A varietal wine is a wine made from a single named grape variety, which displays the name of that variety on the wine label. Examples of grape varieties used in varietal wines are Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Wines that display the name of two or more varieties on their label, such as a Chardonnay-Viognier, are blends and not varietal wines; the term is misused in place of vine variety. As vintners and consumers have become aware of the characteristics of individual varieties of wine grapes, wines have come to be identified by varietal names; the term was popularized in the US by Maynard Amerine at the University of California, Davis after Prohibition seeking to encourage growers to choose optimal vine varieties, promoted by Frank Schoonmaker in the 1950s and 1960s becoming widespread during the California wine boom of the 1970s. Varietal wines are associated with New World wines in general, but there is a long-standing tradition of varietal labelling in Germany and other German-influenced wine regions including Austria and the Czech Republic.
The alternatives to the marketing differentiation of wines by grape variety are branded wine, such as Hearty Burgundy, or geographical appellations, such as Champagne or Bordeaux. The poor quality and unknown provenance of many branded wines and the multitude of confusing appellations leaves varietal labeling as the most popular for quality wines in many markets; this is much less the case in places where appellations have a long and strong tradition, as for instance in France. In the past, the grape variety was uncommonly mentioned on the labels of French wine bottles, was forbidden for all AOC wines. New World varietal wines from newcomers like Australia and Chile have made a significant dent in traditional French export markets like the UK, so the French are adopting varietal labeling in some cases for vin de pays. In its own way, Chardonnay is now a powerful brand. Australia has completed a three decade long transition from labelling by style, e.g. "claret", "burgundy", "hock", "chablis" to a varietal system.
While this has been done in response to pressure from the EU France, it has paved the way for growing interest among Australian consumers for so called alternative varietals, such as Pinot grigio /, Sangiovese and Tempranillo. Within the European Union, a wine using a varietal label must contain at least 85% of that variety. 85% is a common minimum standard. In most regions of France, terroir is thought to surpass the impact of variety, so all French wines traditionally have no variety listed at all, would in many cases not be allowed for AOC wines. Champagne, for instance, is a blend of Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier, but this is not indicated anywhere on the label. In Alsace, winemakers adopt the German custom of varietal labeling. In recent years, varietal labels have become more common for French wines. Most of these wines are Vin de pays rather than AOC wines, but varietal names are seen on some regional AOCs. In the United States, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulations specify a minimum variety content of 75% of the labeled grape, for Vitis vinifera wines, 51% for Vitis labrusca wines.
There is no restriction on the identity of the balance. Many states in the United States require specific compositions to qualify for sale under a particular varietal labels. For example, in Oregon, wines subject to its regulation must be identified by the grape variety from which it was made, certain varietals must contain at least 95% of that variety, although the new "Southern Oregon" sub-AVA allows for the minimum 75% figure. International variety List of grape varieties Wine varietals, frenchscout.com
Full Sutton Airfield is an unlicensed aerodrome located 8 nautical miles east of York in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is located adjacent to, south-east of, Full Sutton Prison; the Airfield occupies the location of the former RAF station Full Sutton. It held a CAA Ordinary Licence that allowed flights for the public transport of passengers, or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee, Full Sutton Flying Centre Limited; this licence was given up in 2011. The airfield is not licensed for night use. Full Sutton provides instruction for CPL students; the airfield employs five flying instructors, two full-time, three part-time. Facilities include a club house for the airfield flying club, control room, on-site aircraft maintenance, it provides hire for the following aircraft types: Cessna 150 Cessna 172 Piper PA 28 Cherokee 140 Piper PA 28 Warrior 160 Slingsby T67 Firefly Cessna 310 Runway 04/22 at Full Sutton is a grass surface, 772 by 19 m strip and is the only runway in use at the aerodrome
"The Devil Went Down to Georgia" is a song written and performed by the Charlie Daniels Band and released on their 1979 album Million Mile Reflections. The song is written in the key of D minor. Vassar Clements wrote the basic melody an octave lower, in a tune called "Lonesome Fiddle Blues" released on Clements' self-titled 1975 album on which Charlie Daniels played guitar; the Charlie Daniels Band moved it up an octave and put words to it. The song's verses are closer to being spoken rather than sung, tell the story of a young man named Johnny, in a variant on the classic deal with the Devil; the performances of Satan and Johnny are played as instrumental bridges. The song was the band's biggest hit, reaching number three on the Billboard Hot 100, prevented from further chart movement by "After The Love Has Gone" by Earth and Fire and "My Sharona" by The Knack, it is featured in the 1980 film Urban Cowboy, whose choreographer, Patsy Swayze, claims that she set the song's tempo. "How fast can you dance it?"
Daniels asked. "How fast can you play it?" Swayze replied, but considering that the song was recorded in December 1978 and Urban Cowboy was filmed in 1979, it would have been impossible for Swayze to set the recorded song's tempo. The song is an uptempo bluegrass song about the Devil's failed attempt to "steal" a young man's soul through a fiddle-playing contest that involved enticing the young man's participation using a worldly prize; the song begins with a disappointed Devil arriving in Georgia, having stolen far fewer souls than expected, when he comes upon a fiddle-playing young man named Johnny. At that moment, Johnny happens to be playing his fiddle impressively "hot." Out of desperation, the Devil, who as it turns out plays the fiddle, offers Johnny the wager which involves challenging the young man to a fiddle-playing contest. The Devil offers to give Johnny a golden fiddle. Although Johnny believes taking the Devil's bet might be a sin, he wagers his soul without fear, confidently boasting that he is "the best that's been."
The Devil plays his fiddle first, to a contemporary rock music theme with the backing of demon musicians. When the Devil's performance ends, Johnny compliments him and takes his own turn, making reference to four songs. Two are traditional songs of Appalachia -- "Fire on the Mountain" and "Granny Does Your Dog Bite?". The third is an unnamed square dance melody that includes the patter, "Chicken in the bread pan pickin' out dough." The last is a traditional American southern folk song "The House of the Rising Sun." The four songs are only mentioned by reference. The Devil is impressed, admits defeat, lays the golden fiddle at Johnny's feet. Johnny repeats his claim to be the best player and dares the Devil to a rematch in the future. Johnny's final boast, as recorded for the Million Mile Reflections album, goes "I done told you once, you son of a bitch, I'm the best that's been." To accommodate radio airplay, the 45 RPM single release overdubbed that portion of the lyric as "'Cause I told you once, you son of a gun, I'm the best that's been."
Thus, Johnny maintains his virtue, keeping his soul from the Devil by displaying his musical virtuosity in performing traditional songs of America's South. The ballad's story is a derivative of the traditional deal with the Devil motif. Charlie Daniels has stated in interviews, "I don't know where it came from. Well, I think I might know where it came from, it may have come from an old poem called'The Mountain Whippoorwill' that Stephen Vincent Benét wrote many, many years ago, that I had in high school." The Levellers released a version of the song in 1991. Although it is misattributed to David Allan Coe or "Weird Al" Yankovic, musician Travis Meyer performed a parody entitled "The Devil Went Down to Jamaica", in which Johnny is recast as a Jamaican drug dealer, challenged by the devil to a pot-smoking contest to see whose marijuana is best: his, or Johnny's; the rap group K. M. C. Kru released a hip hop re-imagining of the song entitled "The Devil Came Up to Michigan" in 1991, featuring the devil and a deejay competing for a turntable of gold.
Steve Ouimette performed a cover of the song for the 2007 video game Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock. This version uses electric guitars instead of fiddles, though the original lyrics are still performed, it is played as the conclusion of the game in a simulated guitar battle with the devil. Daniels objected to this version on the grounds that the devil may win the contest, which he referred to as "violating the essence of the song". Pop singer and electric violinist Michelle Lambert recorded a version of the song in 2015, released a music video. In her rendition "Johnny" is replaced by "Michelle". A cappella group Home Free recorded a version of the song in collaboration with Taylor Davis and Charlie Daniels playing fiddle, released in September 2015; the narration is performed by Home Free bass singer Tim Foust. The rock band Blues Traveler performs this song in concert, with John Popper playing the fiddle parts on harmonica.. Robot Chicken featured a composite parody of the song along with the animated series