Karma means action, work or deed, it refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual influence the future of that individual. Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma, Karma is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects ones future in the current life, as well as the nature, with origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism, Jainism and Taoism. Karma is the deed, action, or act, and it is the object. Halbfass explains karma by contrasting it with another Sanskrit word kriya, a good action creates good karma, as does good intent. A bad action creates bad karma, as does bad intent, refers to a conceptual principle that originated in India, often descriptively called the principle of karma, sometimes as the karma theory or the law of karma. In the context of theory, karma is complex and difficult to define, other Indologists include in the definition of karma theory that which explains the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past.
The law of karma operates independent of any deity or any process of divine judgment and Jainism have their own karma precepts. Thus karma has not one, but multiple definitions and different meanings and it is a concept whose meaning and scope varies between Hinduism, Buddhism and other traditions that originated in India, and various schools in each of these traditions. OFlaherty claims that, there is a debate regarding whether karma is a theory, a model, a paradigm. Karma theory as a concept, across different Indian religious traditions, shares common themes, ethicization. A common theme to theories of karma is its principle of causality, one of the earliest association of karma to causality occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Hinduism. For example, at 4.4. 5-6, it states, The relationship of karma to causality is a motif in all schools of Hindu, Jain. Disinterested actions, or unintentional actions do not have the positive or negative karmic effect, as interested. Another causality characteristic, shared by Karmic theories, is that like deeds lead to like effects, thus good karma produces good effect on the actor, while bad karma produces bad effect.
This effect may be material, moral or emotional — that is, the effect of karma need not be immediate, the effect of karma can be in ones current life, and in some schools it extends to future lives. The consequence or effects of karma can be described in two forms and samskaras. A phala is the visible or invisible effect that is typically immediate or within the current life, the theory of karma is often presented in the context of samskaras
Mahayana is one of two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva who has accomplished this goal is called a samyaksaṃbuddha, or fully enlightened Buddha. A samyaksaṃbuddha can establish the Dharma and lead disciples to enlightenment, Mahayana Buddhists teach that enlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime, and this can be accomplished even by a layperson. The Mahāyāna tradition is the largest major tradition of Buddhism existing today, with 53. 2% of practitioners, major traditions of Mahāyāna Buddhism today include Chan Buddhism, Korean Seon, Japanese Zen, Pure Land Buddhism, and Nichiren Buddhism. It may include the Vajrayana traditions of Tiantai, Shingon Buddhism, and Tibetan Buddhism, according to Jan Nattier, the term Mahāyāna was originally an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvayāna — the vehicle of a bodhisattva seeking buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.
The term Mahāyāna was therefore formed independently at a date as a synonym for the path. The earliest Mahāyāna texts often use the term Mahāyāna as a synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, the presumed dichotomy between Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna can be deceptive, as the two terms were not actually formed in relation to one another in the same era. Among the earliest and most important references to the term Mahāyāna are those that occur in the Lotus Sūtra dating between the 1st century BCE and the 1st century CE. Seishi Karashima has suggested that the term first used in an earlier Gandhāri Prakrit version of the Lotus Sūtra was not the term mahāyāna, the origins of Mahāyāna are still not completely understood. The earliest Western views of Mahāyāna assumed that it existed as a school in competition with the so-called Hīnayāna schools. The earliest textual evidence of Mahāyāna comes from sūtras originating around the beginning of the common era. There is no evidence that Mahāyāna ever referred to a formal school or sect of Buddhism, but rather that it existed as a certain set of ideals.
Membership in these nikāyas, or monastic sects, continues today with the Dharmaguptaka nikāya in East Asia, Mahāyāna was never a separate rival sect of the early schools. Paul Harrison clarifies that while monastic Mahāyānists belonged to a nikāya, from Chinese monks visiting India, we now know that both Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna monks in India often lived in the same monasteries side by side. Those who venerate the bodhisattvas and read the Mahayana sūtras are called the Mahāyānists, much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings were first propagated into China by Lokakṣema, the first translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into Chinese during the 2nd century CE. Guang Xing states, Several scholars have suggested that the Prajñāpāramitā probably developed among the Mahāsāṃghikas in southern India, in the Āndhra country, warder believes that the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Āndhra country.
They note that the ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Kṛṣṇa Valley, including Amaravati, Nāgārjunakoṇḍā and Jaggayyapeṭa can be traced to at least the third century BCE, akira Hirakawa notes the evidence suggests that many Early Mahayana scriptures originated in South India
In Vajrayana Buddhism, Akshobhya is one of the Five Wisdom Buddhas, a product of the Adibuddha, who represents consciousness as an aspect of reality. By convention he is located in the east of the Diamond Realm and is the lord of the Eastern Pure Land Abhirati and his consort is Lochanā and he is normally accompanied by two elephants. His color is blue-black and his attributes include the bell, three robes, and staff, along with a jewel, prayer wheel, and sword. Akshobhya appears in the Scripture of the Buddha-land of Akshobhya, which dates from 147 AD and is the oldest known Pure Land text. According to the scripture, a monk wished to practice the Dharma in the world of delight. He duly proved immovable and when he succeeded, he became the buddha Akshobhya, Akshobhya is sometimes merged with Acala, whose name means immovable one in Sanskrit. However, Acala is not a buddha, but one of the Five Wisdom Kings of the Womb Realm in Vajrayana. Prior to the advent of Bhaisajyaguru, Akshobhya was the subject of a cult in Japan as a healing buddha.
Recently, newly discovered Gāndhārī texts from Pakistan in the Bajaur Collection have been found to contain fragments of an early Mahāyāna sutra mentioning Akshobhya, preliminary dating through palaeography suggests a late 1st century to early 2nd century AD provenance. More conclusive radiocarbon dating is under way, a preliminary report on these texts has been issued by Ingo Strauch, with a paper on Akshobhya texts published 2010. Akshobhya is the embodiment of mirror knowledge, a knowledge of what is real, and what is illusion, or a mere reflection of actual reality. The mirror is mind itself - clear like the sky, empty yet luminous, holding all the images of space and time, yet untouched by them. He represents the mind, and the Vajra family is connected with reason. Its brilliance illuminates the darkness of ignorance, its sharpness cuts through confusion, the Vajra family, to which Akshobhya belongs, is associated with the element of water. This is why the two colours of Vajra are blue or white, bright white like sun reflecting off water, and blue, like the depths of the ocean.
Even if the surface of the ocean is blown into crashing waves, and though water may seem ethereal and weightless, in truth it is extremely heavy. Water flows into the lowest place and settles there and it carves through solid rock, but calmly, without violence. When frozen, it is hard and clear like the intellect and these are all the essential qualities of Akshobhya
Born in Samarkand of an Indian father and Sogdian mother, he went to China at age 10 after his fathers death. In 719, he was ordained into the sangha by Vajrabodhi, after all foreign monks were expelled from China in 741, he and some associates went on a pilgrimage to gather texts, visiting Sri Lanka and India. During this voyage, he apparently met Nagabodhi, Vajrabodhis master and he returned to China in 746 with some five hundred volumes. In 750, he left the court to join the military governorship of General Geshu Han of the Tang dynasty, for whom he conducted large-scale tantric initiations at his field headquarters. In 754, he translated the first portion of the Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra texts, central to the Outer Tantras of Vajrayana Buddhism and he regarded its teachings as the most effective method for attaining enlightenment yet devised, and incorporated its basic schema in a number of writings. Amoghavajra was captured in the An Lushan Rebellion but in 757 was freed by loyalist forces, whereupon he performed rites to purify the capital, two years later, he initiated the emperor Emperor Suzong of Tang as a chakravartin.
In 765, Amoghavajra used his new rendition of the Humane King Sutra in a ritual to counter the advance of a 200, 000-strong army of Tibetan. Its leader, Pugu Huaien, dropped dead in camp and his forces dispersed, the opulent Jinge Temple on Mount Wutai was completed in 767, a pet project of Amoghavajra, one of his many efforts to promote the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī as the protector of China. Amoghavajra continued to perform rites to avert disaster at the request of Emperor Daizong of Tang, on his death in 774, three days of mourning were officially declared, and he posthumously received various exalted titles. The Chinese monks Huilang and Huilin were among his most prominent successors, seventy-seven texts were translated by Amoghavajra according to his own account, though many more, including original compositions, are ascribed to him in the Chinese canons. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism A review of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism and the Ruling Elite, by Geoffrey C
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Samantabhadra is a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation. Together with Gautama Buddha and his fellow bodhisattva Mañjuśrī, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism and he is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and, according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are the basis of a bodhisattva. In China, Samantabhadra is associated with action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā, in Japan, this bodhisattva is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism, and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is the name of the Adi-Buddha – in indivisible Yab-Yum with his consort, Samantabhadra is a key figure in the Āvataṃsaka-sūtra, particularly the last chapter, the Gaṇḍavyūha-sūtra. In the Āvataṃsaka-sūtra, the Buddha states that Samantabhadra Bodhisattva made ten great vows in his path to full Buddhahood, To pay homage, to praise the Thus Come One-Tathagata.
To repent misdeeds and evil karmas, to rejoice in others merits and virtues. To request the Buddhas to continue teaching, to request the Buddhas to remain in the world. To follow the teachings of the Buddhas at all times, to accommodate and benefit all living beings. To transfer all merits and virtues to benefit all beings, unlike his more popular counterpart Manjusri, Samantabhadra is only rarely depicted alone and is usually found in a trinity on the right side of Shakyamuni, mounted on a white elephant. In those traditions that accept the Avatamsaka Sutra as its root instruction and Manjusri flank Vairocana Buddha and it is in this guise that Samantabhadra is revered as the patron bodhisattva of the monasteries associated with Mount Emei in western China. Some believe that the elephant mount of Samantabhadra was the same elephant that appeared to Queen Maya. Mahayana esoteric traditions treat Samantabhada as one of the Primordial Buddhas and this comes from the fact that both figures have the same name but their meaning within their respective traditions is quite different.
In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, particularly the Nyingma school, Dharmakaya Samantabhadra is considered the most primordial Buddha, akin in status to Vajradhara for the Sarma traditions. Samantabhadra appears in the Vajrayana tantric text the Kunjed Gyalpo Tantra, as the Primordial Buddha, therefore, in Tibetan Buddhism the Nyingma, or Old Translation school, the Sakya and the Bön schools view Samantabhadra as the Primordial Buddha. In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhist Vajrayana, Samantabhadra is considered a primordial Buddha in indivisible yab-yum union with his consort Samantabhadri, the Kagyu and Gelug schools use Vajradhara to represent the Primordial Buddha. Samantabhadra is not a colored being with two eyes, the Mirror of the Mind of Samantabhadra is one of the Seventeen Tantras of Dzogchen Upadesha. Sri Lankan people venerates Samantabhadra Bodhisatva as Saman, the name Saman means the rising morning sun. God Saman is considered one of the deities of the island
A mandala is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe. In common use, mandala has become a term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically. The basic form of most mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point, each gate is in the general shape of a T. Mandalas often exhibit radial balance. The term appears in the Rigveda as the name of the sections of the work, a yantra is a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals. It is considered to represent the abode of the deity, each yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. Yantras are not representations, but are lived, nondual realities, as Khanna describes, Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. The Rajamandala was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya in his work on politics and it describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the kings state.
In historical and political sense, the mandala is employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations. It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term state in the conventional sense, empires such as Bagan, Champa, Khmer and Majapahit are known as mandala in this sense. The mandala can be found in the form of the stupa and in the Atanatiya Sutta in the Digha Nikaya, Mandalas are traditionally found in large amounts in Buddhist Monasteries all over the world. One can buy Mandalas and Thankas/Pauva in places like Thamel, in the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana Buddhism, mandalas have been developed into sandpainting. They are a key part of Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices, the mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the core essence of the Vajrayana teachings. The mind is a microcosm representing various divine powers at work in the universe, the mandala represents the nature of the Pure Land, Enlightened mind.
A mandala can represent the universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in the center. In the mandala, the circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom. Inside these rings lie the walls of the palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities. One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the Five Buddhas, such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, and even the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas, when paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms
Yoga is a group of physical and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. There is a variety of Yoga schools and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism. Among the most well-known types of yoga are Hatha yoga and Rāja yoga, the chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Hindu Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra. Yoga gurus from India introduced yoga to the west, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th, in the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more physical exercise, it has a meditative. One of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism is called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as an intervention for cancer, asthma. On December 1,2016, Yoga was listed as UNESCO’s Intangible cultural heritage, in Sanskrit, the word yoga comes from the root yuj which means to add, to join, to unite, or to attach in its most common senses.
By figurative extension from the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses, all further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. More prosaic moods such as exertion, zeal, there are very many compound words containing yoga in Sanskrit. Yoga can take on such as connection, union, application, addition. In simpler words, Yoga means combined, bhaktiyoga means devoted attachment in the monotheistic Bhakti movement. The term kriyāyoga has a sense, meaning connection with a verb. But the same compound is given a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the practical aspects of the philosophy. In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau is considered by commentators as the correct etymology. In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, according to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. Someone who practices yoga or follows the philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia. It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Religious texts and commentaries comprise the Tibetan Buddhist canon, such that Tibetan is a language of these areas. Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, the number of its adherents is estimated to be between ten and twenty million. Westerners unfamiliar with Tibetan Buddhism initially turned to China for an understanding, there the term used was lamaism to distinguish it from a traditional Chinese form. The term was taken up by scholars including Hegel, as early as 1822. Insofar as it implies a discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, the term has been discredited, another term, Vajrayāna is occasionally used mistakenly for Tibetan Buddhism.
More accurately, it signifies a certain subset of practices included in, not only Tibetan Buddhism, the native Tibetan term for all Buddhism is doctrine of the internalists. There is an association between the religious and the secular the spiritual and the temporal in Tibet. The term for this relationship is chos srid zung brel, in the west the term Indo-Tibetan Buddhism has become current, in acknowledgement of its derivation from the latest stages of Buddhist development in northern India. Tibetan Buddhism comprises the teachings of the three vehicles of Buddhism, the Foundational Vehicle, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna, the Mahāyāna goal of spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of buddhahood in order to most efficiently help all other sentient beings attain this state. The motivation in it is the mind of enlightenment — an altruistic intention to become enlightened for the sake of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are revered beings who have conceived the will and vow to dedicate their lives with bodhicitta for the sake of all beings, Tibetan Buddhism teaches methods for achieving buddhahood more quickly by including the Vajrayāna path in Mahāyāna.
Buddhahood is defined as a free of the obstructions to liberation as well as those to omniscience. When one is freed from all mental obscurations, one is said to attain a state of continuous bliss mixed with a simultaneous cognition of emptiness, in this state, all limitations on ones ability to help other living beings are removed. It is said there are countless beings who have attained buddhahood. Buddhas spontaneously and continuously perform activities to all sentient beings. However it is believed that ones karma could limit the ability of the Buddhas to help them, there is a long history of oral transmission of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism
Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche
The 7th Dzogchen Ponlop is an abbot of Dzogchen Monastery, president of Nalandabodhi, the founder of Nītārtha Institute, a leading Tibetan Buddhist scholar, and a meditation master. He is one of the highest tülkus in the Nyingma lineage, Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche was born in 1965 at Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim, India. After receiving Buddhist refuge and bodhisattva vows from the 16th Gyalwang Karmapa and he subsequently received full ordination and became a bhikṣu, although he returned his vows and is now a lay teacher. Rinpoche received most of his teachings and empowerments from the 16th Gyalwang Karmapa and Dilgo Khyentse, Ponlop Rinpoche began studying Buddhist philosophy at the primary school in Rumtek at age 12. Three years later, in 1980 on his first trip to the West, he accompanied the Sixteenth Gyalwang Karmapa to Europe, United States, while serving as the Karmapas attendant, he gave dharma teachings and assisted in ceremonial roles during these travels. In 1981, he entered the college at Rumtek, Karma Shri Nalanda Institute for Higher Buddhist Studies where he studied the fields of Buddhist philosophy, logic.
Rinpoche graduated in 1990 as Ka-rabjampa from Karma Shri Nalanda Institute for Higher Buddhist Studies in Rumtek Monastery and he simultaneously earned the degree of Acharya, or Master of Buddhist Philosophy, from Sampurnanant Sanskrit University. Dzogchen Ponlop has completed studies in English and comparative religion at Columbia University in New York City and he has penned a number of books and articles, Dzogchen Ponlop. Rebel Buddha, On the Road to Freedom, Dzogchen Ponlop, Thang Tong Gyalpo, Jamgon Kongtrul, Khakyab Dorje, 15th Karmapa Lama. Trainings in compassion, manuals on the meditation of Avalokiteshvara, wild Awakening, The Heart of Mahamudra and Dzogchen. 2003, Brief Histories of the Sixteen Karmapas. in Martin, music in the sky, the life and teachings of the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa Ogyen Trinley Dorje. Turning towards liberation, the four reminders, audio Interview Series on Buddhist Geeks