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Valley of Mexico

The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including Teotihuacan, the Toltec, the Aztec; the ancient Aztec term Anahuac and the phrase Basin of Mexico are both used at times to refer to the Valley of Mexico. The Basin of Mexico became a well known site that epitomized the scene of early Classic Mesoamerican cultural development as well; the Valley of Mexico is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The valley contains most of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, as well as parts of the State of Mexico, Hidalgo and Puebla; the Valley of Mexico can be subdivided into four basins, but the largest and most-studied is the area that contains Mexico City. This section of the valley in particular is colloquially referred to as the "Valley of Mexico"; the valley has a minimum elevation of 2,200 meters above sea level and is surrounded by mountains and volcanoes that reach elevations of over 5,000 meters.

It is an enclosed valley with no natural outlet for water to flow and a gap to the north where there is a high mesa but no high mountain peaks. Within this vulnerable watershed all the native fishes were extinct by the end of the 20th century. Hydrologically, the valley has three features; the first feature is the lakebeds of five now-extinct lakes, which are located in the southernmost and largest of the four sub-basins. The other two features are piedmont, the mountainsides that collect the precipitation that flows to the lake area; these last two are found in all four of the sub-basins of the valley. Today, the Valley drains through a series of artificial canals to the Tula River, the Pánuco River and the Gulf of Mexico. Seismic activity is frequent here, the valley is considered an earthquake-prone zone; the valley has been inhabited for at least 12,000 years, attracting humans with its mild climate, abundant game and ability to support large-scale agriculture. Civilizations that have arisen in this area include the Teotihuacan the Toltec Empire and the Aztec Empire.

When the Spaniards arrived in the Valley of Mexico, it had one of the highest population concentrations in the world with about one million people. After the Conquest, the Spaniards rebuilt the largest and most dominant city here, renaming it Mexico City; the valley used to contain five lakes called Lake Zumpango, Lake Xaltocan, Lake Xochimilco, Lake Chalco, the largest, Texcoco covering about 1,500 square kilometers of the valley floor, but as the Spaniards expanded Mexico City, they began to drain the lakes' waters to control flooding. Although violence and disease lowered the population of the valley after the Conquest, by 1900 it was again over one million people; the 20th and 21st centuries have seen an explosion of population in the valley along with the growth of industry. Since 1900, the population has doubled every fifteen years. Today, around 21 million people live in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area which extends throughout all of the valley into the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.

The growth of a major urban, industrial centre in an enclosed basin has created significant air and water quality issues for the valley. Wind patterns and thermal inversions trap contaminants in the valley. Over-extraction of ground water has caused new flooding problems for the city as it sinks below the historic lake floor; this causes stress on the valley's drainage system, requiring new canals to be built. The Valley of Mexico attracted early humans because the region was rich in biodiversity and had the capacity of growing substantial crops. Speaking, humans in Mesoamerica, including central Mexico, began to leave a hunter-gatherer existence in favor of agriculture sometime between the end of the Pleistocene epoch and the beginning of the Holocene; the oldest known human settlement in the Valley of Mexico is located in Tlapacoya, located on what was the edge of Lake Chalco in the southeast corner of the valley in contemporary Mexico State. There is reliable archeological evidence to suggest that the site dates as far back as 12,000 BC.

After 10,000 BC, the number of artifacts found increases significantly. There are other early sites such as those in Tepexpan, Los Reyes Acozac, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Chimalhuacán and Los Reyes La Paz but they remain undated. Human remains and artifacts such as obsidian blades have been found at the Tlapacoya site that have been dated as far back as 20,000 BC, when the valley was semi-arid and contained species like camels and horses that could be hunted by man. However, the precise dating of these artifacts has been disputed. Giant Columbian mammoths once populated the area, the valley contains the most extensive mammoth kill sites in Mexico. Most of the sites are located on what were the shores of Lake Texcoco in the north of the Federal District and the adjacent municipalities of Mexico State such as in Santa Isabel Ixtapan, Los Reyes Acozac and Tlanepantla. Mammoth bones are still found in farmland here, they have been discovered in many parts of the Federal District itself during the construction of the city's Metro lines and in the neighborhoods of Del Valle in the center, Lindavista to the center-north and Coyoacán in the south of the city.

The symbol for Line 4's Talisman station of the Mexico City Metro is a mammoth, due to the fact that so many bones were uncovered during its construction. However, the ri

Adult education in Nazi Germany

Adult education in Nazi Germany was institutional continuing education for persons who had completed their schooling. After the synchronization of university extension programs and their municipal or private sponsors, the German Labor Front made its influence felt in two ways. Within its National Socialist Strength Through Joy organization, it founded the German Public Instruction Agency in 1935. Moreover, after 1933 it used the Office for Vocational Education and Business Management to influence commercial education; the German Institute for National Socialist Technical Vocational Training gave rise to the German Vocational Education Agency, which organized "practice groups" that by 1938 had 2 million participants. These operations should be distinguished from the "community schooling" of employers and workers through courses in the German Labor Front's Reich schools. Above all, adult education had functions not provided by the mass organizations of National Socialism, with their "ideological orientation and selection" and their military training.

The adult education offerings had more to do with the economic predicament and the demand for continuing education and ideological orientation than with political schooling. During the war, new areas of activity arose through the combining of work with vocational or general-educational correspondence courses, as well as through continuing education for persons with war-related disabilities. In 1943, the DVW established a night school in Munich, it supported social and cultural courses given by so-called guardians of public instruction in the workplaces. The 300 offices for public instruction attempted to mobilize the rural population for culture, their program of instruction was based on a model curriculum created in 1939 by Reich and Gau work groups for adult education. Instead of consolidation of adult education taking place through Reich legislation, a goal aimed at in 1933, the DVW gained dominance through the financial resources made available from DAF dues. Adult education should not be underestimated as an integrating element if its educational offerings served the collective increase of power.

Christian Zentner, Friedemann Bedürftig. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, pp. 8-9. Macmillan, New York. ISBN 0-02-897502-2

Doug Jones (international arbitrator)

Douglas Samuel Jones, is an independent international arbitrator based in London and Toronto. He is a door tenant at Atkin Chambers, a member arbitrator at Arbitration Place in Toronto, Canada, he serves as an international judge on the Singapore International Commercial Court. Born in 1949, Jones was educated at Normanhurst Boys' High School, Southport State High School and the University of Queensland in Australia, he graduated from the University of Queensland with a combined Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws degree in 1974, followed by a Master of Laws in 1977. Jones began his legal career in 1969 in Brisbane as an articled clerk at Morris Cross. In 1976 he was appointed a partner of Morris Fletcher & Cross and head of its National Construction & Engineering group, a position that he continued to hold when he left Brisbane in 1989 to set up the firm's Sydney office. In 1993, Jones joined the Sydney office of Clayton Utz as a partner and national head of the firm's Construction group. In 1995 he became head of International Arbitration and Private International Law group, in 2000 became head of the firm's National Major Projects group.

He serves as a consultant to the firm's Major Projects and Construction Group, has been a member of the Clayton Utz Board. Jones holds appointments to a number of professional bodies. Among others, he is: President of the International Academy of Construction Lawyers, Immediate Past President of the Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration. Jones has served as arbitrator in both ad hoc and institutional commercial arbitrations under institutional rules of the American Arbitration Association, International Centre for Dispute Resolution, Institute of Arbitrators and Mediators Australia Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration, Dubai International Arbitration Centre, Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre, International Chamber of Commerce, Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration, London Court of International Arbitration, Singapore International Arbitration Centre, UNCITRAL. European Development Fund Arbitration and Conciliation Rules as well as UNCITRAL Rules, in disputes of values exceeding some billions $US.

In 2010 Jones was appointed as an Australian Government nominee on the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes Panel of Arbitrators, was re-appointed to this role in 2017. Doug is acknowledged as a leading arbitrator and is ranked in a number of leading publications. Chambers Asia-Pacific has recognised Doug as "without question the leading Asia-Pacific-based arbitrator for construction disputes" and testified that “e is regarded by many as'the leading construction arbitrator in the world'”. In 2018, he maintained his Band One ranking in the Chambers Asia-Pacific international arbitration category for an eighth consecutive year. In the same year, Who's Who Legal UK Bar 2018 identified Doug as one of the 10 most regarded arbitration practitioners, an “out and out leader of the pack” in construction disputes. In 2017, Who's Who Legal praised Doug as “one of the best construction lawyers and arbitrators in the world" and commended his ability to “handle the most acrimonious of disputes”.

On 10 October 2019, Doug was appointed as an international judge of the Singapore International Commercial Court. Jones is the author of Building and Construction Claims and Disputes and Commercial Arbitration in Australia, he is the co-editor-in-chief of the International Construction Law Review, has published numerous articles and book chapters on construction law and dispute resolution. He contributes to a range of industry journals and publications. In January 1999 Jones was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia for "service to the law in the field of construction law, to the development of arbitration and alternative dispute resolution methods". In June 2012 he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia for "distinguished service to the law as a leader in the areas of arbitration and alternative dispute resolution, to policy reform, to national and international professional organisations". In August 2014 he was awarded the Michael Kirby Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2014 Lawyers Weekly Law Awards.

In presenting the award, the editor of Lawyers Weekly said:"Doug has left a lasting legacy not just on the Australian legal profession, but the international legal community. No one in the Australian legal sector has done more to promote Australia as a viable destination to hear international commercial arbitration matters than Doug, his tireless energy and devotion in promoting Alternative Dispute Resolution here and abroad has ensured Australia has a credible international voice in major discussions and developments on the global commercial dispute resolution scene" In June 2016, he was appointed Companion of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators in recognition of his achievements in private dispute resolution and his substantial contributions to the Chartered Institute by promoting its objectives worldwide. He is one of only five people bestowed with this honour, he is marr