2009 European Grand Prix
The 2009 European Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 23 August 2009 at the Valencia Street Circuit in Valencia, Spain. It was the 11th race of the 2009 Formula One season; the race was contested over an overall race distance of 308.9 km. The winner was Rubens Barrichello for Brawn GP after starting from third on the grid; the 2008 world champion Lewis Hamilton finished second for McLaren-Mercedes, while 2007 world champion Kimi Räikkönen finished in third for Ferrari. Championship leader Jenson Button finished in seventh for the second race in a row, but extended his lead as Red Bull Racing's Mark Webber and Sebastian Vettel both failed to score, it was Barrichello's first Grand Prix victory since the 2004 Chinese Grand Prix while he was still driving for Ferrari. He marked the 100th victory for a Brazilian driver in F1. Hamilton's second place granted him another podium, while Räikkönen's third place was his second podium in a row; the race saw the debut of GP2 Series driver Romain Grosjean.
He replaced Nelson Piquet Jr. at Renault. This race saw the Grand Prix return of Luca Badoer who had not raced since the 1999 Japanese Grand Prix, he replaced the injured Felipe Massa at Ferrari. Timo Glock scored his first, Toyota's last, fastest lap. No overtakes were recorded during this race. Jenson Button headed into the weekend still on top of the Drivers' Championship by 18.5 points in front of Mark Webber who had jumped ahead of team-mate Sebastian Vettel, on 47 points was only 3 points ahead of Brazilian Rubens Barrichello. Brawn GP still lead the Constructor's Championship by 15.5 points from Red Bull Racing, with a further 58.5 points separating them from defending champions Ferrari. Ferrari had jumped Toyota. Lewis Hamilton of McLaren-Mercedes won the last race in the championship, 4 weeks in Budapest for the Hungarian Grand Prix, he qualified 4th on the grid and won the race in dominating style to take his first race victory since the 2008 Chinese Grand Prix. Hamilton's win marked the first victory for a car equipped with KERS.
Kimi Räikkönen earned his best result of the season. This however was only his fourth points scoring finish of the season. Mark Webber finished third, Jenson Button finished 7th, Rubens Barrichello came 10th while Sebastian Vettel retired because of suspension damage. Felipe Massa dominated the 2008 race, leading 50 of 57 laps from pole and setting the fastest lap in the process. Former European Grand Prix winners Rubens Barrichello and Fernando Alonso were racing, though Massa is the only winner at Valencia. Massa would miss the Grand Prix after he underwent surgery following an accident in the second part of qualifying at the Hungarian Grand Prix, he had life-threatening injuries including a fractured skull, it was expected that he would be in recovery for at least six weeks. This Grand Prix would see the return of Luca Badoer to Formula One in order to replace Massa. Badoer has the record for most races in Formula One without points with 48. Meanwhile, Renault announced on 4 August that Nelson Piquet Jr.'s contract with the team had been terminated with immediate effect.
His replacement Romain Grosjean was announced on 18 August. It was believed. Renault had been suspended from the Grand Prix as a result of the events that led to a wheel coming off Alonso's car during the Hungarian Grand Prix. However, Renault appealed to the FIA Court of Appeal, who overturned the suspension, enabled Alonso to race at his home Grand Prix. Three practice sessions were held before the start of qualifying. Both sessions lasted 1 hour and 30 minutes with weather conditions dry throughout, as the air temperature at 27 °C and the track temperature at 36 °C in session one. Session two saw the air temperature at 30 °C and the track temperature rise to 52 °C in session two; the third session was lasted 1 hour. Brawn came back to form with the track temperature higher than at other circuits making Barrichello the pace-setter with the two McLarens behind him. Kovalainen and Hamilton were only separated by 0.018 seconds. Nico Rosberg who has topped most Friday practice sessions throughout the season struggled in his Williams coming 14th in session 1, 1.3 seconds off Barrichello, while team-mate Kazuki Nakajima fared better, coming 7th.
However both Rosberg and Nakajima got into the top five in the second session. Fernando Alonso in his home grand prix topped the second session while Hamilton came last after spinning out early on and damaging his car. Renault's Romain Grosjean had a solid two sessions, coming 17th and 13th although Alonso outpaced him in each by over a second. Luca Badoer came 20th and 18th in the two Friday sessions as he continued to struggle with the car as team-mate Kimi Räikkönen was 11th and 10th in the two sessions; the Toyotas struggled in session 1 with Jarno Trulli and Timo Glock coming 18th and 19th respectively. Although there was a small piece of hope as Trulli in the second session came 12th and Glock came 15th, 0.225 seconds behind his team-mate. Force India's big updates were showing improvements as Adrian Sutil came 6th in the first session, while in the second session Sutil came 6
Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya
The Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya is a motorsport race track in Montmeló, Spain. With long straights and a variety of corners, the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya is seen as an all-rounder circuit; the track has stands with a capacity of 140,700. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license; until 2013 the track was known only as the Circuit de Catalunya, before a sponsorship deal with Barcelona City Council added Barcelona to the track's title. The Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya was built in 1991 and began hosting the Spanish Grand Prix that same year. Construction coincided with the Olympic Games scheduled to take place in Barcelona the next year, where the circuit acted as the start and finish line for the road team time trial cycling event; the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya should not be confused with the Montjuïc circuit, which hosted the Spanish Grand Prix four times between 1969 and 1975 and, unlike the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, is located within the city of Barcelona. Because so much testing is done at this circuit, Formula One drivers and mechanics are familiar with it.
This has led to criticism that drivers and mechanics are too familiar with Catalunya, reducing the amount of on-track action. When first used, overtaking was frequent as cars could follow through the last two corners and slipstream down the long straight; as aerodynamic balance became more critical, this overtaking method drastically decreased as the cars were unable to follow each other through the fast final corner due to turbulence created by the leading car. The 2007 season saw the first of the two final sweepers replaced with a slow chicane in an effort to improve overtaking; the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya has hosted a motorcycle Grand Prix since 1992 the European motorcycle Grand Prix from 1992 and the Catalan motorcycle Grand Prix since 1996. There are at least five points on the track; as in Formula 1, Turn 1 is arguably the most popular place for overtaking. The circuit is not known to produce copious amounts of overtaking, despite the long straights; the Formula 1 circuit changes were not instituted for MotoGP.
The FIM made a further change to the chicane for 2017 by moving up the chicane to prevent riders from cutting the pit lane entrance, but, abandoned because the motorcycle chicane had a surface change that created more safety issues with the transition. Further changes were made to the circuit in December 2017 as grandstands were removed to add additional runoff that allowed the FIM to eliminate that chicane; the circuit hosted many other international racing series, including the FIA Sportscar Championship, European Touring Car Championship, FIA GT Championship, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, European Le Mans Series, World Series by Renault. The FIA World Rallycross Championship visits Catalunya since 2015; the track is demanding of a car's aerodynamic qualities. The wind direction at the circuit can change drastically during the day, a significant factor given the importance of aerodynamics to modern Formula One cars, it is hard to find a good setup since cars can have massive aerodynamic drag and understeer on one part of the circuit in the morning, but suffer oversteer at the same part of the circuit in the afternoon.
A given tyre compound can work well. These changeable conditions can make for unexpected performances from some teams during the race; the changeable wind conditions have caused accidents at the circuit, with Fernando Alonso's testing accident in 2015 blamed on the severity of the wind. The MotoGP layout uses the 1995-2003 version of the Grand Prix circuit; the layout was the same as Formula One, but in 2004 the La Caixa turn was modified. The F1 layout was implemented in 2016 following the fatal accident of Luis Salom in Europcar on 3 June 2016 race control switched to the F1 circuit for qualifying and the race on 5 June 2016. On 15 December 2016, the FIM announced the change was permanent by announcing plans for a chicane ahead of the current car chicane. However, during the 2017 race, the new chicane was deemed dangerous by riders because of a surface change, the car chicane was used during that event. After changes to the track in the off-season including removing grandstands in Turn 12 in creating additional runoff and a complete repaving of the circuit, the F1 layout from 2004-06, including the new La Caixa hairpin instead of sweeper, will be used, eliminating the chicane.
The World RX of Spain uses parts of the track near turns 11–15, with two additional gravel sections. Turn 1 is the main overtaking point at Catalunya, as it is a braking zone at the end of a long DRS straight; the inside and outside are difficult for overtaking. The corners themselves make up a medium-speed chicane – drivers brake rather late for turn one and shift down to gear two, turn two is full throttle as they try to gain as much exit speed as possible. Turn 3 is a long, flat-out right-hander that has a g-force of about four, it leads to a short straight before turn 4, the Repsol curve. Another right-hander, turn four is similar to Monza's Curva Parabolica – drivers br
People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party is a conservative, liberal-conservative and Christian-democratic political party in Spain. The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance, a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of the Interior and Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship; the new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic and liberal parties. In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman"; the party's youth organization is New Generations of the People's Party of Spain. The PP is a member of the center-right European People's Party, in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group; the PP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union. The PP was one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. On 24 May 2018, the National Court found that the PP profited from the illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme of the Gürtel case, confirming the existence of an illegal accounting and financing structure that ran in parallel with the party's official one since the party's foundation in 1989 and ruling that the PP helped establish "a genuine and effective system of institutional corruption through the manipulation of central and local public procurement".
This prompted a no confidence vote on Mariano Rajoy's government, brought down on 1 June 2018 in the first successful motion since the Spanish transition to democracy. On 5 June 2018, Rajoy announced his resignation as PP leader; the party has its roots in the People's Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga. Although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an gradual transition to democracy. However, he badly underestimated the public's distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the large number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, putting it in fourth place. In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga had wanted from the beginning to brand the party as a traditional European conservative party, wanted to move the AP toward the political centre in order to form a larger centre-right party.
Fraga's wing won the struggle. The AP joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition, it was hoped that this new coalition would capture the support of those who had voted for the Union of the Democratic Centre in 1977, but who had become disenchanted with the Adolfo Suárez government. In the March 1979 general election, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, again finishing a distant fourth. At the AP's Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had confused the voters, they sought to emphasise the AP's independent identity. Fraga resumed control of the party, the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP. In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership, he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general elections held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right.
It became the major opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, securing 25.4 percent of the popular vote. Whereas the AP's parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the party allied itself with the small Christian democratic People's Democratic Party and won 106 seats in 1982; the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the AP's emphasis on law and order as well as its pro-business policies. Subsequent political developments belied the party's aspirations to continue increasing its base of support. Prior to the June 1986 elections, the AP joined forces with the PDP and the Liberal Party to form the People's Coalition, in another attempt to expand its constituency to include the centre of the political spectrum; the coalition called for stronger measures against terrorism, for more privatisation, for a reduction in public spending and in taxes.
The CP failed to increase its share of the vote in the 1986 elections, it soon began to disintegrate. When regional elections in late 1986 resulted in further losses for the coalition, Fraga resigned as AP chairman, although he retained his parliamentary seat. At the party congress in February 1987, Antonio Hernández Mancha was chosen to head the AP, declaring that under his leadership the AP would become a "modern right-wing European party", but Hernández Mancha lacked political experience at the national level, the party continued to decline. When support for the AP plummeted in the municipal and regional elections held in June 1987, it was clear that it would be overtaken as major opposition party by Suarez's Democratic and Social Centre. After the resignation of Manuel Fraga and the success
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
The Generalitat Valenciana is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia is politically organized. It consists of seven institutions including the Corts Valencianes, the President of the Generalitat, or the autonomous government itself, its functions are regulated by the Valencian Statute of Autonomy. Despite being present in various cities of the Valencian Community, the main locations of the autonomous Parliament, presidency of the Generalitat and the Consell are all in the city of Valencia. There is an office in Brussels appointed by the Generalitat Valenciana lobbying before the European Union; the current President of the Generalitat Valenciana is Ximo Puig of the Socialist Party of the Valencian Community, born in Morella. He assumed the Presidency in June 2015 and took office in Les Corts in the same month, as the head of a coalition between the PSPV-PSOE, Coalició Compromís and Podem; the Generalitat Valenciana was created in 1418.
It acted, along with the Monarch shared with the other territories of the Crown of Aragon, as the ruling body of the Kingdom of Valencia. Its posts were designated for three year terms. In 1510, the process of designating posts was reorganized, becoming more automatic and less elective; this re-organization stayed the same until 1709, when it was abolished as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession and the subsequent Nueva Planta decrees, along with the other fueros of the Kingdom of Valencia. The Generalitat Valenciana was not re-established until 1982, after the corresponding Valencian Statute of Autonomy was approved. El Consell consists of eight members, each the leader of an institution; these institutions are: Education and Sports in charge of education, formal training, sciences, promotion of cultural heritage, language policy, sports. Treasury and Public Administrations responsible for finance, the Valencian business sector, public service, information technology and management communication.
Health responsible for public health. Planning and Environment responsible for public works and coastline planning and building quality, transportation and airports, environment and climate change. Social Welfare responsible for policies affecting social services, the disabled, children, youth and immigration. Government and Justice responsible for civil protection, management of the National Police assigned to Valencia and extinction of fires, management of emergency situations, statutory development, professional associations, notarial records. Economics and Employment in charge of the economy, business sector, industry, craftsmanship and foreign trade and investigation and innovation of technology and energy. Agriculture, Fishing and Water responsible for establishing and maintaining relations with other countries of the European Union, other Autonomous Communities, local administrations, citizens. La Generalitat Valenciana comprises seven institutions: Les Corts Consell Valencia de Cultura Comité Econòmic i Social Sindicatura de Comptes Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Síndic de Greuges Consell Jurídic Consultiu The Corts Valencianes is the Valencian Parliament.
It represents the people of Valencia via the members of parliament. These members are elected using a universal, direct and secret vote, it is made up of 75-100 members, which are determined by the Statute of Autonomy and through the voting process. The Statute of Autonomy requires any candidate running for a Seat must "stand for a party or coalition that obtains more than 5% of the given votes in all the Autonomous Community." The D’Hondt method is used to distribute Seats. In the VIII Term, 35 members of Parliament were elected in the Alicante district, 24 members in the Castellon district, 40 in the Valencia district; the Statute of Autonomy dedicates Chapter II of Title III to the Valencian Parliament, which only outlines the composition of the Parliament, the basic principles of the election system, their corresponding duties, sets out a general outline of the Statute of the Members of Parliament. The Valencian Parliament Regulations were developed in addition to the Statute of Autonomy to govern the organization and functioning of this Institution.
On March 4, 1983, the first draft of the Valencian Parliament Regulations was approved during the Transitional Phase. Since it has undergone several modifications, which were approved by the Valencian Parliament on December 18, 2006; the contemporary Corts Valencianes differs from its historical counterpart of the same name. The former Corts Valencianes was organized into three arms – Ecclesiastic and Royal – which had different duties than the Corts today; the Consell Valencia de Cultura is a consultation and advisory institution for the Generalitat Valenciana for affairs related to Valencian culture. It promotes the region's cultural and linguistic values; the Council’s headquarters are located in the city of Valencia, but has held sessions in Valencian municipal centers such as Castelló de la Plana, Morella and Vilafamés. The Economic and Social Committee is a body of the government that provides consultations on economic, social and employment matters, it is a part of the public institutions of Valencia.
The Sindicatura de Comptes, or Audit Office in English, is responsible for the external audit of the economic and financial activity of the public sector in the
Bahrain International Circuit
The Bahrain International Circuit is a motorsport venue opened in 2004 and used for drag racing, GP2 Series and the annual Bahrain Grand Prix. The 2004 Grand Prix was the first held in the Middle East. Beginning in 2006, Australian V8 Supercars raced at the BIC, with the event known as the Desert 400. However, the V8 Supercars did not return for the 2011 V8 Supercar season. 24 Hour endurance races are hosted at BIC. The circuit has a FIA Grade 1 license; the construction of the Bahrain circuit was a national objective for Bahrain, initiated by the Crown Prince, Shaikh Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa. The Crown Prince is the Honorary President of the Bahrain Motor Federation. TRL was asked to build the circuit, headed by Patrick Brogan. Race organizers were worried that the circuit would not be complete in time for the 2004 Bahrain Grand Prix and attempted to cancel the event. In the end, the circuit was not quite complete, but was good enough for the grand prix to go ahead. After the 2004 race and ahead of the 2005 race the track was realigned at turn four, decreasing the circuit's overall length by 5 metres.
In 2007 the circuit became the first Grand Prix circuit to be awarded the distinguished FIA Institute Centre of Excellence award, given for excellent safety, race marshal, medical facilities, for the high standards of technology required to maintain these. At the 2009 Grand Prix, BIC announced a collaboration with @bahrain to develop land next to the circuit. @bahrain is part of the Mumtalakat group of companies. @bahrain will dedicate more than 1 million square meters of business and educational space with a value in excess of US$2bn, making it one of the largest investment projects to take place in Bahrain in the past five years. In 2011 the circuit was scheduled to be the first GP of the season. However, due to civil unrest in the country the race had to be cancelled in March 2011. On early June the FIA announced that the race would be scheduled for 30 October, the original slot for the inaugural Indian GP, which would be shifted to a season-closing date on 11 December. However, two days following concerns from teams and other officials, the race organizers cancelled the race, choosing to focus their attention on the 2012 running.
The 2012 Formula One calendar had the fourth of the season. The circuit was designed by German architect Hermann Tilke, the same architect who designed the Sepang circuit in Malaysia; the main contractor for the project was Cebarco-WCT. The circuit cost 56.2 million Bahraini Dinars to construct. It has six separate tracks, including a drag strip; the circuit posed a unique problem. Positioned in the middle of a desert, there were worries that sand would blow onto the circuit and disrupt the race. However, organizers were able to keep the sand off the track by spraying an adhesive on the sand around the track; the surface of the track is made of graywacke aggregate, shipped to Bahrain from Bayston Hill quarry in Shropshire, England. The surface material is acclaimed by circuit bosses and Formula 1 drivers for the high level of grip it offers; the same aggregate material is used at the Yas Marina Circuit for the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix. The DRS zone is on the pit straight at the Bahrain Grand Prix, so turn 1 is the prime overtaking opportunity.
The corner itself is tight. The width of the track further adds to the overtaking possibilities. Turns 2 and 3 are flat out and gaining a good exit can set up an overtaking opportunity into turn 4; the straight leading to turn 4 is long with a DRS zone, the track at the corner itself is wide, at about thirty metres. Turns 5, 6 and 7 make up a high-speed left-right-left "S" section that leads into turn 8, a right-hand hairpin where taking a wide line can avoid the bump on the apex which unsettles the car. Turns 9 and 10 are challenging as they are two blind left-handers where cars must brake and turn – they go from 205 km/h in gear 5 down to 63 km/h in gear 1 whilst trying to avoid locking up their inside front tyres; the back straight leads down into a medium-speed complex of corners. Turn 11 is a fourth-gear left hander that leads into the flat-out right hander of 12 the third gear right-hander of turn 13 which requires a good exit to gain speed down the following straight, it is worth braking quite early for turn 14 to gain speed down the main straight.
If you brake about 100 metres before the apex it is easy to keep it tidy through the slow right hander and you can put the power down early, gain speed all the way through turn 15 and the main straight. The lap record on the current layout of the Grand Prix circuit was set in 2005 by Pedro de la Rosa at 1:31.447, in what was the only fastest lap in his 104-race career. Michael Schumacher set a faster time of 1:30.252 at the 2004 edition of the race, but alterations to turn 4 of the track meant that it was counted as a different layout from 2005 onwards. The fastest time set at the track was produced by Charles Leclerc during qualifying for the 2019 edition at 1:27.866, beating the previous record by Sebastian Vettel, set during qualifying for the 2018 edition. The Bahrain International Circuit hosts a number of high-profile series, including the FIA Formula One World Championship, the FIA World Endurance Championship, the FIA Formula 2 Championship, Chevrolet Lumina Series, Thunder
The Hungaroring is a motorsport race track in Mogyoród, Hungary where the Formula One Hungarian Grand Prix is held. In 1986, it became the location of the first Formula One Grand Prix behind the Iron Curtain. Bernie Ecclestone wanted a race in the USSR, they wanted a street circuit similar to the Circuit de Monaco to be built in the Népliget – Budapest's largest park – but the government decided to build a new circuit just outside the city near a major highway. Construction works started on 1 October 1985, it was built in less time than any other Formula One circuit. The first race was held on 24 March 1986, in memory of János Drapál, the first Hungarian who won motorcycle Grand Prix races. According to a survey put together by the national tourism office of Hungary, Mogyoród ranks third among Hungarian destinations visited by tourists, behind the Danube Bend area and Lake Balaton, but ahead of Budapest; the circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. The Grand Prix is held in the middle of summer, extremely hot and dry in this region.
Its first wet Grand Prix race was in 2006. The circuit is dusty due to underuse throughout the rest of the year and its sandy soil; as the circuit is in a valley about 80 percent of it can be seen from any point. An underused circuit becomes faster over the weekend as the track surface gathers more rubber residue; the track becomes faster during a qualifying session, which leads competitors to try for their best lap as late as possible. The twisty and bumpy nature of the circuit makes overtaking difficult in dry conditions, the circuit is nicknamed "Monaco without the buildings" for this reason. Nonetheless, the Hungaroring has been the scene of several memorable races such as the duels of Nelson Piquet and Ayrton Senna, Nigel Mansell's lost wheel in 1987, Mansell's win from 12th on the grid after a dramatic pass on Ayrton Senna in 1989, Damon Hill's victory with Arrows in 1997, Michael Schumacher's change in strategy to beat the McLarens of Mika Häkkinen and David Coulthard in 1998 and maiden wins for Hill in 1993, Fernando Alonso in 2003, Jenson Button in 2006 in the track's first wet Grand Prix, Heikki Kovalainen in 2008.
Hungaroring has crowned two drivers in its 20-year history: both Nigel Mansell in 1992 and Michael Schumacher in 2001 were able to win the World Championship title. Moreover, the WilliamsF1 Team and Scuderia Ferrari secured the Constructors' Championship at the Hungaroring, Williams in 1996 and Ferrari in 2001, 2002, 2004. Both Hungary's Zsolt Baumgartner and Poland's Robert Kubica made their debut on this track as the first F1 drivers of their countries; the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix was the first wet grand prix at the Hungaroring. This saw the retirement of many drivers including championship rivals Fernando Alonso and Michael Schumacher and gave Jenson Button and the reborn Honda F1 team their first win. Fernando Alonso earned his first Grand Prix victory at this in 2003, declaring it his favourite track as a result. According to statements and interviews, drivers have different opinions on the track. While many, like Ayrton Senna, Nigel Mansell, Michael Schumacher, Lewis Hamilton, Fernando Alonso claimed to love it, many others consider the track too slow and demanding.
The technical driving center of the Hungaroring held former racer Gerhard Berger's name from 1998 until 2005 but it was changed to Allianz. The track has named curves: Turn 4 is named after Nigel Mansell, due to him losing a wheel there during the 1987 Hungarian Grand Prix. Turn 11 is named after Jean Alesi following his massive crash there during qualifying for the 1995 Hungarian Grand Prix. On Saturday, 25 July 2009, in the second qualifying round for the Hungarian Grand Prix at Hungaroring, Ferrari driver Felipe Massa's head was injured, though protected by his driver's helmet, he was struck by a suspension spring that had fallen from Rubens Barrichello's Brawn GP car while driving at high speed, he was knocked unconscious, subsequently crashed head-on into a tyre barrier. Massa was thereafter airlifted to the ÁEK hospital in Budapest, where he underwent surgery in the area surrounding his left eye, his condition was described as "life-threatening but stable", but improved rapidly. Massa was returned to Brazil.
After further tests it was decided that Massa needed a titanium plate inserted into his skull to strengthen it for racing in Formula One again. While most of the foreign fans are from Germany and Austria, the Hungaroring has traditionally seen a large influx of Finnish fans as well. With the loss of the Austrian Grand Prix in 2003, this became the closest Formula One event for fans from other Central European countries. However, the Austrian Grand Prix returned again in 2014; the 2006-10 races saw many spectators from Poland due to the participation of Robert Kubica. Some say that the Hungaroring is similar in style to Circuit de Monaco, due to its tight and twisty corners; the first change in the track's layout was carried out in 1989, when the chicane after the actual turn three was removed by culverting the stream. In 2003, the main straight was lengthened by 200 m to 908 m, the hairpin at the end of the straight was tightened in an attempt to facilitate more overtaking opportunities, as well as a tightening of what was turn 12.
The contract was prolonged until 2021, although tobacco advertising has been banned since 2007. The Hungaroring is the home of Hungarian motorsport