Alicia Roanne Witt is an American actress, singer-songwriter, pianist. She first came to fame as a child actress after being discovered by David Lynch, who cast her as Alia Atreides in his film Dune and in a guest role in his television series Twin Peaks. Witt had a critically acclaimed role as a disturbed teenager in Fun, appeared as a music student in Mr. Holland's Opus, as a college coed in the horror film Urban Legend, she appeared in Cameron Crowe's Vanilla Sky, Last Holiday, the thriller 88 Minutes. Witt has made television appearances in The Walking Dead, The Sopranos, Two and a Half Men, Friday Night Lights, Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Cybill and Twin Peaks: The Return. In addition to acting, Witt has been described as a musical prodigy, as an accomplished pianist and songwriter, she released her self-titled debut album in 2009. Witt has appeared in six Hallmark Channel movies and one Hallmark Movies and Mysteries Channel movie. Witt was born on August 21, 1975, in Worcester, Massachusetts, to Diane, a junior high school reading teacher, Robert Witt, a science teacher and photographer.
She has Ian. "Talking by age two and reading by the age of four," Witt has been described as a child prodigy. Her acting talent was recognized by director David Lynch in 1980, when he heard her recite Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet on the television show That's Incredible! at age five. He would begin working with her in film and television before Witt earned her high school equivalency credential, she competed nationally. Witt's discovery by Lynch led to his casting of the "flame-haired" child in the movie Dune as Paul Atreides's sister Alia, she worked with Lynch again when she appeared in an episode of Twin Peaks, playing the younger sister of Lara Flynn Boyle's character Donna. These experiences led to Witt's having small parts in Mike Figgis's Liebestraum, in which her brother Ian appears, the Gen-X drama Bodies, Rest & Motion, the TV movie The Disappearance of Vonnie. In 1994, Witt landed her first lead role in a film, playing a disturbed, murderous teenager in Fun, receiving the Special Jury Recognition Award at the Sundance Festival.
Witt was cast in the "desultory" Four Rooms, as Madonna's lover in the episode, "The Missing Ingredient". Witt was introduced to a larger audience in the role of Cybill Shepherd's daughter, Zoey Woodbine, in the sitcom Cybill. While playing that part, from 1995 to 1998, she had film roles in Stephen Herek's Mr. Holland's Opus, Alexander Payne's "delightful" satirical comedy Citizen Ruth, Robert Allan Ackerman's Passion's Way, Richard Sears' comedy Bongwater. After the Cybill series was cancelled, Witt went on to leading roles in Jamie Blanks' horror film Urban Legend, in Kevin Altieri/Touchstone Pictures' limited-release animated feature, Gen¹³. In 2000, Witt had starring roles on episodes of the television shows Ally McBeal and The Sopranos, the lead role in the Matthew Huffman comedy Playing Mona Lisa, a "memorable" part in John Waters' "scathing satire" Cecil B. Demented, she went on to a small part in Cameron Crowe's Vanilla Sky. Witt played "Two", the college graduate discussing loss of her virginity, in Rodrigo Garcia's Ten Tiny Love Stories, played the role of promiscuous Barbie, half-sister of the title character, in American Girl.
Witt appeared in Marc Lawrence's romantic comedy Two Weeks Notice, starring Hugh Grant and Sandra Bullock. In 2003–04, she took up residence in the United Kingdom, though she portrayed Joan Allen's daughter in the US-based comic drama The Upside of Anger. Between these two projects, Witt went to South Africa to shoot a film interpretation of the epic poem "Das Nibelungenlied", played one of the central characters Kriemhild in the German TV movie Kingdom in Twilight. Witt filmed the Last Holiday and the thriller 88 Minutes, joined the cast of Law & Order: Criminal Intent for the 2007–2008 season. In the latter she played Detective Nola Falacci, a character temporarily replacing Megan Wheeler as Detective Mike Logan's partner, was a recurring character in the 2007–2008 season. Witt appeared in the role of Amy in the film Peep World. Witt appeared as the character Elaine Clayton in Cowgirls n' Angels, in 2013 co-starred in the independent film Cold Turkey opposite Peter Bogdanovich and Cheryl Hines.
Her dramatic performance in this film was critically acclaimed, with New York Magazine's David Edelstein proclaiming her turn one of the top performances of 2013. Witt appeared in four Christmas films in 2013: the feature film Tyler Perry's A Madea Christmas, A Snow Globe Christmas for Lifetime Channel, A Very Merry Mix-Up for Hallmark Channel, in 2014 Hallmark Channel's Christmas at Cartwright's. In 2014, Witt appeared in a major guest starring role on the DirecTV series Kingdom, which aired t
Paula Wagner is an American film producer and film executive. She sits on the National Board of Directors for the Producers Guild of America. Wagner was born Paula Sue Kauffman in Ohio, her mother, Sue Anna, was a news magazine editor from Oklahoma, her father, Edmund Jamison "Ned" Kauffman, Jr. was a business owner. She attended college at Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania. In her early career in New York, Wagner "played several ensemble parts in the 1971 production of Lenny, her first marriage, to the set designer Robin Wagner, brought her into the industry’s A-list circles. Wagner was a talent agent at Creative Artists Agency in Los Angeles, spending 15 years representing some of the top Hollywood actors, including Tom Cruise, Sean Penn, Oliver Stone, Val Kilmer, Demi Moore, Liam Neeson, Robert Towne, Kathryn Bigelow. In 1993, she launched Cruise/Wagner Productions with her former CAA client Tom Cruise. For the next 13 years and she produced a wide range of films that earned numerous awards, widespread critical praise, global box office success.
The first film released under the C/W banner was the international hit Mission: Impossible, the success of which brought the company the 1997 Nova Award for Most Promising Producers in Theatrical Motion Pictures. C/W went on to produce such films as The Others, The Last Samurai, Vanilla Sky, Without Limits, Shattered Glass, Narc and Ask the Dust, as well as Steven Spielberg's War of the Worlds. C/W was responsible for the original Mission: Impossible film trilogy. In all, films produced by C/W earned more than $3 billion in worldwide box office receipts. Wagner was co-owner of United Artists Pictures, she was the company's chief executive officer from 2006 to 2008. During her tenure, Wagner orchestrated relationships with some of the top talents in the business, including Oscar-winning screenwriters Christopher McQuarrie, Paul Haggis, Steven Zaillian, Academy Award winner Guillermo del Toro. UA released the Robert Redford political thriller Lions for Lambs and the World War II thriller Valkyrie, directed by Bryan Singer and starring Cruise.
She continues to work as a film studio executive. She develops films and television through her production company Chestnut Ridge Productions. One of its projects is the Broadway theatrical production of The Heiress starring Jessica Chastain and David Strathairn and directed by Moisés Kaufman, she produced the Broadway premiere of Craig Wright’s acclaimed play Grace, directed by Dexter Bullard and starring Paul Rudd, Michael Shannon, Kate Arrington, Ed Asner. The show opened October 2012, at the Cort Theatre. For television, she was an executive producer of the critically acclaimed and award-winning Lifetime original movie FIVE. Prior to her career as an agent and producer, Wagner was an actress, she was a member of the Yale Repertory Theatre. She is a published playwright, co-authoring the play Out of Our Father's House. Wagner serves on the Board of the National Film Preservation Foundation through the Library of Congress, Film Forum in New York and Carnegie Mellon University, where she received her degree and is an adjunct faculty member in the Master in Entertainment Industry Management program through the Heinz College.
Wagner is a member of the American Cinematheque's Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the UCLA’s School of Theater and Television. Wagner will teach a course at UCLA School of Theater and Television titled “Stage to Screen”, she is an adjunct professor at Loyola Marymount University’s School of Film and Television. Wagner has lectured in the US and abroad, including at University of Southern California Film School and New York University Film Schools, Youngstown State University Business School, the American Film Institute, the Motion Picture and Television Fund Foundation, the Harvard Business School, DePaul University, she was a commencement speaker for the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University and a keynote speaker of the Toronto International Film Festival. Wagner was honored by Premiere magazine with the Women in Hollywood Icon Award in 2001; the following year she was featured in Bravo's Women on Top, a documentary which profiled exceptional women in entertainment.
In 2004, Cruise and she were honored by Daily Variety as Billion-Dollar Producers. That same year and Cruise received the UCLA/Producers Guild of America Vision Award. In 2006, Wagner received the Sherry Lansing Award from the Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, she was the recipient of the Excellence in Producing Award at the Sarasota Film Festival and served as the president of the First-Time Directors Jury at the Venice Film Festival. In 2008, Wagner was honored by the Costume Designers Guild with its Swarovski President's Award, in 2011, she earned the Chicago International Film Festival’s Renaissance Award. In 2012, Wagner was honored at the 38th Deauville American Film Festival, which ran from August 31 to September 9 in Normandy, France. In 2012, Wagner executive produced Tony-nominated The Heiress and in 2014, Mothers and Sons, nominated for best new play. Paula Wagner on IMDb
Cameron Michelle Diaz is a retired American actress and former model. She has appeared in comedies throughout her career, while earning critical recognition in dramatic films, her accolades include four Golden Globe Award nominations, three Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, a New York Film Critics Award. In 2013, she was named the highest-paid actress over 40 in Hollywood; as of 2018, the U. S. domestic box office grosses of Diaz's films total over $3 billion USD, with worldwide grosses surpassing $7 billion, making her the fifth highest-grossing U. S. domestic box office actress. Born in San Diego, Diaz was raised in Long Beach. While still in high school, she signed a modeling contract with Elite Model Management, she made her film debut at age 21 opposite Jim Carrey in the comedy The Mask. She was subsequently cast in a supporting role in My Best Friend's Wedding before appearing as the titular Mary in the Farrelly brothers' hit comedy There's Something About Mary, which brought her increased fame and a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress in a Comedy or Musical.
Her following two projects—the sports drama Any Given Sunday, Spike Jonze's surrealist fantasy Being John Malkovich —lent Diaz a reputation as a dramatic actress, the latter earning her her second Golden Globe nomination. Diaz earned a third Golden Globe nomination for her supporting role in Vanilla Sky, appeared in numerous high-profile films in the early 2000s, including Charlie's Angels and its sequel Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, as well as voicing the character of Princess Fiona in the Shrek series. In 2003, she was cast in Martin Scorsese's period epic Gangs of New York, for which she earned her fourth Golden Globe nomination, her subsequent films included the dramatic comedies In Her Shoes and The Holiday, the psychological thriller The Box. Diaz appeared in supporting parts in The Green Hornet in 2011, followed by starring roles in the comedies The Other Woman and Sex Tape. After appearing in Will Gluck's 2014 film adaptation of Annie, Diaz confirmed she was formally retiring from acting.
Diaz is the author of two health books: The Body Book, a New York Times bestseller, The Longevity Book. Cameron Michelle Diaz was born August 30, 1972 in San Diego, California to Billie, an import/export agent, Emilio Diaz, a foreman of the California oil company Unocal. Diaz has Chimene, her father's family is Cuban, Diaz's ancestors had moved from Spain to Cuba. They settled in Ybor City, before moving to California, where her father was born, her mother has predominantly German ancestry. Diaz was raised in Long Beach and attended Los Cerritos Elementary School, Long Beach Polytechnic High School, where she was a classmate of Snoop Dogg, she recalled her upbringing as frugal, stating: "I had amazing parents, they were awesome. We weren't privileged—very much the opposite. My family would collect cans to turn in for extra money, because $20 meant something to us, but we were happy."While still attending high school, Diaz signed a modeling contract with Elite Model Management at age 16, appeared in advertisements for Calvin Klein and Levi's.
The following year, at age 17, she was featured on the cover of the July 1990 issue of Seventeen magazine. Diaz modeled for 2 to 3 months in Australia and shot a commercial for Coca-Cola in Sydney in 1991. In 1992, at age 19, she was photographed and videotaped topless for an S&M leather fashion lingerie editorial by John Rutter and Clifford Wright, as producer for an editorial for Max Magazine Italy, they were never released. Rutter approached Diaz in 2003, ahead of the release of Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, offering to sell the pictures and video to her for $3.5 million before attempting to sell them to prospective buyers. He stated. In July 2004, the 30-minute video of the photoshoot, entitled She's No Angel, was released on a Russian website. Rutter denied releasing it. On July 26, 2005, Rutter was convicted of attempted grand theft and perjury. On September 16, 2005, Rutter was sentenced to more than three years in prison. At the age of 21, Diaz auditioned for The Mask playing the sultry jazz singer Tina Carlyle, based on the recommendation of an agent for Elite, who met the film's producers while they were searching for the lead actress.
Having no previous acting experience, she started acting lessons after being cast. The Mask launched Diaz as a sex symbol. During this period, Diaz dated video producer Carlos de la Torre. Diaz subsequently starred in the independent black comedy The Last Supper, playing one of several liberal graduate students who invite a group of extremist conservatives to a dinner to murder them. Roger Ebert deemed the film "a brave effort in a timid time, a Swiftian attempt to slap us all in the face and get us to admit that our own freedoms depend on those of our neighbors, our opponents and, our enemies." She had a lead role as an ex-stripper in the dramatic comedy Feeling Minnesota, in which she co-starred opposite Keanu Reeves, Vincent D'Onofrio, Courtney Love. Emanuel Levy of Variety noted: "Sadly, with the notable exception of the attractive Diaz, who’s well cast as the sexual aggressor and romantic manipulator, there are no exciting performances in the film." The same year, she was cast opposite Jennifer Aniston in the Edward Burns-directed comedy She's the One, followed by a starring role in Head Above Water, a c
Kurt Vogel Russell is an American actor. He began acting on television at the age of 12 in the western series The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters. In the late 1960s, he signed a ten-year contract with The Walt Disney Company where, according to Robert Osborne, he became the studio's top star of the 1970s. Russell was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture for his performance in Silkwood. In the 1980s, he starred in several films directed by John Carpenter, including anti-hero roles such as army hero-turned-robber Snake Plissken in the futuristic action film Escape from New York, its sequel Escape from L. A. Antarctic helicopter pilot R. J. MacReady in the remake of the horror film The Thing, truck driver Jack Burton in the dark kung-fu comedy action film Big Trouble in Little China, all of which have since become cult films, he was nominated for an Emmy Award for the television film Elvis directed by Carpenter. Russell starred in other films, including Overboard, Backdraft Tombstone, Death Proof, The Hateful Eight and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.
He joined The Fast and the Furious franchise in 2015, having starred in Furious 7 and The Fate of the Furious. Born in Springfield, Russell is the son of actor Bing Russell and dancer Louise Julia Russell, he has three sisters, Jill and Jody. Russell played little league baseball throughout his grade school years and on his high school baseball teams, he graduated from Thousand Oaks High School in 1969. His father, played professional baseball, his sister, Jill, is the mother of baseball player Matt Franco. From 1969 to 1975, Russell served in the California Air National Guard, belonged to the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing, based in Van Nuys. Russell made his film debut for an uncredited part in Elvis Presley's It Happened at the World's Fair, appeared in two extra episodes, celebrating the tenth anniversary of the then-defunct series Rin Tin Tin. On April 24, 1963, Russell guest starred in the ABC series Our Man Higgins, starring Stanley Holloway as an English butler in an American family, he played Peter Hall in the 1963 episode "Everybody Knows You Left Me" on the NBC medical drama about psychiatry The Eleventh Hour.
He played the title role in the ABC western series The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters. The show was based on Robert Lewis Taylor's eponymous novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1959. In 1964, Russell guest-starred in "Nemesis", an episode of the popular ABC series The Fugitive in which, as the son of police Lt. Phillip Gerard, he is unintentionally kidnapped by his father's quarry, Doctor Richard Kimble. In NBC's The Virginian, he played the mistaken orphan whose father was an outlaw played by Rory Calhoun, still alive and released from prison looking for his son. Russell played a similar role as a kid named Packy Kerlin in the 1964 episode "Blue Heaven" for the western series Gunsmoke, he appeared in five episodes of Daniel Boone in various roles. At age 13, Russell played the role of Jungle Boy on an episode of CBS's Gilligan's Island, which aired on February 6, 1965, he guest-starred on ABC's western The Legend of Jesse James. In 1966, Russell played a 14-year-old Indian boy, Grey Smoke, adopted by the Texas Rangers in the episode "Meanwhile, Back at the Reservation" of the NBC western series Laredo.
In the story line, he works for an outlaw gang, but the Rangers take him under their wing and the boy proves helpful when gunslingers try to occupy Laredo, Texas. In 1966, Walt Disney wrote "Kurt Russell" on a piece of paper as his final words. In January 1967, Russell played Private Willie Prentiss in the episode "Willie and the Yank: The Mosby Raiders" in Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color. While filming the Sherman Brothers theatrical film musical The One and Only, Original Family Band, Russell met his future partner Goldie Hawn. He, Jay C. Flippen and Tom Tryon appeared in the episode'"Charade of Justice" of the NBC western series The Road West starring Barry Sullivan. In a March 1966 episode of CBS's Lost in Space entitled "The Challenge", he played Quano, the son of a planetary ruler and Edward's son "Whitey" in Follow Me, Boys!. In 1971, he co-starred as a young robber released from jail, alongside James Stewart in Fools' Parade, he guest-starred in an episode of Room 222 as an idealistic high school student who assumed the costumed identity of Paul Revere to warn of the dangers of pollution.
In 1966, Russell was signed to a ten-year contract with The Walt Disney Company, where he became, according to Robert Osborne, the "studio's top star of the'70s". He starred in The One and Only, Original Family Band and The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes, the latter of which spawned two sequels: Now You See Him, Now You Don't and The Strongest Man in the World. Russell, like his father, had a baseball career. In the early 1970s, Russell was a switch-hitting second baseman for the California Angels minor league affiliates, the Bend Rainbows and Walla Walla Islanders in the short season Class A-Short Season Northwest League moved up to Class AA in 1973 with the El Paso Sun Kings of the Texas League. While in the field turning the pivot of a double play early in the season, the incoming runner at second base collided with him and tore the rotator cuff in Russell's right shoulder, he did not return to El Paso, but was a designated hitter for the independent Portland Mavericks back in the Northwest League late in their short season.
The team was owned by his father, he had been doing promotional work for them in the interim. The injury forced his retirement from baseba
Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction and adventure films, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the Indiana Jones series, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park are seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer for several successful films, including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several games within the video-game industry. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing movies of all-time, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere... using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract, it made him the youngest director to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio.
He subsequently dropped out of college to begin pro
A lucid dream is a dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming. During a lucid dream, the dreamer may gain some amount of control over the dream characters and environment; the term'lucid dream' was coined by Dutch author and psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden in his 1913 article A Study of Dreams, though descriptions of dreamers being aware that they are dreaming predates the actual term. Frederik Van Eeden studied his personal dreams since 1896, he wrote down the most interesting ones, out of all these dreams, 352 were what we know now as “lucid dreams”. Throughout all the data he collected from dreaming, he created different names for different types of dreams, he named 7 different types of dreams: initial dreams, ordinary dreaming, vivid dreaming, general dream-sensations, lucid dreaming. Frederick Van Eeden said the seventh type of dreaming, lucid dreaming, was the most interesting and worthy of the most careful observation of study. Eeden studied lucid dreaming between January 20, 1898, December 26, 1912.
In this state of dreaming Eeden explains that you are aware of your surroundings and are able to direct your actions yet the sleep is stimulating and uninterrupted. Early references to the phenomenon are found in ancient Greek writing. For example, the philosopher Aristotle wrote:'often when one is asleep, there is something in consciousness which declares that what presents itself is but a dream'. Meanwhile, the physician Galen of Pergamon used lucid dreams as a form of therapy. In addition, a letter written by Saint Augustine of Hippo in 415 AD tells the story of a dreamer, Doctor Gennadius, refers to lucid dreaming. In Eastern thought, cultivating the dreamer's ability to be aware that he or she is dreaming is central to both the Tibetan Buddhist practice of dream Yoga, the ancient Indian Hindu practice of Yoga nidra; the cultivation of such awareness was common practice among early Buddhists. Philosopher and physician Sir Thomas Browne was fascinated by dreams and described his own ability to lucid dream in his Religio Medici, stating:'...yet in one dream I can compose a whole Comedy, behold the action, apprehend the jests and laugh my self-awake at the conceits thereof'.
Samuel Pepys in his diary entry for 15 August 1665 records a dream, stating: "I had my Lady Castlemayne in my arms and was admitted to use all the dalliance I desired with her, dreamt that this could not be awake, but that it was only a dream". In 1867, the French sinologist Marie-Jean-Léon, Marquis d'Hervey de Saint Denys anonymously published Les Rêves et Les Moyens de Les Diriger. In 1913, Dutch psychiatrist and writer Frederik van Eeden coined the term'lucid dream' in an article entitled "A Study of Dreams"; some have suggested that the term is a misnomer because van Eeden was referring to a phenomenon more specific than a lucid dream. Van Eeden intended the term lucid to denote "having insight", as in the phrase a lucid interval applied to someone in temporary remission from a psychosis, rather than as a reference to the perceptual quality of the experience, which may or may not be clear and vivid. In 1968, Celia Green analyzed the main characteristics of such dreams, reviewing published literature on the subject and incorporating new data from participants of her own.
She concluded that lucid dreams were a category of experience quite distinct from ordinary dreams and said they were associated with rapid eye movement sleep. Green was the first to link lucid dreams to the phenomenon of false awakenings. Lucid dreaming was subsequently researched by asking dreamers to perform pre-determined physical responses while experiencing a dream, including eye movement signals. In 1980, Stephen LaBerge at Stanford University developed such techniques as part of his doctoral dissertation. In 1985, LaBerge performed a pilot study that showed that time perception while counting during a lucid dream is about the same as during waking life. Lucid dreamers counted out ten seconds while dreaming, signaling the start and the end of the count with a pre-arranged eye signal measured with electrooculogram recording. LaBerge's results were confirmed by German researchers D. Erlacher and M. Schredl in 2004. In a further study by Stephen LaBerge, four subjects were compared either singing while dreaming or counting while dreaming.
LaBerge found that the right hemisphere was more active during singing and the left hemisphere was more active during counting. Neuroscientist J. Allan Hobson has hypothesized; the first step to lucid dreaming is recognizing. This recognition might occur in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, one of the few areas deactivated during REM sleep and where working memory occurs. Once this area is activated and the recognition of dreaming occurs, the dreamer must be cautious to let the dream continue but be conscious enough to remember that it is a dream. While maintaining this balance, the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex might be less intensely activated. To continue the intensity of the dream hallucinations, it is expected the pons and the parieto-occipital junction stay active. Using electroencephalography and other polysomnographical measurements, LaBerge and others have shown that lucid dreams begin in the Rapid Eye Movement stage of sleep. LaBerge proposes that there are higher amounts of beta-1 frequency band brain wave activity exper
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i