Anabaptism is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation in Europe. Traditionally this movement is seen as an offshoot of European Protestantism, Anabaptists are Christians who believe that baptism is only valid when the candidate confesses his or her faith in Christ and wants to be baptized. This believers baptism is opposed to baptism of infants, who are not able to make a decision to be baptized. Anabaptists are those who are in a line with the early Anabaptists of the 16th century. Other Christian groups, like Baptists, who practice believers baptism but have different roots, are not seen as Anabaptist. The Amish and Mennonites are direct descendants of the early Anabaptist movement, schwarzenau Brethren and the Apostolic Christian Church are considered developments among the Anabaptists. The name Anabaptist means one who baptizes again and their persecutors named them this, referring to the practice of baptizing persons when they converted or declared their faith in Christ, even if they had been baptized as infants.
Anabaptists required that baptismal candidates be able to make a confession of faith that is freely chosen, the early members of this movement did not accept the name Anabaptist, claiming that infant baptism was not part of scripture and was therefore null and void. They said that baptizing self-confessed believers was their first true baptism, but the right baptism of Christ, which is preceded by teaching and oral confession of faith, I teach, and say that infant baptism is a robbery of the right baptism of Christ. Anabaptists were persecuted largely because of their interpretation of scripture that put them at odds with official state church interpretations, most Anabaptists adhered to a literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount, which precluded taking oaths, participating in military actions, and participating in civil government. Some groups that are now extinct, who practised rebaptism, felt otherwise and they were thus technically Anabaptists, even though conservative Amish and Hutterites and some historians tend to consider them as being outside of true Anabaptism.
Conrad Grebel wrote in a letter to Thomas Müntzer in 1524, True Christian believers are sheep among wolves, Neither do they use worldly sword or war, since all killing has ceased with them. For instance, Petr Chelčický, a 15th-century Bohemian reformer, taught most of the beliefs considered integral to Anabaptist theology, medieval antecedents may include the Brethren of the Common Life, the Hussites, Dutch Sacramentists, and some forms of monasticism. The Waldensians represent a similar to the Anabaptists. The believer must not bear arms or offer forcible resistance to wrongdoers, no Christian has the jus gladii. Matthew 5,39 Civil government belongs to the world, the believer belongs to Gods kingdom, so must not fill any office nor hold any rank under government, which is to be passively obeyed. But no force is to be used towards them, on December 27,1521, three prophets appeared in Wittenberg from Zwickau who were influenced by Thomas Müntzer—Thomas Dreschel, Nicholas Storch, and Mark Thomas Stübner.
They preached an apocalyptic, radical alternative to Lutheranism and their preaching helped to stir the feelings concerning the social crisis which erupted in the German Peasants War in southern Germany in 1525 as a revolt against feudal oppression
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. As of 2011, only information about deceased people is included. The system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative, access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface. The project is an undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact. In February 2012, a new project was started called BiographyNed to build a tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time. The main goal of the project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it. Wood engraving is a form of printing and is not covered in this article. Engraving was an important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking. Other terms often used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving, hand engraving is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are engraved, using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate. Each graver is different and has its own use, engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes, dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are usually used for lettering, using a pantographic system, there are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces. Such machines are used for inscriptions on rings, lockets. Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types, the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip that is commonly used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for work on letters, as well as wriggle cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background. Knife gravers are for line engraving and very deep cuts, round gravers, and flat gravers with a radius, are commonly used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel.
Square or V-point gravers are typically square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines, V-point can be anywhere from 60 to 130 degrees, depending on purpose and effect. These gravers have very small cutting points, other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for stone setting techniques
Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. Fawkes, who had 10 years of experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives. The plot was revealed to the authorities in a letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plots discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House, in the battle, Catesby was one of those shot. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged, details of the assassination attempt were allegedly known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he knew of the plot.
As its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional, although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plots discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James Is reign. Between 1533 and 1540, the Tudor King Henry VIII took control of the English Church from Rome, English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the newly separate and increasingly Protestant Church of England. The penalties for refusal were severe, fines were imposed for recusancy, Catholicism became marginalised, but despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret. Queen Elizabeth and childless, steadfastly refused to name an heir, many Catholics believed that her Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots, was the legitimate heir to the English throne, but she was executed for treason in 1587. In the months before Elizabeths death on 24 March 1603, Cecil prepared the way for James to succeed her, some exiled Catholics favoured Philip II of Spains daughter, Infanta Isabella, as Elizabeths successor.
More moderate Catholics looked to Jamess and Elizabeths cousin Arbella Stuart, despite competing claims to the English throne, the transition of power following Elizabeths death went smoothly. Jamess succession was announced by a proclamation from Cecil on 24 March, leading papists, rather than causing trouble as anticipated, reacted to the news by offering their enthusiastic support for the new monarch. Jesuit priests, whose presence in England was punishable by death, demonstrated their support for James, for decades, the English had lived under a monarch who refused to provide an heir, but James arrived with a family and a future line of succession. His wife, Anne of Denmark, was the daughter of a king, Jamess attitude towards Catholics was more moderate than that of his predecessor, perhaps even tolerant. During the late 16th century, Catholics made several assassination attempts against Protestant rulers in Europe and in England, including plans to poison Elizabeth I. Much of the rather nervous James Is political writing was concerned with the threat of Catholic assassination and refutation of the argument that faith did not need to be kept with heretics
Maerten de Vos
Maerten de Vos, Maerten de Vos the Elder or Marten de Vos was a Flemish painter mainly of history paintings and portraits. De Vos was a draughtsman and produced numerous designs for the Antwerp printers. He was born in Antwerp as the youngest of the four children of Peter de Vos and his father was born in Leiden and relocated to Antwerp where he was recorded at the age of 17 years as a pupil of Jeroom Scuelens. Maerten and his brother, called Pieter, first trained with their father, a pupilage with the leading mid-16th century leading history painter Frans Floris has been surmised by some art historians but there is no documentary evidence for this. As a trip to Italy had become a rite of passage for Flemish artists in the 16th century and it is possible that he made at least part of his trip to the south in the company of Pieter Brueghel the Elder. He likely resided in Rome and Venice, de Vos work shows a strong influence of the colors of the Venetians. The 17th-century Italian artist biographer Carlo Ridolfi wrote that de Vos worked in the studio of Tintoretto in Venice, upon his return to Antwerp in 1558 de Vos became a member of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke.
It is possible that he returned to Antwerp earlier if the date of 1556 on a painting is correct. He married Joanna le Boucq whose family was originally from Valenciennes in France, the couple had five daughters and three sons. At the time, Frans Floris was the history painter in Flanders. This made it difficult for other artists to find commissions. De Vos was lucky to obtain in 1564 commissions from the rich Antwerp merchant Gillis Hooftman, in the 1560s Flanders suffered from the Beeldenstorm, the iconoclastic fury that reached its peak in 1566. During the period of iconoclasm, Catholic art and many forms of church fittings, Frans Floris who was at the time the leading Flemish history painter never recovered from the shock of seeing his artworks destroyed. Floris found himself in a spiral in both his personal and professional affairs. As Floris virtually stopped painting after 1566, a generation of artists seized the opportunity to take over his important position in history painting in the Habsburg Netherlands.
Among these artists Maerten de Vos became the most prominent, de Vos received in 1570 the commission to decorate the palatine chapel of William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Celle, Germany. His reputation grew and in 1572 he was appointed dean of the Antwerp guild, de Vos had initially converted to the Lutheran faith, but he reconverted to Catholicism after the Fall of Antwerp and the defeat of the Protestant cause in the Habsburg Netherlands. His career took off as he was awarded important commissions from the brotherhoods and guilds of Antwerp, de Vos executed monumental altarpieces in the Antwerp Cathedral and other Antwerp churches
They were active in Antwerp and Brussels. The first generation of engravers consisted of the three sons of the painter and cabinet maker Anton Wierix I, Johannes Wierix Wierix, Hieronymus Wierix. Anton IIs son, Anton III Wierix, completes the engraver members of the family, all were highly productive, with 2,333 prints catalogued between them, the largest number by Johannes. The Wierix family members were known for their attention to detail and Hieronymus appear to have begun training together, and although Hieronymus was the younger by four years he was able to keep pace with his brother. Even for that period they were precocious, with very fine copies of other prints dated from the age of 12 in Hieronymuss case and their copies of engravings by Albrecht Dürer from this period are still valued by collectors. Who their master was is unknown – it was unlikely to be their father and Hieronymus first worked producing book illustrations for the large publishing concern of Christopher Plantin in Antwerp.
Hieronymus was first paid by Plantin in 1570, and they joined the Antwerp artists Guild of Saint Luke in 1572/3. Johannes probably trained Anton II, and Hieronymus, Anton III, the brothers often worked together, but Johannes moved to Delft from 1577–79, probably as a result of the Sack of Antwerp in 1576, known as the Spanish Fury. The brothers were recorded as Lutherans in 1585, but as they did a large amount of work for the Jesuits, however the productivity and quality of their work gives a rather different picture. The father of Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten was another pupil of Hieronymus, Johannes pupils included Hendrik Hondius I. After Anton II died relatively young in 1604, Hieronymus took over his plates, Anton IIIs death at an even younger age brought an end to the family business, although at least one of the brothers many daughters married an engraver. Johannes did more work for Plantin than Hieronymus, amounting to over 120 plates by 1576, most of their work was based on compositions by another artist, whether a painting, drawing or print.
In ambitious original compositions, the brothers could not match the work of their contemporary Hendrik Goltzius and other Dutch engravers and he had asked the literary Jesuit Jerome Nadal to prepare the text, and 154 drawings had been produced by various artists, mostly Italian. Plantin had agreed to publish the work, but with the disruption of the Spanish Fury of 1576, had not done so by his death, after attempting to find engravers elsewhere, the Jesuits, in the person of Fr Ferdinand Ximenez, took the brothers on. The prints were published in a separate volume from the text in 1593. They were intended as models of faithful depictions of the incidents of the Gospels, the apparent setting of most interior scenes in a wealthy Antwerp merchants house does not contribute to the desired effect in modern eyes. Further work for the Jesuits followed, Hieronymus in particular came to specialize in small religious scenes. Some of Johannes drawings were made to be engraved, but others were sold as finished objects, the British Museum has 44, including 19 illustrating the Book of Genesis, and a large composition of Diana surprised by Actaeon
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website