Sicilian known as Siculo or Calabro-Sicilian, is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands. It is spoken in southern Calabria in the Province of Reggio Calabria, whose dialect is viewed as being part of the continuum of the Sicilian language. Central Calabria, the southern parts of Apulia and Campania, on the Italian peninsula, are viewed by some as being part of a broader Far Southern Italian language group. Ethnologue describes Sicilian as being "distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language" and is recognized as a minority language by UNESCO, it has been referred to as a language by the Sicilian region. It has the oldest literary tradition of the modern Italian languages. Sicilian is spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of Sicily and by emigrant populations around the world; the latter are found in the countries which attracted large numbers of Sicilian immigrants during the course of the past century or so the United States, Canada and Argentina.
In the past four or five decades, large numbers of Sicilians were attracted to the industrial zones of northern Italy and areas of the European Union Germany. It is not used as an official language anywhere, not within Sicily, where the government does not regulate the language in any way. However, in recent years the non-profit organisation Cademia Siciliana has created an orthographic proposal to help normalise the written form of the language. Furthermore, since its inception in 1951, the Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani in Palermo has been researching and publishing descriptive information on the Sicilian language; the autonomous regional parliament of Sicily has legislated Regional Law No. 9/2011 to encourage the teaching of Sicilian at all schools, but inroads into the education system have been slow. The CSFLS has created a textbook "Dialektos" to comply with the law, however it does not provide an orthography to write the language. Although within Sicily it is only taught as part of dialectology courses, outside of Italy Sicilian language has been taught at the University of Pennsylvania and Manouba University.
Since 2009 it has been taught at the Italian Charities of America in New York City, it is preserved and taught through family association, church organizations and societies, as well as social and ethnic historical clubs, in Internet social groups. On the 15th of May, 2018 the Sicilian region once again mandated the teaching of Sicilian in schools and referred to the language as a language in official communication; the language is recognized in the municipal statutes of some Sicilian towns, such as Caltagirone and Grammichele, in which the "inalienable historical and cultural value of the Sicilian language" is proclaimed. Further, the Sicilian language would be protected and promoted under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Italy has signed this treaty, but the Italian Parliament has not ratified it, it is not included in Italian Law No. 482/1999, although some other minority languages of Sicily are. Alternative names of Sicilian are Calabro-Sicilian, sìculu; the first term refers to the fact that a form of Sicilian is spoken in southern Calabria, in particular, in the province of Reggio Calabria.
The other two are names for the language in Sicily itself: the term sìculu describes one of the larger prehistoric groups living in Sicily before the arrival of Greeks in the 8th century BC. It can be used as a prefix to qualify, or further elaborate on, the origins of a person, for example: Siculo-American or Siculo-Australian; as a language, Sicilian has its own dialects, in the following main groupings: Western Sicilian Central Metafonetic Southeast Metafonetic Ennese Eastern Non-Metafonetic Messinese Eoliano Pantesco Reggino. Because Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and many peoples have passed through it, Sicilian displays such rich and varied influence from several languages on its lexical stock and grammar; these languages include Greek, Arabic, Lombard, Germanic languages, Catalan and Spanish, the influence from the island's pre-Indo-European inhabitants. The earliest influences, visible in Sicilian to this day, exhibit both prehistoric Mediterranean elements and prehistoric Indo-European elements, a blending of both.
Before the Roman conquest, Sicily was occupied by various populations
A beam is a structural element that resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis. Its mode of deflection is by bending; the loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam's support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses and deflections of the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of support, profile and their material. Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion. Beams were squared timbers but are metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal such as a flitch beam. Beams can carry vertical gravitational forces but are used to carry horizontal loads; the loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members and to ground.
In light frame construction, joists may rest on beams. In carpentry, a beam is called a plate as in a sill plate or wall plate, beam as in a summer beam or dragon beam. In engineering, beams are of several types: Simply supported – a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance. Fixed – a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation. Over hanging – a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end. Double overhanging – a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both ends. Continuous – a beam extending over more than two supports. Cantilever – a projecting beam fixed only at one end. Trussed – a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss. In the beam equation I is used to represent the second moment of area, it is known as the moment of inertia, is the sum, about the neutral axis, of dA*r^2, where r is the distance from the neutral axis, dA is a small patch of area. Therefore, it encompasses not just how much area the beam section has overall, but how far each bit of area is from the axis, squared.
The greater I is. Internally, beams subjected to loads that do not induce torsion or axial loading experience compressive and shear stresses as a result of the loads applied to them. Under gravity loads, the original length of the beam is reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression, while the same original beam length at the bottom of the beam is stretched to enclose a larger radius arc, so is under tension. Modes of deformation where the top face of the beam is in compression, as under a vertical load, are known as sagging modes and where the top is in tension, for example over a support, is known as hogging; the same original length of the middle of the beam halfway between the top and bottom, is the same as the radial arc of bending, so it is under neither compression nor tension, defines the neutral axis. Above the supports, the beam is exposed to shear stress. There are some reinforced concrete beams in which the concrete is in compression with tensile forces taken by steel tendons.
These beams are known as prestressed concrete beams, are fabricated to produce a compression more than the expected tension under loading conditions. High strength steel tendons are stretched; when the concrete has cured, the tendons are released and the beam is under eccentric axial loads. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increases the moment carrying capacity of the beam, they are used on highway bridges. The primary tool for structural analysis of beams is the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation; this equation describes the elastic behaviour of slender beams where the cross sectional dimensions are small compared to the length of the beam. For beams that are not slender a different theory needs to be adopted to account for the deformation due to shear forces and, in dynamic cases, the rotary inertia; the beam formulation adopted here is that of Timoshenko and comparative examples can be found in NAFEMS Benchmark Challenge Number 7. Other mathematical methods for determining the deflection of beams include "method of virtual work" and the "slope deflection method".
Engineers are interested in determining deflections because the beam may be in direct contact with a brittle material such as glass. Beam deflections are minimized for aesthetic reasons. A visibly sagging beam if structurally safe, is unsightly and to be avoided. A stiffer beam creates less deflection. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces include the "moment distribution method", the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method. Most beams in reinforced concrete buildings have rectangular cross sections, but a more efficient cross section for a beam is an I or H section, seen in steel construction; because of the parallel axis theorem and the fact that most of the material is away from the neutral axis, the second moment of area of the beam increases, which in turn increases the stiffness. An I-beam is only the most efficient shape in one direction of be
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Temple of Olympian Zeus, Agrigento
The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento, Sicily was the largest Doric temple constructed, although it was never completed and now lies in ruins. It stands in the Valle dei Templi with a number of other major Greek temples; the history of the temple is unclear, but it was founded to commemorate the Battle of Himera, in which the Greek cities of Akragas and Syracuse defeated the Carthaginians under Hamilcar. According to the historian Diodorus Siculus, the temple was built using Carthaginian slave labour – defeated soldiers captured after the battle, it is otherwise little mentioned in ancient literature. The Greek historian Polybius mentions it in a 2nd-century BC description of Akragas, commenting that "the other temples and porticoes which adorn the city are of great magnificence, the temple of Olympian Zeus being unfinished but second it seems to none in Greece in design and dimensions."According to Diodorus, it remained unfinished due to the Carthaginian conquest of the city in 406 BC, with the Siege of Akragas.
The temple's roof was missing at this time. The temple was toppled by earthquakes and in the 18th century was quarried extensively to provide building materials for the modern towns of Agrigento and nearby Porto Empedocle. Today it survives only as a broad stone platform heaped with tumbled blocks of stone; the temple, whose structure is still under debate, measured 112.7 x 56.3 m at the stylobate, with a height of some 20 m. The whole construction was made of small stones blocks, which has led to uncertainty to the total size of the building. According to Diodorus, the columns' grooves could house a man; each stood on a five-stepped platform 4.5 m above the ground. The enclosure occupied a large basement with a five-step krepidoma; the front of the temple had seven semi-columns, an archaic feature that precluded the addition of a central door. The long sides had fourteen semi-columns. Unlike other temples of the time, the outer columns did not stand on their own as a freestanding peristyle but were engaged against a continuous curtain wall needed to support the immense weight of its entablature.
In between the columns were colossal atlases, stone figures standing some 7.5 m high. The figures appear to have alternated between bearded and clean-shaven figures, all nude and standing with their backs to the wall and hands stretched above their heads; the exact positioning of the atlases has been the subject of some archaeological debate, but it is believed that they stood on a recessed ledge on the upper part of the outer wall, bearing the weight of the upper portion of the temple on their upheld hands. One of the fallen atlases has been reassembled in the nearby archaeological museum and another can be seen on the ground among the ruins of the temple. Attempts to make a detailed reconstruction of the telamons' original appearance have been hampered by their poor condition; the atlases are an exceptionally unusual feature, may have been unique in their time. They have been interpreted by some as symbolising the Greek enslavement of the Carthaginian invaders, or have been attributed to Egyptian influences.
Joseph Rykwert comments that "the sheer size of the temple seems to confirm the reputed extravagance of the Akragans, their love of display." The presence of windows between the columns is not confirmed. The cell was formed by a wall connecting 12 pilasters on each long side, the angular ones enclosing the pronaos and the episthodomos; the entrance to the cella was provided by an unknown number of doors. The interior was inspired by Phoenician-Carthaginian architecture: it comprised an immense triple-aisled hall of pillars, the middle of, open to the sky; the roof was never completed, though the pediments had a full complement of marble sculptures. The eastern end, according to Diodorus Siculus' enthusiast description, displayed a Gigantomachy, while the western end depicted the fall of Troy, again symbolising the Greeks' triumph over their barbarian rivals. In front of the eastern façade is the pilastered basement of the huge high altar, measuring 54,50 x 17,50 m. Media related to Temple of Zeus at Wikimedia Commons List of Greco-Roman roofs The Temple of Zeus at Agrigento's Valley of the Temples
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
Asclepius or Hepius is a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology. He is the son of Apollo. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, he was associated with the Egyptian Imhotep. He was one of Apollo's sons, sharing with Apollo the epithet Paean; the rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. Those physicians and attendants who served this god were known as the Therapeutae of Asclepius; the etymology of the name is unknown. In his revised version of Frisk's Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, R. S. P. Beekes gives this summary of the different attempts: "H. Grégoire in Asklépios, Apollon Smintheus et Rudra 1949, explains the name as'the mole-hero', connecting σκάλοψ, ἀσπάλαξ'mole' and refers to the resemblance of the Tholos in Epidauros and the building of a mole, but the variants of Asklepios and those of the word for'mole' do not agree. The name is typical for Pre-Greek words. I think that the -σ- renders an original affricate, lost before the -γ-.
Szemerényi's etymology from Hitt. assula-'well-being' and piya-'give' cannot be correct, as it does not explain the velar."Beekes suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Atyklap-. Asclepius was the son of Apollo, either by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas or by Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus of Messenia, he was the brother of Eriopis. Asclepius was married to Epione, with whom he had five daughters: Hygieia, Aceso and Aegle, three sons: Machaon and Telesphoros, he sired a son, with Aristodama. He was the son of Apollo and, according to the earliest accounts, a mortal woman named Coronis, his mother was killed by Artemis for being unfaithful to Apollo and was laid out on a funeral pyre to be consumed, but Apollo rescued the child, cutting him from Coronis's womb. According to an alternate tradition, Asclepius was born in the temple of Apollo, with Lachesis acting as a midwife and Apollo relieving the pains of Coronis. Apollo named the rescued baby Asclepius and reared him for a while and taught him a many things about medicine.
However, Asclepius had his formal education under the centaur Chiron who instructed him in the art of medicine. It is said that in return for some kindness rendered by Asclepius, a snake licked Asclepius's ears clean and taught him secret knowledge. Asclepius bore. Other version states that when Asclepius was commanded to restore the life of Glaucus, he was confined in a secret prison. While pondering on what he should do, a snake crept near his staff. Lost in his thoughts, Asclepius unknowingly killed it by hitting it again with his staff. Another snake came there with a herb in its mouth, placed it on the head of dead snake, which soon came back to life. Seeing this, Asclepius used the same herb, brought Glaucus back. A species of non-venomous pan-Mediterranean serpent, the Aesculapian snake is named for the god, he was called Hepius but received his popular name of Asclepius after he cured Ascles, ruler of Epidaurus who suffered an incurable ailment in his eyes. Asclepius became so proficient as a healer that he surpassed his father, Apollo.
Asclepius was therefore able to evade death and to bring others back to life from the brink of death and beyond. This caused an influx of human beings and Zeus resorted to killing him to maintain balance in the numbers of the human population. At some point, Asclepius was among those. Asclepius once started bringing back to life the dead people like Tyndareus, Glaucus, Hymenaeus and others. Others say he brought Hippolytus back from the dead on Artemis' request, accepted gold for it. However, Hades accused Asclepius for stealing his subjects and complianed to his brother Zeus about it. According to others, Zeus was afraid that Asclepius would teach the art of resurrection to other humans as well.. So he killed Asclepius with his thunderbolt; this angered Apollo. For this act, Zeus banished Apollo from Olympus and commanded Apollo to serve Admetus, King of Thessaly for a year. After Asclepius's death, Zeus placed his body among the stars as the constellation Ophiuchus. However, upon Apollo's request, Zeus resurrected Asclepius as a god and gave him a place on Olympus.
The most ancient and the most prominent asclepeion according to the geographer of the 1st century BC, was situated in Trikala. One of the most famous temples of Asclepius was at Epidaurus in north-eastern Peloponnese, dated to the fourth century BC. Another famous asclepeion was built a century later