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Varian Associates

Varian Associates was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. It was founded in 1948 by Russell H. and Sigurd F. Varian, William Webster Hansen, Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron, the first vacuum tube which could amplify electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies, other electromagnetic equipment. Varian Associates split into three companies in 1999: Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and Varian Semiconductor. On April 20, 1948, the Articles of Incorporation were filed, signed by nine directors: Edward Ginzton, who had worked with the Varian brothers since his days as a doctoral student. Schiff head of the physics department at Stanford University. Hunter; the company began with six full-time employees: the Varian brothers, Myrl Stearns, Fred Salisbury, Don Snow. Technical and business assistance came from several members of the faculty at Stanford University, including Edward Ginzton, Marvin Chodorow, William Hansen, Leonard Schiff; the company's legal counsel was Dick Leonard, a San Francisco attorney, Paul Hunter, a patent attorney, handled matters related to patents and intellectual property rights.

Francis Farquhar, an accountant and friend of Russell's from the Sierra Club became a director, as did Frederick Terman, Dean of Engineering at Stanford, David Packard, of Hewlett-Packard. Russell served as a board member until his death. Following the deaths of both Varian brothers, Ginzton became the CEO of the company. Under Thomas D. Sege, the company's chief executive officer from 1981 to 1990, sales grew to exceed $1 billion per annum. In 1990, J. Tracy O'Rourke replaced Sege as CEO and was made chairman of the board, they created the company to commercialize the klystron and develop other technologies, such as small linear accelerators to generate photons for external beam radiation therapy. They were interested in nuclear magnetic resonance technology. One of Varian Associates' major contracts in the 1950s was to create a fuse for the atomic bomb; the Varian brothers had been supportive of military applications for the klystron and other technologies, on the grounds that they were defensive weapons.

This contract was different. Although politically progressive to the point of having socialist leanings, the Varians were patriotic at heart and had no sympathy for the Marxist model of socialism practiced by the Soviet Union, they needed military contracts to survive and relished the technical challenges of this sort of work. As early as 1958 Russell and Sigurd expressed regret for their involvement in the development of weapons of mass destruction. Most of the founders of Varian Associates, had progressive political leanings, the company "pioneered profit-sharing, stock-ownership and retirement plans for employees long before these benefits became mandatory". Nearly 50 years in 1997 the company was recognized by Industry Week as one of the best-managed companies in America. Among their early employees was bookkeeper Clara Jobs, mother of Steve Jobs; the company was headquartered in San Carlos and started with only $22,000 in funding. It had problems raising additional capital due to Russell's insistence that the company be owned by its employees and his related refusal to accept outside investors.

Hansen mortgaged his home for $17,000 to raise additional cash, the group sought additional funds from friends. The company raised $120,000 of capital via an offer of stock to all employees, consultants, a few sympathetic local investors who shared the company's goals. Military contracts for technology deemed necessary during the Cold War, including some classified projects helped the firm succeed. In 1953, Varian Associates moved its headquarters to Palo Alto, California, at Stanford Industrial Park – noted as the "spawning ground of Silicon Valley" – and was the first firm to occupy a site there. On April 2, 1999, the company spun off its Gloucester, Massachusetts ion-implantation equipment business into Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates and its Palo Alto-based scientific instrument business into Varian, Inc; the medical equipment business, which included manufacturing x-ray tubes in Salt Lake City, renamed itself Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and remained headquartered in Palo Alto.

After the breakup, O'Rourke served as Varian Semiconductor's chairman. Varian, Inc. was acquired by Agilent Technologies in May, 2010. On Jan 30th 2017, Varian Medical Systems, Inc. spun off its X-Ray & Imaging Components business located in Salt Lake City, Utah to form VAREX Imaging Corporation, a publicly listed company. The remaining part of medical equipment business, which consists of oncology radiation business and proton therapy business remain with Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Headquarters remains in the Stanford Research Palo Alto, California. In 1998, the Congressional Record noted the 50th anniversary of the founding of Varian Associates, which employed 7,000 people at 100 plants in nine countries, it had branched out into health care systems, analytical equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment. California Representative Anna Eshoo stated that the company had been awarded over 10,000 patents and was a "jewel in the crown of... Silicon Valley". Russell and Sigurd Varian Continental Electronics, a subsidiary from 1985 to 1990 Communications & Power Industries, a 1995 spin-o

Hamdan bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan

Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan was the Ruler of Abu Dhabi, one of the Trucial States which today form the United Arab Emirates, from 1912–1922. He was the second son of Zayed I to rule Abu Dhabi and acceded on his elder brother Tahnoun's peaceful death. Zayed's eldest son, did not want to rule and so Hamdan Zayed's fifth son took up the reins, his rule was unpopular within the ruling family as he discontinued the subsidies paid to family members. He was said to have disrupted Abu Dhabi's trade relations. While Abu Dhabi's population was violently anti-Wahhabi, Hamdan sent a mission to Ibn Saud in Riyadh. Hamdan oversaw the continuation of the breakdown of authority which had followed his powerful father's long reign and death. In Liwa and Buraimi, fighting broke out between the Bedouin tribes, with the Manasir and Bani Yas fighting a southern confederation of Awamir, Duru and Al Bu Shamis. An ally of the Wahhabis, Hamdan managed to broker an uneasy truce. In August 1922, Hamdan was killed by Sultan.

Zayed's other two sons disagreed with the murder and were estranged, the town of Abu Dhabi becoming disorderly as factions emerged in the confusion following the murder. Hamdan’s brother avenged the murder of his brother and killed Sultan becoming the Ruler of Abu Dhabi. Sultan inherited the unstable interior that Hamdan had pacified, pitching him into a series of wars and outbreaks of peace which dogged his rule. Hamdan's daughter, fled to Dubai on his murder and married Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, she was the mother of the current ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum

Dwight Schar

Dwight Schar is an American businessman. He is the founder of NVR, Inc. a Fortune 500 company, the third-largest home builder in the United States. He serves as the company's Executive chairman and Chairman of Executive Committee. Schar is a part-owner of the Washington Redskins football team, the former Finance chairman for the Republican National Committee, he lives in McLean and Palm Beach, Florida. Dwight Schar grew up in rural northeast Ohio and graduated from Norwayne High School in 1960, he attended Ashland University in Ashland, where he majored in education. After graduating from Ashland in 1964, Dwight began teaching, on the weekends, he had a job selling homes. Schar soon left teaching to pursue a career in home building. In 1980, Schar founded his own company, NVHomes, which acquired his former employer, Ryan Homes, in 1987. NVR lost billions of dollars and was forced to declare Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1992. Today, NVR is the corporate umbrella under which NVHomes, Ryan Homes, Fox Ridge Homes, Rymarc Homes, Heartland Homes, NVR Mortgage operate.

Along with his involvement in the Republican National Committee, Schar is a well-known financial supporter of the Republican Party and numerous Republican candidates, making contributions through his company as well as private contributions from both his McLean, VA home and his home in Palm Beach, FL. In 1989, Virginia Republican gubernatorial candidate Marshall Coleman was backed financially by Schar. An investigation from the Richmond Times-Dispatch had discovered that one of Schar’s companies had issued loans through the Virginia Housing Development Authority. Coleman had profited from the sale of two homes through Schar’s company as well. In both the 2000 and 2004 Bush-Cheney presidential campaigns, Schar was not only a donor, but a major fundraiser. In the 2000 campaign, Schar was a Bush "pioneer", the distinction given to those committed to raising $100,000 or more for the campaign. In the 2004 re-election campaign, Schar rose to the new level of "Ranger," raising $200,000 or more. Dwight Schar has given to many colleges.

In 2004, Schar donated $200,000 to Norwayne High School, his former high school in Creston, OH to go toward the construction of a new track, football stadium, scoreboard. The school named the new track the "Dwight Schar Track" in his honor. In 2006, he donated $5 million to his alma mater, Ashland University, to help fund the construction of their new education building; the university named the new building "Dwight Schar College of Education" in his honor. In 2009 Schar again made a $7 million donation towards the new Ashland University on-campus football, track & field and Soccer facilities, named appropriately "Dwight Schar Athletic Complex". Most he gave another $7 million to his alma mater for the purchase of Med Central College of Nursing, now known as the Dwight Schar College of Nursing & Health Sciences. In 2011, Schar once again donated at least another $800,000 to his high school, Norwayne High School, to update the auditorium, putting in the latest lighting and sound technologies.

The remainder of that money went on to update the band, art rooms, as well as an education and learning center for existing students and continuing education students linked to local universities. The auditorium was renamed the Dwight Schar Performing Arts Center, in his honor. In 2014, Mr. Schar pledged $12 million to Elon University in Elon, NC, which will help fund construction of buildings for the School of Communications and a proposed convocation center; such contribution is the largest single gift in the school's history. Shortly thereafter, Schar contributed $50 million to INOVA Health Center in Fairfax, VA, thus launching the INOVA Dwight and Martha Schar Cancer Institute; the center will anchor the new INOVA Center for personalized Health established, which will provide a platform for the development and application of advances in cancer treatment and personalized medicine through genomics. Dwight Schar has made seven figure donations to George Mason University, Child Helps, Youth for Tomorrow and the George W. Bush Presidential Library.

Other major gifts have been made to Royal Poinciana Chapel. In May 2016, George Mason University President Angel Cabrera announced Dwight Schar's $10 million gift to the George Mason University School of Policy and International Affairs, which will be known as the Schar School of Policy and Government. In May 2015, Dwight and Martha Schar donated $50M, the single largest gift to a health-related organization in the mid-Atlantic states; the funds will be used to build a destination cancer center at Inova. The existing center has been renamed Martha Schar Cancer Institute. In May 2016, it was announced that the George Mason University School of Policy and International Affairs had received a $10 million gift from long-time Mason supporter Dwight C. Schar. In recognition of this gift, Mr. Schar's many prior contributions, his stated long-term commitment to the school, the Board of Visitors approved the naming of the school in his honor; the school, which serves some 2,000 undergraduate and graduate students each year, will be known as the Schar School of Policy and Government.

Dwight Schar at


Bilshivtsi is an Urban-type settlement in Halych Raion in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Between 1940 and 1963 it was the center of the raion, its population was 2,029 . Bilshivtsi is located at the confluence of the Narayivka River and the Hnyla Lypa River, a tributary of the Dniester, it is 3 kilometers to the east of the Lviv–Ivano-Frankivsk road and 8 kilometers north of the Halych train station. Between 1772 and 1918 it was part of Austrian Galicia. After the end of World War I Bilshivtsi became part of Rohatyn Powiat in Stanisławów Voivodeship, part of Poland. In 1939 it was annexed by the Soviet Union. Bilshivtsi was occupied by German troops during World War II from 1941 to 1944. In 1943, more than 1,000 local Jewish residents were shot by German troops

Barobo, Surigao del Sur

Barobo the Municipality of Barobo, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Surigao del Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 49,730 people. Barobo lies in the central part of the province of Surigao del Sur, it is located between 8' 34' 00" and 8' 125' 59 "00 and 126' 22' 4" longitude. It is bounded on the north by Lianga Bay and the municipality of Lianga, on the south by the municipality of Tagbina, on the southeast by the municipality of Hinatuan, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the west by the municipality of San Francisco, Agusan del Sur, it has total land area of 24,250 hectares. It is linked by a national road to the provincial capital of Tandag, Surigao del Sur, of 103 kilometers and the gateway to the regional center of the Caraga Region in Butuan City of 107 kilometers. 15,000 hectares of its total land is used for the tourism industry with declared tourist destinations namely, Turtle Island, Kabgan Island, Vanishing Islet, Pongpong Resort, Pagbutuanan Cave, Bogac Spring, Bito Lagoon, Dapdap Beach Resorts.

Barobo is politically subdivided into 22 barangays. Legend has it that the Manobo tribesmen first inhabited the area in the central part of Surigao del Sur. Sometime in the 1930s, five families who were engaged in fishing landed in the up-end of the river, settled in the area for easy access to the fishing grounds; the area became known for its bountiful fish catch, therefore more people from neighboring areas came and settled. The distinctive visual quality of the area was an endemic species of tree known as "barobo", plentiful on the site of the settlement. Subsequently, the place became popularly known as Barobo. Barobo subsequently became a barrio under the municipality of Lianga; the creation of the province of Surigao del Sur under R. A. No. 2786, series of June 1960, created the municipality of Barobo on October 24, 1960, by virtue of Executive Order No. 407 issued by President Carlos P. Garcia, thus the Municipality of Barobo was carved out from Lianga. A native Barobohanon speaks Kamayo, a minor language spoken in the area of Barobo and in Bislig City, San Agustin and Marihatag, Surigao del Sur province in the southern Philippines.

It has 7,565 speakers. The dialect known as "Kamayo" varies from one municipality to another — Lingiganons are quite different from other municipalities on the way they speak the Kamayo language. Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System

Pretty Porky and Pissed Off

Pretty Porky & Pissed Off was a Canadian fat activist and performance art collective based in Toronto, Ontario from 1996 – 2005. They used their bodies as modes of resistance against discriminatory language and social practices and policies, their feminist, LGBT politics were part of the DIY ethics of punk rock and the Riot Grrrl movement, feminist activism. PPPO was a Canadian trailblazer in the international fat liberation movement. Pretty Porky and Pissed Off was founded by Mariko Tamaki, Allyson Mitchell, Ruby Rowan in 1996, when they gathered friends and allies and staged their first performative political action on Queen Street West in the heart of Toronto's fashion district; as fat women playfully dressed in bright colours and camp, they asked passers by, “Do I look fat in these pants?” While this street performance called out a lack of desirable plus-sized fashion available to fat people it was furthermore the humble beginnings of what was to become a long-term, grassroots art activism project in the fat liberation movement that engaged radical ideas about the body at various intersections.

Pretty Porky and Pissed Off's membership grew to include Lisa Ayuso, Gillian Bell, Joanne Huffa, Abi Slone, Tracy Tidgwell and Zoe Whittall. Together they collaborated on political and creative projects using performance and visual art. Known for both their satirical and sincere works as well as for their use of queer spectacle, they employed dance, writing, spoken word, crafting, zine-making and self-publishing, community organizing, photography and video in their works. Pretty Porky and Pissed Off took up feminist fat politics to challenge mainstream ideas about fatness and health and beauty, fatness and social worth to affirm that the fat body, in fact every body, is desirable. "EVERYbody is a good body," was a PPPO catchphrase. PPPO politicized it too by refusing diets and denial. PPPO's radical approach to understanding the body was groundbreaking in Canada however they were inspired by many international fat activist including the Fat Underground, Judy Freespirit, Mama Cass, Elana Dykewomon, the FatGiRL Magazine collective, Max Airborne, Sondra Solovay, Charlotte Cooper, Kay Hyatt, Beth Ditto, Nomy Lamm, Stacy Bias.

PPPO was dedicated to political aesthetics through art and performance. They were dedicated community builders who organized clothing swaps and gatherings in Toronto and beyond. PPPO played to American audiences including NOLOSE and at New York City's queer experimental film festival, MIX, but it was in Toronto's queer arts scene that they found enduring popularity. PPPO collaborated with many Toronto artists including Keith Cole, Ina unt Ina, John Caffery, Will Munro, Kaleb Robertson, R. M. Vaughan and Christina Zeidler. PPPO performed at events like Cheap Queers, Strange Sisters, Inside Out's Local Heroes Party, Lisa Merchant's March of Dames at The Second City, Nightwood Theatre's FemCab, Toronto's infamous queer club night, Vazaleen. In 2004 PPPO staged Big Judy, at Buddies in Bad Times Theatre. Zoe Whittall dedicated her edited anthology, Geeks and Outlaws: Short Fiction, to PPPO: "For Pretty Porky & Pissed Off - the best group of outlaws a girl could run with". Allyson Mitchell's film, Free!

Bake! Sale! documents Pretty Porky and Pissed Off's take on International No Diet Day outside a busy cafeteria. Allyson Mitchell's 2013 installation masterpiece, Kill Joy's Castle: A Lesbian Feminist Haunted House featured a graveyard of tombstones of feminist organizations past including one for Pretty Porky and Pissed Off marked "Pretty Porky & Pissed Off. Look young. Stay fat." Pretty Porky and Pissed Off was engaged with education, giving workshops and lectures. In 2003-2004 they were artist in residence for the Mayworks in the School Program for Toronto's Mayworks Festival of Working People in the Arts, In 2003 they gave a guest lecturer at Concordia University's series, University of the Streets Cafe: Feminist Controversies, giving a talk, "What's wrong with a little fat?"). Mitchell, Allyson. "Pissed Off." Fat: The Anthropology of an Obsession. Eds. Don Kulick and Anne Meneley. New York: Penguin, 2005. 211-226. Oona Padgham. "Pretty Porky and Pissed Off and the Turtle Gals too." Http:// Pretty Porky and Pissed Off.

Double Double. Pretty Porky and Pissed Off. Double Double II. Rundle, Lisa. "Now the feminists will play with your mind." The State of the Arts: Living With Culture in Toronto. Eds. Alana Wilcox, Christina Pallasio, Jonny Dovercourt. Toronto: Coach House Books, 2006. 100-105. Slone, Abi. "Funny Girl: An Interview with Mariko Tamaki." Canadian Theatre Review, vol. 149, Winter 2012, ed. Moynan King. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Allyson Mitchell's site It Gets Fatter tumblr Linda Bacon on the Health at Every Size Movement NOLOSE Conference NOLOSE: A response to white fat activism from People of Color in the fat justice movement Virgie Tovar's site