Valve Corporation known as Valve Software, is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. It is the developer of the software distribution platform Steam and the Half-Life, Counter-Strike, Day of Defeat, Team Fortress, Left 4 Dead, Dota series. Valve was founded in 1996 by Mike Harrington, their debut product, the PC first-person shooter Half-Life, was released in 1998 to critical acclaim and commercial success, after which Harrington left the company. In 2003, Valve launched Steam, which accounted for around half of digital PC game sales by 2011. By 2012, Valve employed around 250 people and was worth over US$3 billion, making it the most profitable company per employee in the United States. In the 2010s, Valve began developing hardware, such as the Steam Machine, a brand of gaming PCs, as well as the HTC Vive and Valve Index virtual reality headsets. Valve was founded in 1996 by Mike Harrington. Newell had spent the prior 13 years at Microsoft developing Windows.
Wanting to move onto a new venture using their shared wealth, they founded Valve, L. L. C. in Kirkland, Washington, on August 24, 1996, Newell's wedding day. Alternative names considered by Newell and Harrington include "Fruitfly Ensemble" and "Rhino Scar". Valve's first product was Half-Life, a first-person shooter with elements of the horror genre; the development was aided by access to the Quake engine by id Software. Valve modified this engine into their GoldSrc engine. After struggling to find a publisher, Valve signed with Sierra On-Line. Half-Life was released in November 1998, was a critical and commercial success. According to IGN in 2014, the history of the FPS genre "breaks down pretty cleanly into pre-Half-Life and post-Half-Life eras."Valve enlisted Gearbox Software to develop three expansions for Half-Life. They acquired TF Software, a group that made a popular Quake mod for Quake, remade the mod for GoldSrc as Team Fortress, released in 1999; the company released the software development kit for the GoldSrc engine, facilitating numerous user-created mods.
One of these, Counter-Strike, became one of the most popular mods, Valve acquired the mod and hired its developers to create the standalone Counter-Strike game. Harrington left the company in 2000. In 2003, Valve moved to Bellevue, re-incorporated as Valve Corporation. In 2010, the office moved again to a larger location in Bellevue. In 2016, Valve signed a nine-floor lease in the Lincoln Square complex in downtown Bellevue, doubling the size of their offices. After the success of Half-Life, the team worked on mods, spin-offs, sequels, including Half-Life 2, using its new Source engine, improving upon its GoldSrc engine. Team Fortress 2 was a reworked version of Team Fortress Classic developed in the Source engine. To expand on Half-Life 2, Valve had planned on releasing three episodes to extend its story prior to a planned Half-Life 3. With the second episode, Valve packaged the game for consoles in The Orange Box, which included Half-Life 2 and both episodes, Team Fortress 2, Portal, an experimental game developed by a student team hired into Valve from their work on Narbacular Drop.
Of the Orange Box games, Portal proved a critical success, Valve developed Portal 2, hiring in another student team from the game Tag: The Power of Paint to incorporate those mechanics. Alongside developing games, Valve developed a digital storefront and delivery platform; the concept of Steam bore out of Valve trying to maintain patches for games like Counter-Strike so that all players were up-to-date. Failing to gain help from other third-party developers, Valve took it on themselves to build out Steam, first introduced in 2002, became mandatory by the time of Half-Life 2's release. Steam offered only Valve's games, but they soon allowed third-parties to sell on the service with Valve taking a cut of the revenues for maintaining the storefront and content delivery. Steam became the most significant ways gamers on the personal computer platform acquired digital games, with Steam accounting for up to 70% of all digital sales. In January 2008, they announced the acquisition of Turtle Rock Studios, which would be renamed Valve South.
Turtle Rock Left 4 Dead 2 while associated with Valve. Turtle Rock Studios spun out of Valve again in March 2010. Valve hired the developer of Defense of the Ancients, a Warcraft III mod. IceFrog led the development of a sequel not associated with the Warcraft elements, Dota 2. In December 2012, Valve acquired Star Filled Studios, a two-man gaming company, to open a San Francisco office. However, Valve ended the operation in August 2013 when they decided there was little benefit coming from the arrangement. At the 2013 D. I. C. E. Summit, Newell announced that he and film director J. J. Abrams were collaborating to produce a Half-Life or Portal film, as well as a possible new game. Valve's activities as a game developer has slowed since 2013, around the same time that Valve started to reduce its involvement in curation on Steam via Steam Greenlight, allowing for a larger influx of titles and gain its dominate position as the primary digital storefront for PC gaming. Between 2014 and 2019, Valve has only developed Artifact.
"Touch" is a debut song by the South Korean singer and actress Sori featuring the rapper Basick. The song was released as the debut single of the former on September 4, 2018. "Touch" was arranged and penned by the record producer Gamen Rider. The music video premiered on the same day of the single's release and was directed by the film director Hong Won-gi of the video production company Zanybros. Sori announced her debut as a solo artist through her official YouTube channel on July 31, 2018. In order to cover the expenses of her debut, a Makestar project was subsequently launched, running from August 1, 2018 until August 24, 2018; the project was an immense success, with 250 supporters raising over $20,000. Her debut single titled "Touch" was announced on August 27, 2018 in conjunction with the reveal of its cover art; the cover art was shot by the photographer Nakamura Kazutaka, while the latex dress sported in the cover art was designed by the fashion designer Atsuko Kudo. "Touch" is an uptempo dance-pop love song with tropical influences.
The song was arranged and penned by the record producer Gamen Rider, who produced a majority of the duo CocoSori's discography. "Touch" is three minutes and one second long. The song features the rapper Basick. "Touch" was a minor commercial success, where the physical version of the single debuted and peaked at number 49 on the Gaon Album Chart on the chart issued on September 14, 2018. A teaser for "Touch"'s music video was released on August 30, 2018, it premiered on September 4, 2018. The music video was directed by the film director Hong Won-gi of the video production company Zanybros. A choreography-centered version of the music video premiered on September 11, 2018; the choreography was created by the choreographer Choi Hyo-jin of the dance studio 1Million Dance Studio. A dancing competition using the song's choreography was subsequently held from September 12, 2018 until October 10, 2018, where the winner will receive ₩1,000,000; the music video begins with Sori resting her head on an unorganized dining table decorated with a bowl of cereal, a pitcher filled with milk, an apple.
She subsequently sprinkles cereal inside of the bowl before consuming a spoonful. Sori falls on a bed being pushed by women in orange latex swimsuits soon after. Throughout the music video, the aforementioned women dance around Sori, accompanying her to the swimming pool, an art museum, a restaurant, her bedroom. Miscellaneous shots include her undressing herself in a corridor, resting on a large apple, bathing in a bathtub filled with milk, playing with curtains, falling from a building. "Touch" was performed for the first time during its showcase held at the Dongja Art Hall in Seoul, South Korea on September 4, 2018. The song was subsequently performed on several music programs including KBS2's Music Bank, Mnet's M Countdown, SBS MTV's The Show, MBC Music's Show Champion. Additionally, Sori performed "Touch" twice during a street performance in Hongdae, with the first on September 8, 2018 and the second on December 29, 2018, in which she was accompanied by the internet personality StarTy
The song "Kiss This" by English rock band The Struts was released April 7, 2014, as the second single from their debut studio album. The song would begin to climb the charts in America in 2015 and 2016 causing an increase in popularity; the song calls on a personal experience of Luke Spiller. Spiller’s girlfriend at the time had been cheating on him with one of his close friends, he was not fond of the idea of the song taking on the life of this indulgence of self-pity. Instead, the band uses an in-your-face chorus. Due to this shift in perspective, the song became a liberating anthem about standing up on your own two feet. Spiller tells a story through the use of commentary, he describes the situation of infidelity. It's the only song from their ` Everybody Wants' album; the band describes the song as having a typical rock and roll progression, used by some legendary acts. The band takes the feel of “Sympathy for the Devil” and mixed a hip hop element in it. In addition to that, there Primal Scream’s “Movin’ On Up.
The band believes the song is their version of a ‘Young Hearts Run Free’-type song but in a rock mentality. The second music video was released on 8 February, 2016
The rusty crayfish is a large, aggressive species of freshwater crayfish, native to the United States. Its range is expanding across the continent, displacing native crayfishes in the process: it is known to have reached New England, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Ohio, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Manitoba, it was first spotted in the mid 1960s. The rusty crayfish was first captured in Illinois in 1973, has been collected at over 20 locations in the northern portion of the state. In 2005, F. rusticus was found for the first time west of the Continental Divide, in the John Day River, which runs into the Columbia River. Adult rusty crayfish can reach lengths of over 10 centimeters, although they reach maturity at about 4.4 cm, can range in color from greenish grey, to reddish brown, They can be recognized by two "rusty", reddish colored spots on the sides of their back and their large front claws with black bands around the tips. Male rusty crayfish have small hook-like features on their first pair of hind legs that they use to hold onto a female while mating.
The larger size and aggressive nature of rusty crayfish that have been introduced to a body of water makes it harder for them to be preyed upon by native species of fish, which are not accustomed to crayfish fighting them back. Instead of running away like the native crayfish species do when they come in contact with a predator, the rusty crayfish will take an attack stance with its claws raised above its head, which will scare away most predatory fish. Additionally, adult rusty crayfish can be too large for some fish to consume; because the rusty crayfish are able to avoid predators well, their population in these new aquatic ecosystems was able to grow quickly and within twenty years the rusty crayfish population had exploded and become an invasive species in the Northern United States and parts of Canada. Because these rusty crayfish populations have taken over the natives species' habitats and forced them out of their homes, many populations of native crayfish have experienced drastic decline over the past fifty years and the rusty crayfish has become the dominant species in much of the Midwestern United States.
Many species of vertebrates that live in communities together utilize a dominance hierarchy to establish order, studies have shown that some species of invertebrates do the same thing. It is now known that the dominance hierarchy is an important aspect of a crayfish's biology and behavior. Crayfish in general tend to form dominance hierarchies with the other members of their population in a particular environment; the largest male will demonstrate the most dominance over the others by being the most aggressive, picking fights with the other, smaller crayfish. The crayfish that wins the most fights is placed at the top of the hierarchy with the other members ranking in descending order based on size and sex. Studies have suggested that the largest determining factor in the formation of dominance hierarchies is size rather than sex; that means that female rusty crayfish can rank higher in the dominance hierarchy than male rusty crayfish if they are larger than them. There are some chemicals that will selectively kill only crayfish that have not been registered or labeled for crayfish control.
The chemicals do kill all species of crayfish, are not specific to rusty crayfish. Manual harvest for human consumption is an effective control strategy due to the large size of rusty crayfish. However, this strategy is only useful in reducing the adult population. Once a population of rusty crayfish is introduced to a body of water, it is difficult to eradicate them. Therefore, the best control strategy is to try to prevent any further spread of the rusty crayfish; the best ways to prevent invasive species spread is to learn to identify the invasive species, not use the species as bait or transport the species to bodies of water where it is not present. Alan P. Covich. "The role of benthic invertebrate species in freshwater ecosystems: zoobenthic species influence energy flows and nutrient cycling". BioScience. 49: 119–127. Doi:10.2307/1313537. JSTOR 1313537. Www.invadingspecies.com Partnership between the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters Global Invasive Species Database http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Orconectes_rusticus.html Species Profile - Rusty Crayfish, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library
The Double-O Ranch Historic District is located west of Harney Lake in Harney County in southeastern Oregon, United States. At one time, the Double-O Ranch covered over 17,000 acres; the ranch was owned by a well-known cattle baron and Bull Moose progressive. In 1941, the United States Government purchased most of the Double O Ranch property and added it to the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge; the two remaining Double-O Ranch buildings are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Double-O Ranch is located in the Harney Basin of southeastern Oregon. Around 9,800 years ago, the Harney Basin was covered by a single great lake covering 255,000 acres; the birds and plants found in the wetland around the lake provided abundant food for early inhabitants. About 3,500 years ago, small villages began to develop around the lake. Beginning about 1,400 years ago, extended droughts began to shrink the lake and surrounding wetlands. While there are no records of the earliest people to inhabit the Harney Basin, Native Americans used the wetland areas around Harney Lake for thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers.
By the time Europeans began to explore the area in the early nineteenth century, the Northern Paiute people were well established in the Harney Basin. Hudson's Bay Company fur trappers were the first Europeans to visit the Harney Basin. Peter Skene Ogden passed through the area in 1826. Other fur trapping expeditions followed in the 1830s. Several military expeditions explored the area in the late 1850s. Major Enoch Steen was the first non-native to explore the Donner und Blitzen River area south of Harney Lake in 1860. Steens Mountain, that dominates central Harney County, was named in his honor. In the 1860s, the United States Army established a number of military outposts in the Harney Basin; the Double-O Ranch was established in 1875 by James A. Hardin, it was one of the first permanent pioneer settlements in Harney County. In June 1878, during the Bannock War, the original ranch buildings were burned by a Bannock and Paiute war party. On 23 October 1878, the only pitched battle of that war occurred near Silver Creek on the northern edge of the Double-O Ranch.
After the Bannock War and Hardin rebuilt the Double-O Ranch. They continued to operate the ranch until 1903, when it was sold to William "Bill" Hanley who owned land north of the Double-O Ranch. Hanley improved the Double-O property increased cattle production, he made the ranch a rustic retreat for his many guests. William "Bill" Hanley moved to Harney County in eastern Oregon in 1879. Hanley purchased land near Burns, Oregon. In 1903, he acquired the Double-O Ranch near Harney Lake for $6 an acre. Over time, Hanley turned it into one of the county's largest cattle ranches, a showplace for his personal guests who wanted to enjoy the privacy and open space of southeastern Oregon; the Double-O was one of five ranches operated by Hanley. His ranch holdings totaled over 25,000 acres of deeded property, his Bell-A Ranch was three miles east of Burns. It only covered 6,700 acres, but it was regarded as one of the finest ranch estates in the western United States, his Double-O Ranch was over 17,000 acres.
At the Double-O Ranch, it was 8 miles from the ranch gate to the front door of the main house. Hanley had access to thousands of acres of public range land. In 1913, The New York Times reported, he established the Harney Valley Improvement Company to promote his land interests and encourage the development of Harney County. During the time he was building his ranch empire, Hanley knew the other powerful eastern Oregon cattle barons well, his peers included Peter French. Hanley was a progressive thinker, who became famous for his ranch hospitality, he entertained guests at his Bell-A Ranch or took them to the rustic Double-O Ranch to enjoy the outdoors. His friends included prominent politicians like Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, William Jennings Bryan as well as business tycoons such as James J. Hill, owner of the Great Northern Railway. Hanley played host to well-known writer CES Wood, poet Edwin Markham, painter Childe Hassam, sculptor Alexander Phimister Proctor, humorist Will Rogers.
In 1914, he ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate as a progressive Bull Moose Party candidate. The Malheur Migratory Bird Refuge was created in 1908. Over the years, the refuge grew to encompass 81,786 acres around Malheur Lake. During the 1930s, the P Ranch near Frenchglen and Sod House Ranch south of Malheur Lake were incorporated into the refuge, adding 64,717 acres to the protected wildlife area. In 1940, the name of the refuge was changed to the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. In 1941, the United States Government purchased 14,751 acres of Double-O Ranch land from the Hanley family for $118,000, adding it to the adjacent Malheur wildlife refuge to preserve shorebird habitat and protect critical waterfowl nesting areas; the Double-O Ranch included the lower Silver Creek drainage and several lakes that provided water to irrigate the property. The ranch's riparian areas, lake shore wetlands, grassy meadows provided habitat for migratory birds traveling along the Pacific Flyway. A number of natural warm springs made the lakes a winter haven for non-migratory birds as well.
The Trials of O'Brien is a 1965 television series starring Peter Falk as a sordid Shakespeare-quoting lawyer and featuring Elaine Stritch as his secretary and Joanna Barnes as his ex-wife. The series ran for only 22 episodes on CBS Television between September 18, 1965 and March 18, 1966. Among its guest stars: Milton Berle, Robert Blake, David Carradine, Faye Dunaway, Britt Ekland, Tammy Grimes, Buddy Hackett, Gene Hackman, Frank Langella, Angela Lansbury, Cloris Leachman, Roger Moore, Rita Moreno, Estelle Parsons, Joanna Pettet, Brock Peters, Tony Roberts, Martin Sheen. Falk said that he liked this financially unsuccessful series much better than his smash-hit Columbo. * Unknown The Trials of O'Brien on IMDb The Trials of O'Brien at TV.com