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Vamana

Vamana, is the fifth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu. He incarnates in a time of crisis to restore cosmic balance by creatively defeating the Asura king Mahabali, who had acquired disproportionate power over the universe. According to Hindu mythology, the noble demon king sponsors a sacrifice and gift giving ceremony to consolidate his power, Vishnu appears at this ceremony as a dwarf mendicant Brahmin called Vamana; when Vamana's turn comes to receive a gift, Mahabali offers him whatever riches and material wealth he would like, but Vamana refuses everything and states he would just like three paces of land. Mahabali irrevocably grants it. Vamana grows into a giant of cosmic proportions. In one step he covers the earth and the underworld, in another the heavens, for the third, Mahabali offers his head on which Vamana steps, sending the demon king to the Patala; the Vamana avatar has roots in Vedic texts of Hinduism. The hymns of the Rigveda describes Vishnu as that benevolent god who in three steps defined all there is in the universe.

The giant form of Vamana is known as Trivikrama. The Vamana legend has been a popular one, inspiring icons found in Hindu temples and sections in Hindu texts such as the Puranas and the epics. About thirty different versions of his mythology are found in these texts; the Sanskrit word Vamana means "dwarf". He is known as Trivikrama means the three steps, representing the Svarga, the earth, the Patala; the legend of Vishnu covering the universe in three steps is found in Vedic texts. For example, hymns, 1.22 and 1.154 of the Rigveda describe Vishnu as that bountiful, just god in three steps defined all there is in the universe. Other Rigvedic hymns that mention three steps of Vishnu include 1.154, 6.49, 7.100 and 8.29, in these the context is of a benevolent god who protects the oppressed humanity by his creative acts against the evil. The Bhagavata Purana describes that Vishnu descended as the Vamana avatar to restore the authority of Indra over the heavens, as it had been taken by a benevolent Asura King Mahabali.

Bali was the grand son of Prahlada and son of Virochana. Vamana, as a dwarf Brahmin carrying a wooden umbrella, went to the king to request for land that he could set his foot upon for three paces. Mahabali consented against the warning of his guru, having underestimated the nature of the request. Vamana enlarged to gigantic proportions to stride over the three worlds. With the first step he covered the space from heaven to earth, with the second from earth to the netherworld. King Mahabali's realms were exhausted, there was no space for the third step. Unable to fulfill his promise, Mahabali offered his head for the third. Vamana placed his foot on Mahabali's head, granted the king immortality for his humility, he was allowed to return every year to see the citizens of his country. The festival of Onam for some and first day of Diwali for some is related to this return of Mahabali to a visit to earth once every year in August–September; some texts state. In giant form, Vamana is known as Trivikrama.

According to another but similar version, Prahlada's grandson Mahabali came to power by defeating the gods, taking over the three worlds. According to Vaishnavism mythology, the defeated Devas approached Vishnu for help in their battle with Mahabali. Vishnu refused to join the gods in violence against Mahabali, because Mahabali was a good ruler and his own devotee. He, decided to test Mahabali's devotion at an opportune moment. Mahabali, after his victory over the gods, declared that he will perform Yajna and grant anyone any request during the Yajna. Vishnu took the avatar of a dwarf boy approached Mahabali; the king offered anything to the boy – gold, elephants, food, whatever he wished. The boy said that one must not seek more than one needs, all he needs is the property right over a piece of land that measures "three paces". Mahabali agreed; the Vamana covered everything Mahabali ruled over in just two paces. For the third pace, Mahabali offered himself to the Vamana. Mahabali symbolizes samriddhi, the three feet symbolize the three states of existence – Jagrat and sushupti and final step is on his head which elevates from these three states, unto moksha.

Balipratipada is an ancient festival observed during the five days of Diwali that amongst other things commemorates the Bali-Vamana legend. The legend signifies devotion and generosity. In one version of the Vamana legend, when Mahabali offered himself for Vishnu's third step, it was an act of Mahabali's devotion. Vishnu granted him a boon. Mahabali chose to revisit earth, once every year, the lands and people he ruled; this revisit marks the festival of Onam, as reminder of the virtuous rule and his humility in keeping his promise before Vishnu. According to Nanditha Krishna, a simpler form of this legend, one without Mahabali, is found in the Rigveda and the Vedic text Shatapatha Brahmana where a solar deity is described with powers of Vishnu; this story grew over time, is in part allegorical, where Bali is a metaphor for thanksgiving offering after a bounty of rice harvest during monsoon, Vishnu is the metaphor of the Kerala sun and summer that precedes the Onam. According to Roshen Dalal, the story of Mahabali is important to Onam in Kerala, but similar Mahabali legends are significant in the region of Balia in Uttar Pra

Pool of London

The Pool of London is a stretch of the River Thames from London Bridge to below Limehouse. Part of the Tideway of the Thames, the Pool was navigable by tall-masted vessels bringing coastal and overseas goods—the wharves there were the original part of the Port of London; the Pool of London is divided into the Upper Pool and Lower Pool. The Upper Pool consists of the section between London Bridge and the Cherry Garden Pier in Bermondsey; the Lower Pool runs from the Cherry Garden Pier to Limekiln Creek. The Pool was the stretch of the River Thames along Billingsgate on the south side of the City of London where all imported cargoes had to be delivered for inspection and assessment by Customs Officers, giving the area the name of "Legal Quays". Smuggling and pilferage of cargoes were rife on both the busy open wharves and in the crowded warehouses; the term was used more to refer to the stretch of the river from Rotherhithe upriver to London Bridge, with the venerable bridge being the farthest reach that could be navigated by a tall-masted vessel.

The Pool was of vital importance to London for centuries - as early as the 7th century Bede wrote that the Pool was the reason for London's existence - but it reached its peak in the 18th and 19th centuries. By this time the river was lined with nearly continuous walls of wharves running for miles along both banks, hundreds of ships moored in the river or alongside the quays; the Pool saw a phenomenal increase in both overseas and coastal trade in the second half of the eighteenth century. Two thirds of coastal vessels using the Pool were colliers meeting an increase in the demand for coal as the population of London rose. Coastal trade doubled between 1750 and 1796 reaching 11,964 vessels in 1795. In overseas trade, in 1751 the pool handled 234,639 tons of goods. By 1794 this had risen to 620,845 tons; the congestion was so extreme that it was said to be possible to walk across the Thames by stepping from ship to ship. London's Docklands had their origins in the lack of capacity in the Pool of London which affected the West India trade.

In 1799 The West India Dock Act allowed a new off-river dock to be built for produce from the West Indies and the rest of Docklands followed as landowners built enclosed docks with better security and facilities than the Pool's wharves. After the construction of off-river docks, the Pool of London remained an important part of the Port of London. Shipping needed unrestricted access to the Pool of London which imposed constraints on the crossings that became necessary with the commercial development on both sides of the river; the Thames Tunnel from Rotherhithe to Wapping was constructed between 1825 and 1843. Tower Bridge opened in 1894 as a bascule bridge. In 1909 the Pool came under the jurisdiction of the Port of London Authority; the docks thrived up until the 1950s, despite suffering severe bomb damage during the Second World War. The abrupt collapse of commercial traffic in the Thames due to the introduction of shipping containers and coastal deep-water ports in the 1960s emptied the Pool and led to all of the wharves being closed down, many being demolished.

The area was extensively redeveloped in the 1980s and 1990s to create new residential and commercial neighbourhoods. In 1996, an organisation - the Pool of London Partnership - was established to help promote urban renewal of the areas north and south of the river, it extended its remit further eastwards to include the docks and wharves of St Katharine Docks and Shad Thames. After a decade of successful regeneration and an investment of £100m, the Pool of London Partnership was due to dissolve in March 2007 with its work to be continued by three new organisations: Team London Bridge, the Potters Fields Park Management Trust and the Tower Hill Management Group. The'core area' includes Borough Market, London Bridge, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge station, Hay's Galleria, HMS Belfast, City Hall, Shad Thames, Tower Bridge, St Katharine Docks, the Tower of London, Tower Hill Underground station and the Monument to the Great Fire of London. André Derain painted four works on the Thames, his Pool of London painted in 1906 is on display at the Tate Gallery.

Derain was a leading Fauvist and had been sent to London by his dealer to produce Thames views in the Fauvist style. A British film, Pool of London, is a crime drama set within the Pool; the film was directed by Basil Dearden, features actors Earl Cameron, Susan Shaw, Joan Dowling, Bonar Colleano, comic actors Leslie Phillips, Alfie Bass and James Robertson Justice. The Pool has featured as a location in various other films. Patrick O'Brian refers to the Pool of London in the novel Blue at the Mizzen, the twentieth and last complete book in the Aubrey-Maturin series. Safeguarded wharf

Marginella gemmula

Marginella gemmula is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Marginellidae, the margin snails. The shell of Marginella gemmula, while glossy and smooth to the touch, has spires that can be anywhere from flat to moderately elevated. Most shells have various colors. On the outside of the shell, the columella has four plaits; the outside lip is thicker than other such creatures, the inside of the shell sports a denticulate set of teeth and/or folds. Unlike other gastropods, Marginella gemmula's siphonal canal is not deep, but is still present. There is no operculum present with Marginella gemmula; the head of Marginella gemmula is bifurcated, with the siphon extending behind it. When moving, the foot of the animal extends past the shell; this species occurs in Angola "Marginella gemmula". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019

2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods

The 2009 Angola and Zambia floods was a natural disaster which began in early March 2009 and resulted in the deaths of at least 131 people and otherwise affected around 445,000 people. The floods affected seven regions of Namibia, three provinces of Zambia, two regions of Angola and part of Botswana; the floodwaters displaced at least 300,000 people. A state of emergency was declared in northern Namibia and there were fears that a disease epidemic would ensue; the Red Cross agencies and governments of the two countries responded to the disaster, aid was distributed by the World Health Organization. The border regions of Angola and Zambia are dominated by small rivers which flood during the rainy season from December to April. Floods in 2008 lasted from February to March and affected 250,000 people in Namibia with 42 people losing their lives; the floods this year have been caused by heavy rain. As a result, the flooding this year has been worse than that experienced, it has been reported. The Angolan National Institute of Meteorology has placed the cause of the heavy rain with a large equatorial depression, expected to remain over the country until April when it will start to move southwards.

One report has blamed the continuing heavy rain on the effects of the meteorological phenomenon La Niña. Angola has been affected by floods within two of its provinces: Cunene; the worst affected province has been Cunene. Within Cunene alone 125,000 people have been affected by the flood and 25,000 have lost their homes. Across the country more than 30,000 people have been made homeless by the floods. There are fears that the floods could exacerbate diseases present in the area cholera and malaria. Three cases of cholera have been reported in Ondjiva, the capital of Cunene region, local officials expect that number to increase; the Red Cross reports. Botswana has been affected by the rising height of the Okavango River has risen to 8.62 m, the second highest depth recorded and the highest since 1969. The Okavango terminates in Botswana at the inland Okavango Delta and the Botswana government has issued an alert to those living alongside the river to move to higher ground; the government has evacuated 63 families amid concerns that flooding will worsen in the Chobe District.

More than 400 people have been displaced as a result of the floods and the Botswana Defence Force is working to help those affected. Seven regions of Namibia have been affected by the flood: Omusati, Oshana, Zambezi and Kunene; the worst affected regions have been Omusati, Ohangwena and Oshikoto which lie on the Cuvelai River. In the Zambezi Region floodwaters have reached areas up to 20 km from where the river flows. Up to 300,000 people have been affected by the floods in Namibia which have displaced around 276,000 people; the floods have destroyed crops, schools, medical centres and roads in the country whose president, Hifikepunye Pohamba, has said could be experiencing one of the worst natural disasters in living memory. Gravel roads have been affected with up to 85% of those in affected areas being damaged and cutting people off from assistance. People and livestock have been washed away and there have been cases of crocodiles and hippopotamuses swimming in the flood water and killing people.

There was a pre-existing cholera outbreak in the Kunene Region and the floods have worsened this by overwhelming sanitation infrastructure and reducing supplies of clean drinking water. Malaria cases have increased, with 2,000 known to have contracted the disease of which 25 have died; the Namibian government has stated. President Pohamba has stated that a food shortage could follow the floods and the United Nations has estimated that crop production in Namibia will fall by 63% in the next year and that up to 500,000 people could be affected by a food shortage. Local food prices have risen by 37% because of the disaster. Zambia has experienced flooding in the North-Western and Southern Provinces; the damage to infrastructure alone totals more than $5 million and one district, remains cut off from outside help completely. The floods have destroyed 5,000 homes in the Southern Province alone. Although this particular flood event has been worse than experienced in Namibia and Angola, there have been lower levels of flooding elsewhere in the region, such as on the Zambezi River, the rainy season is expected to last just four more weeks.

It is expected that the Kariba Dam in Zimbabwe and the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique will protect countries on the lower Zambezi from flooding caused by rainwater in the upper river. The Red Cross is keeping watch on Severe Tropical Storm Izilda, heading for Mozambique's east coast and could cause further flooding there. President Pohamba has declared a state of emergency across six northern districts, has requested international assistance; the Namibian state relief fund has been active in the region delivering water, food and other supplies to flooded areas by helicopter and motorboat. However it is hindered by a shortage of both aircraft and boats, is running out of funding; the Red Cross agencies in both Angola and Namibia have responded to the disaster. The Angola Red Cross is distributing mos

47 Arietis

47 Arietis is a single star in the northern constellation of Aries. The designation is from the star catalogue of English astronomer John Flamsteed, first published in 1712, it is faintly visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 5.80. It has an annual parallax shift of 30.15 ± 0.30 mas, equivalent to a physical distance of 108 light-years from Earth. The star is moving further from the Sun with a radial velocity of +26.6 km/s. It has a high proper motion, traversing the celestial sphere at the rate of 0.237 arc seconds per year. The combination of these movements indicate. Li et al. categorized this as an F-type main-sequence star with a stellar classification of F5 V. Previously, Cowley listed a class of F5 IV, which would indicate it is a subgiant star, it is most the source of X-ray emission, detected at these coordinates, it is a radio source. The star has 1.55 times the mass of the Sun and is radiating 4.43 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 6,633 K.47 Arietis has a red dwarf companion at an angular separation of 14.8 arc seconds along a position angle of 113°, as of 1998.

This star has a class of M3.5 and an infrared J-band magnitude of 10.47. HR 878 Image 47 Arietis

Aquaman: Battle for Atlantis

Aquaman: Battle for Atlantis is a console video game for the Xbox and Nintendo GameCube systems, based on the DC Comics character Aquaman. It was developed by Lucky Chicken Studios and published by TDK, it is based on Peter David's controversial interpretation of the comic book character. The game is notable for its poor reception from critics. After a long absence and being presumed dead, Aquaman's mortal enemy Black Manta has returned. Bringing with him waves upon waves of dedicated warriors, Manta intends to terrorize and destroy Aquaman's kingdom of Atlantis. In order to protect his subjects and the rest of the seven seas from Manta's evil machinations, Aquaman must venture into his city, save his people, defeat Black Manta. Little does he know, that there is an greater enemy waiting, who will attempt to take the Throne of Atlantis right out from under him. In October 2001, TDK Mediactive announced that it had reached a long-term deal with DC Comics to produce video games based on the Aquaman character, starting with the newly released platforms of the sixth console generation.

The announcement specified that the games would be created on multiple platforms, that the first game would see release sometime in 2002. Lucky Chicken Games was chosen as the development studio for the game that would come to be titled Aquaman: Battle for Atlantis, the game was scheduled for release in mid-2003; the release of the game coincided with a newly launching volume of the Aquaman ongoing series from DC Comics, which debuted in 2003 with a new #1 issue. PlayStation 2 and Game Boy Advance versions of the game were planned, but were never released due to poor sales from the GameCube and Xbox versions; the purpose of the game is to save Atlantis from doom. The story is told by cutscenes. Instead, it is told by text; the player progresses by defeating the enemies there. The levels are filled with empty ruined buildings; when Aquaman fights, he can punch and grapple with his opponents to defeat them. There are times throughout the game where the player can pilot crafts through the water and shoot down enemy submarines.

The game received "unfavorable" reviews on both platforms according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. Aquaman: Battle for Atlantis at MobyGames