Valentinian II

Valentinian II, was Roman Emperor from AD 375 to 392. Flavius Valentinianus was born to his second wife, Justina, he was the half-brother of Valentinian's other son, who had shared the imperial title with his father since 367. He had three sisters: Galla and Justa; the elder Valentinian died on campaign in Pannonia in 375. Neither Gratian nor his uncle Valens were consulted by the army commanders on the scene. Instead of acknowledging Gratian as his father's successor, Valentinian I's generals acclaimed the four-year-old Valentinian augustus on 22 November 375; the army, its Frankish general Merobaudes, may have been uneasy about Gratian's lack of military ability, so raised a boy who would not aspire to military command. Gratian, forced to accommodate the generals who supported his half-brother, governed the trans-alpine provinces, while Italy, part of Illyricum, North Africa were under the rule of Valentinian. In 378, their uncle, the Emperor Valens, was killed in battle with the Goths at Adrianople, Gratian invited the general Theodosius to be emperor in the East.

As a child, Valentinian II was under the influence of his Arian mother, the Empress Justina, the imperial court at Milan, an influence contested by the Nicene bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Justina used her influence over her young son to oppose the Nicean party, championed by Ambrose. In 385 Ambrose refused an imperial request to hand over the Portian basilica for the celebration of Easter by the Imperial court; when he was summoned to be punished to the Imperial palace, the orthodox populace rioted, Justina's Gothic troops were prevented by the arch-bishop himself, standing in the doorway, from entering the Basilica. Justina was forced to back down. Afterwards, Justina ordered legislation to rescind the penalties enacted by Gratian and Valentinian against heresy, proclaiming universal toleration; when Ambrose was found, as no doubt she had intended, to have determinedly infracted the new laws, Justina again tried to have him banished, Ambrose was forced to barricade himself, with the enthusiastic backing of the people, within the walls of the Basilica.

The Imperial troops besieged him, but Ambrose held on, reinforcing the resolution of his followers by unearthing, beneath the foundations of the church, the bodies of two ancient martyrs. Theodosius, the orthodox emperor of the east, forcing Justina to again relent. Magnus Maximus was to use the emperor's heterodoxy against him. Valentinian tried to restrain the despoiling of pagan temples in Rome. Buoyed by this instruction, the pagan senators, led by Aurelius Symmachus, the Prefect of Rome, petitioned in 384 for the restoration of the Altar of Victory in the Senate House, removed by Gratian in 382. Valentinian, at the insistence of Ambrose, refused the request and, in so doing, rejected the traditions and rituals of pagan Rome to which Symmachus had appealed. In 383, Magnus Maximus, commander of the armies in Britain, declared himself Emperor and established himself in Gaul and Hispania. Gratian died. For a time the court of Valentinian, through the mediation of Ambrose, came to an accommodation with the usurper, Theodosius recognized Maximus as co-emperor of the West.

In 386 or 387, Maximus threatened Milan. Valentinian II and Justina fled to Theodosius in Thessalonica; the latter came to an agreement, cemented by his marriage to Valentinian's sister Galla, to restore the young emperor in the West. In 388, Theodosius defeated Maximus. Although he was to appoint both of his sons emperor, Theodosius remained loyal to the dynasty of Valentinian I. After the defeat of Maximus, Theodosius remained in Milan until 391. Valentinian took no part in Theodosius's triumphal celebrations over Maximus. Valentinian and his court were installed at Vienne in Gaul, while Theodosius appointed key administrators in the West and had coins minted, which implied his guardianship over the 17-year-old. Justina had died, Vienne was far away from the influence of Ambrose. Theodosius's trusted general, the Frank Arbogast, was appointed magister militum for the Western provinces and guardian of Valentinian. Acting in the name of Valentinian, Arbogast was subordinate only to Theodosius. While the general campaigned on the Rhine, the young emperor remained at Vienne, in contrast to his warrior father and his older brother, who had campaigned at his age.

Arbogast's domination over the emperor was considerable, the general murdered Harmonius, a friend of Valentinian suspected of taking bribes, in the emperor's presence. The crisis reached a peak when Arbogast prohibited the emperor from leading the Gallic armies into Italy to oppose a barbarian threat. Valentinian, in response, formally dismissed Arbogast; the latter ignored the order, publicly tearing it up and arguing that Valentinian had not appointed him in the first place. The reality of where the power lay was displayed. Valentinian wrote to Theodosius and Ambrose complaining of his subordination to his general. In explicit rejection of his earlier Arianism, he invited Ambrose to come to Vienne to baptize him. On 15 May 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in Vienne. Arbogast maintained. Most sources agree, that Arbogast murdered him with his own hands, or paid the Praetorians. Zosimus writing in the early sixth century from Constantinople, states that Arbogast had Valentinian murdered.


1980 Porsche Tennis Grand Prix

The 1980 Porsche Tennis Grand Prix was a women's singles tennis tournament played on indoor carpet courts at the Tennis Sporthalle Filderstadt in Filderstadt in West Germany. The event was part of the AAA category of the 1980 Colgate Series, it was the third edition of the tournament and was held from 3 November through 9 November 1980. First-seeded Tracy Austin won the singles event, her third successive singles title at the event, the accompanying $22,000 first-prize money. Tracy Austin defeated Sherry Acker 6–2, 7–5 It was Austin's 10th title of the year and the 20th of her career. Hana Mandlíková / Betty Stöve defeated Kathy Jordan / Anne Smith 6–4, 7–5 Official website Women's Tennis Association tournament profile International Tennis Federation tournament event details Women's Tennis Association tournament event details

J. Greg Hanson

J. Greg Hanson, Ph. D. is an American computer scientist and software engineer. He served as the first Assistant Sergeant at Arms and Chief Information Officer of the United States Senate from June 2003 to January 2008 under Senate Majority Leaders Bill Frist and Harry Reid, he is now President of Excellence in Business, a consulting firm working with clients on business strategy, strategic planning, large business capture and business development, achieving operational excellence, developing solution architectures, application of high technology, market analysis. Hanson has served as an Adjunct Full Professor, teaching graduate information technology courses for the George Washington University, University of Maryland, University of Maryland University College. Hanson earned a Bachelor of Science from the United States Air Force Academy, Master of Science in information systems from the Air Force Institute of Technology, PhD in computer science from the University of Central Florida. Hanson's initial career was in the United States Air Force, where he retired in 1997 as Chief Software Engineer at USAF Headquarters.

There he led the agency's $345 million Y2K program. He served as Chief Scientist at NATO's Central Region Headquarters, where he managed a $200 million command and control project, directed a four-contractor international consortium, built NATO's largest local area network. Hanson served as CIO for four years. In this position he led a technology development and support division and managed $110 million in contracts and resources. After retiring from the Air Force, Hanson became chief technology officer at Telos Corporation, where he developed an information assurance spin-off called Xacta, where he was the company's first CTO, he served as CTO for Universal Systems & Technology, a northern Virginia technology firm. He served as the first Chief Information Officer for the United States Senate where he was responsible for planning and operations of a 500-person organization and a $150M budget supporting the Senate. After serving as the Senate's first CIO, Hanson became Chief Operations Officer for Criterion Systems, Inc. an IT Solutions and Services company in Virginia, where, as a Direct report to CEO, he had P&L responsibility for one of the fastest growing high technology corporations in the United States.

As Chief Operating Officer Dr. Hanson led three lines of business supporting the United States Department of Defense, Federal Civilian Agencies, the Intelligence Community, he served as Chief Technology Officer for Criterion's High Performance Computing business. After serving as Criterion's COO, he became General Manager for NCI Information Systems' Enterprise Solutions Sector. NCI, a publicly traded company is a leading provider of high-end IT, engineering and professional services and solutions to the Federal Government. From January 2016 to July 2019, Dr. Hanson served as COO for Zantech, a Northern VA information technology firm, before retiring to devote full-time to running his firm, Excellence in Business helping companies with operations and pursuing new business. During the past 5 years, he has served on six Advisory Boards helping companies expand into new markets, grow business, develop strategic plans and mature business processes. 2006 University of Central Florida Distinguished Alumnus Award, two Federal Computer Week Fed100 Awards, AFFIRM's Award for Leadership in Service Excellence and Management, AFCEA’s Gold Medal for Engineering and Excellence in Information Technology awards.

He has been an active member of the Air Traffic Control Association, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, Greater Washington Board of Trade, Northern Virginia Technology Council. He has numerous publications in computer science, industrial engineering, database systems, information technology and business applications of information technology. Federal 100 award winners, J. Greg Hanson, Chief Information Officer, Senate,USA Today, Posted 3/21/2005 12:52 PM, J. Greg Hanson, Ph. D. Joins the Executive Team of Criterion Systems Wed Jan 9, 2008 4:15pm EST, Reuters "Capitol Cool -- Greg Hanson,'87 Literally has IT all. He's the U. S. Senate's first-ever chief information officer, and he plays a mean guitar.", January/February 2007 J. Greg Hanson, Ali Orooji: Predictive performance analysis of a multi-computer database system. Inf. Syst. 15: 401-416 J. Greg Hanson, Ali Orooji: Experiments with Data Access and Data Placement Strategies for MultiComputer Database Systems. IWDM 1987: 429-442