titonka began whole grade sharing in 2012 and consolidated in 2014, LuVerne began whole grade sharing with Algona in 2015. Corwith-Wesley dissolved, with much of the district being attached to LuVerne and Algona. Webster City and Northeast Hamilton will begin a whole grade sharing agreement in 2015 as well. Despite the deep roots the member schools have with the conference, the disparity in the size of conference schools has become a pressing issue for league members. CAL is looking at beginning whole grade sharing with Hampton-Dumont in 2018. In October 2012, Bishop Garrigan Catholic looked at moving to the North Iowa Conference. In December 2012, NIC accepted Bishop Garrigan's request to join their conference and the move became official in 2014. On Monday, December 10, 2012 the Eagle Grove Community School Board voted in favor of applying for North Iowa Conference membership; this was approved by the North Iowa Conference.

Clarion-Goldfield-Dows has been involved in discussions with the NIC, however no action was taken by CGD. Other NCC member institutions such as Iowa-Falls-Alden, Hampton-Dumont, St. Edmond have suggested possible interest in leaving the NCC. In February the NCC superintendents approved on 8-0 votes to move to divisional play. There will be a small school division, determined by enrollment. In basketball and softball, teams will play schools in their own division twice and schools in the other division twice as well, it is hoped that this will not only hold the remaining eight teams of the NCC together, but attract surrounding schools into the league. The large school division includes Webster City, Algona and Iowa Falls-Alden; the small school division includes Clear Lake, Hampton-Dumont, Clarion-Goldfield-Dows, St. Edmond. Official Site

Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr

Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr and 6th Baron West, KG was the eldest son of Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr, by his second wife, Elizabeth Mortimer, daughter of Sir Hugh Mortimer of Martley and Kyre Wyard, Worcestershire, by Eleanor Cornwall, daughter of Sir Edmund Cornwall. West married, before 24 August 1494, Elizabeth Bonville, daughter and co-heiress of John Bonville, esquire, of Shute, Devon, by Katherine Wingfield, daughter of Sir Robert Wingfield, but had no issue by her, he succeeded to his titles at the age of 50. He was made Knight of the Garter in 1549 after having fought in France. West died 25 September 1554 at his home at Offington and was buried 10 October at Broadwater; the diarist Henry Machyn recorded his funeral, describing him as'the best house-keeper in Sussex'. At his death the baronies of West and De La Warr both'fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine', between the two daughters and co-heirs of his half-brother, Sir Owen West, eldest son of his father's third marriage to Eleanor Copley.

Sir Owen West married Mary Guildford, daughter of George Guildford, second son of Sir Richard Guildford, by whom he had two daughters: Mary West, who married firstly Sir Adrian Poynings, secondly, as his second wife, Sir Richard Rogers. According to Cokayne: A new barony of de la Warr was subsequently conferred on the heir male, William West, 1st Baron De La Warr, whose son Thomas was allowed the precedence of the ancient Barony of la Warre. West's heir male, William West, 1st Baron De La Warr, was the elder son of Sir George West, second son of West's father's third marriage to Eleanor Copley. According to Riordan: placed a private bill before parliament to disinherit his nephew William West, first Baron De La Warr; the latter was the son of the ninth baron's half-brother Sir George West of Warbleton and his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Morton of Lechlade, Gloucestershire. His uncle was childless, had at some time adopted William as his heir. However, West tried to gain the de la Warr estate early by poisoning his uncle.

The attempt was unsuccessful and he was in the Tower by October 1548. He was disinherited by an act of parliament in 1550, although he had been reinstated as heir by the time of his uncle's death. Despite the fact that he had been reinstated as heir by his uncle, when the latter died in 1554 William West was unable to inherit the barony of de la Warr as a result of the Act of Parliament of 1550 which had deprived him of all honours. Two years he was involved in the Dudley conspiracy, on 30 June 1556 was arraigned at the Guildhall on charges of treason, to which he responded as'William, Lord de la Warr', forcing the heralds to prove during the trial that he was not entitled to the barony and therefore not entitled to a trial by his peers in the House of Lords, he was convicted of treason. However the death sentence was not carried out, in 1557 he was pardoned by Queen Mary, he fought at the siege of St. Quentin in that year, in 1563, early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was restored in blood.

On 5 February 1570 he was knighted, on the same day created Baron De La Warr, regarded as a new creation of the title. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Vicary Gibbs. IV. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 155–9. Retrieved 14 September 2013. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part II. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 517–22. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G.. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. II. Salt Lake City. Pp. 4–5. ISBN 1449966381. Retrieved 10 September 2013. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G.. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV. Salt Lake City. Pp. 320–22. ISBN 1460992709. Riordan, Michael. "West, eighth Baron West and ninth Baron de la Warr". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29099

The Seated Scribe

The sculpture of the Seated Scribe or Squatting Scribe is a famous work of ancient Egyptian art. It represents a figure of a seated scribe at work; the sculpture was discovered at Saqqara, north of the alley of sphinxes leading to the Serapeum of Saqqara, in 1850 and dated to the period of the Old Kingdom, from either the 5th Dynasty, c. 2450–2325 BCE or the 4th Dynasty, 2620–2500 BCE. It is now in the Louvre Museum in Paris, it is a painted limestone statue, the eyes inlaid with rock crystal, copper-arsenic alloy, nipples made of wood. This painted limestone sculpture represents a man in a seated position a scribe; the figure is dressed in a white kilt stretched to its knees. It is holding a half rolled papyrus; the most striking part aspect of the figure is its face. Its realistic features stand in contrast to more rigid and somewhat less detailed body. Hands and fingernails of the sculpture are delicately modeled; the hands are in writing position. It seems; the body is sturdy with a broad chest.

The nipples are marked with two wooden stubs. Special attention was devoted to the eyes of the sculpture, they are modeled in rich detail out of pieces of red-veined white magnesite which were elaborately inlaid with pieces of polished truncated rock crystal. The back side of the crystal was covered with a layer of organic material which at the same time gives the colour to the iris and serves as an adhesive. Two copper clips hold each eye in place; the eyebrows are marked with fine lines of dark organic paint. The scribe has a soft and overweight body, suggesting he is well off and does not need to do any sort of physical labor, he sits in a cross-legged position. His facial expression is alert and attentive, gazing out to the viewer as though he is waiting for them to start speaking, he has a ready-made papyrus scroll laid out on his lap but the reed-brush used to write is missing. Both his hands are positioned on his lap, his right hand is pointing towards the paper as if he has started to write while watching others speak.

He stares calmly at the viewer with his black outlined eyes. The sculpture of the seated scribe was discovered in Saqqara on 19 November 1850, to the north of the Serapeum's line of sphinxes by French archeologist Auguste Mariette; the precise location remains unknown, as the document describing these excavations was published posthumously and the original excavation journal has been lost. The identity of the person represented remains unknown; the semicircular base of the sculpture suggests that it fitted in a larger piece of rock which carried its name and title. This somewhat unusual pose was, it seems, reserved for members of the immediate royal family, although not for the king himself; the statue was dated to the period of the 4th Dynasty, 2620–2500 BC, is associated to the person of Pehernefer. Certain stylistic characteristics, unusual thin lips, broad chest and the posture of the torso might support this theory; the dating itself remains uncertain. One additional fact in favor of the earlier date is that the statue is represented in "writing" position while it seems that scribes from the period after the 5th dynasty have been portrayed in "reading" position.

The Seated Scribe was made around 2450–2325 BCE. Many pharaohs and high-ranking officials would have their servants depicted in some form of image or sculpture so that when they went to the afterlife they would able to utilize their skills to help them in their second life; the scribes were some of the few who knew how to read and write, were regarded and well-paid. Most people were peasant farmers who had no need for literacy, "although some members of the royal family and high status individuals, as well as officials and army officers were literate, scribes were needed for operations of the state at all levels." Scribes were used for multitude of things involving everyday Egyptian life, they would be used as tax collectors and were in charge of organizing personnel for activities such as mining and war. Scribes were used to work on projects like pyramid building and helped communicate between the rulers and the Egyptian people. List of ancient Egyptian scribes Media related to The Seated Scribe at Wikimedia Commons Description of The Seated Scribe on the Louvre Official Site 3D preview

We Global

We Global is the third studio album by Miami based mixtape DJ and Terror Squad member, DJ Khaled. The album was released on September 16, 2012; this was his third album distributed by Koch Records, the first released on his We the Best Music Group label. The album's guest appearances from Game, T-Pain, Bun B, Rick Ross, Ace Hood, Akon, Trick Daddy, Big Kuntry King, Lil Boosie, Kanye West, Fat Joe, Sean Paul, Busta Rhymes, Pitbull and Flo Rida among others; the album's first single, "Out Here Grindin" leaked on May 5, 2012. The song features Rick Ross, Lil Boosie, Trick Daddy, Ace Hood and Plies; the single debuted and peaked at number 38 on the US Billboard Hot 100. The album's second single was "Go Hard" featuring Kanye T-Pain; the song peaked at number 69 on the US Billboard Hot 100. The album debuted at number 7 on the US Billboard 200. Samples credits. "Out Here Grindin" contains a sample of "What's Beef?" by The Notorious B. I. G. "Red Light" contains a sample of "Trace of Your Love" by Joe Simon.

"What You Gonna Do to Me" contains a sample of "A Cold Day in Hell" by Wings of Plague