Eleanor Roosevelt Monument
The Eleanor Roosevelt Monument is a memorial dedicated to Eleanor Roosevelt, located in New York City's Riverside Park, said to be the first monument dedicated to an American president's wife. At the monument's dedication in 1996, then–First Lady Hillary Clinton gave the keynote speech; the landscape architects Bruce Kelly and David Varnell designed the monument, Penelope Jencks sculpted the statue and foot stone. The surrounding granite pavement contains inscriptions designed by the architect Michael Dwyer, including a summary of Roosevelt's achievements, a quotation from her 1958 speech at the United Nations advocating universal human rights
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo
Anna Roosevelt Halsted
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Dall Boettiger Halsted was an American writer who worked as a newspaper editor, in public relations. She was the eldest child and only daughter of the U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt and assisted him in social and administrative duties at the White House, she wrote two children's books published in the 1930s. She worked with her second husband Clarence John Boettiger at the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, serving as editor of the women's pages for several years, she worked in public relations for universities. Beginning in 1963, she was appointed to presidential commissions by John F. Kennedy, serving on the Citizen's Advisory Council on the Status of Women for several years, as vice-chairman of the President's Commission for the Observance of Human Rights. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born at 125 East 36th Street in New York City, she was named for her mother Anna Eleanor Roosevelt and maternal grandmother Anna Rebecca Hall. She was married for the first time, in New York, in 1926 to stockbroker Curtis Bean Dall.
The marriage soured before her father became president, she chose to live in the White House with her parents. The couple had two children: Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, who became an educator and librarian Curtis Roosevelt, who became a civil servant and author, they were referred to as "Sistie" and "Buzzie" in the 1930s American press. Between 1932 and 1934, Anna was associate editor of a magazine called Babies Just Babies, she wrote two children's books and Scamper's Christmas. She hosted a Company department store. During this time, she began an affair with journalist Clarence John Boettiger, married. Anna and Curtis Bean Dall divorced on July 1934 at Minden, Nevada. Six months on January 18, 1935, she married Boettiger, who had divorced his first wife, her second husband had resigned from the Chicago Tribune, signed on with the Will H. Hays organization, the Motion Picture Producers of America. Boettiger was hired by William Randolph Hearst to take over as publisher of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer following a bitter labor dispute with its employees in 1936.
Anna Boettiger was active as a journalist. She served as editor of the women's page of that newspaper from 1936 until 1943. With her second husband, she had one son, John Roosevelt Boettiger, who became an educator, clinical psychologist, author. In 1943, her husband Clarence Boettiger began to suffer from serious depression. After a casual remark by FDR about his son-in-law not being in uniform, Boettiger wrote to General Dwight D. Eisenhower for an officer's commission. Boettiger left for the war. Anna left the paper as well. At her ailing father's request, Anna moved into the White House in 1944 to serve as First Lady because of her mother's preference for devoting her time to other political activities and worthy causes; when President Roosevelt traveled to Yalta in February 1945 to meet Stalin and Churchill, he selected Anna to accompany him. His son, Brig. Gen. Elliott Roosevelt, who had attended the previous summits, had become politically controversial. Anna Boettiger was a witness to many historic moments, but she carried the burden of dealing with some of the most intimate and painful decisions of her parents during their unconventional marriage.
After her father's death, Anna had to tell her mother that FDR had been with his long-time mistress, Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd. Her brother James wrote that Anna had become estranged from Eleanor after taking over some of her social duties at the White House; the relationship was further strained because Eleanor wanted to go with her husband to Yalta but he chose Anna. Yet after a few years, the two were able to cooperate on numerous projects. Anna's relationship with her famously fractious brothers was volatile. Anna took care of her mother when she was terminally ill in 1962. After her father's death and Clarence Boettiger bought a weekly newspaper in Phoenix, Arizona in 1946, they renamed it as the Arizona Times, turning it into a daily paper by May 1947. Anna was an executive editor and columnist until February 1948, when she became editor and publisher. For various reasons including newsprint shortages, the project turned into a costly failure; this soured the Boettigers' relationship with wealthy Democratic investors led by Walter Kirschner.
The paper was sold in July. In September 1948, Anna launched a radio program with her mother, called the Eleanor and Anna Roosevelt Program, canceled in September 1949. In 1949, Anna Boettiger edited the monthly magazine The Woman, contributed a series of articles called My Life with F. D. R. Anna divorced Boettiger in 1949. Suffering from depression, he committed suicide in 1950 by jumping from a hotel window in New York City. Anna Boettiger married James Addison Halsted, a physician with the Veterans Administration, on November 11, 1952, she spent the next several years recovering. She began to work in the public relations field for labor unions. In the fall of 1954, she attended University of Los Angeles School of Social Work. In 1955, she and her husband moved to Syracuse, New York, where she was hired as the assistant to the Director of Public Relations at the State University Upstate Medical Center in Syracuse. In April 1957, she became the Director of Public R
Eleanor Roosevelt College
Eleanor Roosevelt College is one of six undergraduate residential colleges at the University of California, San Diego. ERC emphasizes international understanding in its co-curricular programming and general education requirements by requiring students to complete the Making of the Modern World sequence and a regional specialization, as well as have basic proficiency in a foreign language. In 1985, a Preliminary Planning Committee recommended the creation of a new college focused on comparative culture studies to augment its existing four undergraduate colleges; the university sought to shed its association as a STEM school by founding a college based in the liberal arts. The Academic Senate approved the proposal in May 1986 and Professor James Lyon was appointed founding provost of Fifth College in March 1987. UCSD's colleges are given a numeric designation until a permanent name is chosen. In fall 1988, Fifth College welcomed its inaugural class; the college was named Eleanor Roosevelt College in a dedication ceremony in 1995, at which First Lady Hillary Clinton delivered an address.
In 2003, Eleanor Roosevelt College was moved to its current location, in the northwestern region of the campus, from the southeastern region of the campus. Like all UCSD colleges, ERC is led by a provost, a tenured departmental faculty member appointed to oversee the college for a five-year term; the provost is the highest academic officer in the college and oversees its organizational structure, which includes academic advising and student affairs, residence life, an academic program, UCSD's International House. ERC's Provost is Dr. Ivan Evans. While ERC students major in all disciplines, the college's thematic focus is on international understanding and engagement, its general education requirements include proficiency in a foreign language, a regional specialization, a five-course core world history and cultures sequence called The Making of the Modern World. Until 2011, MMW was a six-course sequence for freshmen and a three-course sequence for transfers, but a course was eliminated due to budget cuts.
First year students and incoming transfer students can enroll a First Year Experience course, meant to provide new students with useful tips and information about the campus. First years can enroll in ERC 1, the "Freshman Experience Program," and transfers can enroll in ERC 2, the "Transfer Experience Program." The courses are worth two units. ERC emphasizes the value of study abroad, one third of its students do so. In addition, ERC has developed its own programs abroad, offering MMW Global Seminars each summer, spring break service projects, both international and domestic. ERC is the sponsor of UCSD's International Migration Studies and Human Rights minor. First year students who hold exceptional high school GPAs and who received a high score on the SAT/ACT are invited to participate in the ERC First Year Honors Seminar; the Provost teaches the seminar. During the first quarter, students are instructed in creating sound academic arguments. During winter and spring, UCSD faculty are invited to teach students about their research.
Second year students with a GPA of 3.5+ and who have completed three of the five courses in the MMW sequence are invited to participate in the ERC Sophomore Honors Project. Students take on a research project with the assistance of a professor, they are awarded two units of independent study credit per quarter. Students who earn a quarter GPA of 3.5+ whilst taking 12+ graded units receive Provost's Honors, which appears on students' transcripts. Eleanor Roosevelt College's current location was designed by the architect Moshe Safdie. Sadie designed the buildings within ERC so that they would not interfere with the campus's ocean view, it has been noted that the layout of ERC was designed to bring people together. The residential facilities are named after various global regions and seek to integrate the philosophy of the college into their design as well. There are five residence halls for freshmen: Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America Hall. In addition, there are six apartment complexes for sophomores: Earth Hall North, Earth Hall South, Middle East, Oceania and Mesa Verde Hall.
The residence halls are on the western side of the ERC Green. Middle Earth, a common lounge, sits in front of the Earth Hall North and South apartment buildings, which are on the eastern side of the Green; the northern part of the Green is occupied by ERC's dining hall. The southern part of the Green holds the Student Activity Center, a laundromat, an Amazon locker. Behind the Student Activity Center is the Pangea Parking Structure. ERC hosts three Living Learning Communities. Living Learning Communities seek to bring together a like-minded group of people who want to live together; the Raza LLC, for Latinx students, is located within one of the residence halls for new students, I-House for continuing students. The Gender Inclusive LLC is located in the ERC apartments and I-House. Students who participated in the OASIS Summer Bridge program for first-generation college students can opt to live in the OASIS LLC inside of one of the residence halls; the Social Sciences Building is a part of Eleanor Roosevelt College.
Administrative offices for social science departments are located inside of the building. The SSB has classrooms and offices; the San Diego Supercomputer Center is located in ERC, in-between the SSB and RIMAC. Behind it and the SSB is the Hopkins Parking Structure. RIMAC, one of UCSD's sports complexes, is located within Eleanor Roosevelt College; the R
First Lady of the United States
The First Lady of the United States is the title held by the hostess of the White House the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the President's term in office. Although the First Lady's role has never been codified or defined, she figures prominently in the political and social life of the nation. Since the early 20th century, the First Lady has been assisted by official staff, now known as the Office of the First Lady and headquartered in the East Wing of the White House. Melania Trump is the current First Lady of the United States, as wife of 45th president, Donald Trump. While the title was not in general use until much Martha Washington, the wife of George Washington, the first U. S. President, is considered to be the inaugural First Lady of the United States. During her lifetime, she was referred to as "Lady Washington". Since the 1790s, the role of First Lady has changed considerably, it has come to include involvement in political campaigns, management of the White House, championship of social causes, representation of the president at official and ceremonial occasions.
Because first ladies now publish their memoirs, which are viewed as potential sources of additional information about their husbands' administrations, because the public is interested in these independent women in their own right, first ladies remain a focus of attention long after their husbands' terms of office have ended. Additionally, over the years individual first ladies have held influence in a range of sectors, from fashion to public opinion on policy. Should a president be unmarried, or a widower, the president asks a relative or friend to act as White House hostess. There are four living former first ladies: wife of Jimmy Carter; as of 2019, the only former First Lady who has run for or held public office is Hillary Clinton. The use of the title First Lady to describe the spouse or hostess of an executive began in the United States. In the early days of the republic, there was not a accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as "Lady", "Mrs. President" and "Mrs. Presidentress".
One of the earliest uses of the term "First Lady" was applied to her in an 1838 newspaper article that appeared in the St. Johnsbury Caledonian, the author, "Mrs. Sigourney", discussing how Martha Washington had not changed after her husband George became president, she wrote. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion". Dolley Madison was referred to as "First Lady" in 1849 at her funeral in a eulogy delivered by President Zachary Taylor. Sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D. C. social circles. One of the earliest known written examples comes from November 3, 1863, diary entry of William Howard Russell, in which he referred to gossip about "the First Lady in the Land", referring to Mary Todd Lincoln; the title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as "the First Lady of the Land" while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B.
Hayes. The frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes' activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, popularized the title further. By the 1930s, it was in wide use. Use of the title spread from the United States to other nations; when Edith Wilson took control of her husband's schedule in 1919 after he had a debilitating stroke, one Republican senator labeled her "the Presidentress who had fulfilled the dream of the suffragettes by changing her title from First Lady to Acting First Man."The wife of the Vice President of the United States is sometimes referred to as the Second Lady of the United States, but this title is much less common. Several women who were not presidents' wives have served as First Lady, as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the First Lady herself. In these cases, the position has been filled by a female relative or friend of the president, such as Jefferson's daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph, Jackson's daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson and his wife's niece Emily Donelson, Taylor's daughter Mary Elizabeth Bliss, Benjamin Harrison's daughter Mary Harrison McKee, Buchanan's niece Harriet Lane, Cleveland's sister Rose Cleveland.
The position of the First Lady carries only ceremonial duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a visible position in American society; the role of the First Lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, the hostess of the White House, she organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president. Lisa Burns identifies four successive main themes of the first ladyship: as public woman. Martha Washington hosted many affairs of state at the national capital. This
United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, the main deliberative, policy-making, representative organ of the UN. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the UN, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receive reports from other parts of the UN, make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions, it has established numerous subsidiary organs. The General Assembly meets under its president or secretary-general in annual sessions at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City, the main part of which lasts from September to December and part of January until all issues are addressed, it can reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, powers and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter; the first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
Voting in the General Assembly on certain important questions, recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns, the election, suspension or expulsion of members is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a straightforward majority; each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members; the Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote power structure allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote. During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the "North-South dialogue:" the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries; these issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership.
In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193; because of their numbers, developing countries are able to determine the agenda of the Assembly, the character of its debates, the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations, pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression; the Assembly can consider the matter with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. The first session of the UN General Assembly was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
The next few annual sessions were held in different cities: the second session in New York City, the third in Paris. It moved to the permanent Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City at the start of its seventh regular annual session, on 14 October 1952. In December 1988, in order to hear Yasser Arafat, the General Assembly organized its 29th session in the Palace of Nations, in Geneva, Switzerland. All 193 members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly, with the addition of Holy See and Palestine as observer states. Further, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization or entity, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations; the agenda for each session is planned up to seven months in advance and begins with the release of a preliminary list of items to be included in the provisional agenda. This is refined into a provisional agenda 60 days before the opening of the session.
After the session begins, the final agenda is adopted in a plenary meeting which allocates the work to the various Main Committees, who submit reports back to the Assembly for adoption by consensus or by vote. Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months; the scheduled portions of the sessions commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day", per the UN Rules of Procedure. The last two of these Regular sessions were scheduled to recess three months afterwards in early December, but were resumed in January and extended until just before the beginning of the following sessions; the General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues.
The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such