PSA is listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange and is again a constituent of the CAC40 index after having been removed in 2012. Beginning in 2016, PSA began to outline a strategy which entailed the expansion of the company. PSA has announced plans to enter the Indian, Canadian, ASEAN, headquartered in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, PSA was in 2016 the third-largest Europe-based automaker. Following the completion of the acquisition of the GM Opel and Vauxhall Motors brands. In December 1974 Peugeot S. A. acquired a 38. 2% share of Citroën, on 9 April 1976 they increased their stake of the bankrupt company to 89. 95%, thus creating the PSA Group, becoming PSA Peugeot Citroën. Since Citroën had two new designs in the market at this time and Peugeot was typically prudent in its own finances. Further investment was required because PSA decided to create a new brand for the entity for the disparate French and British models, based on the Talbot sports car last seen in the 1950s. From on, the whole Chrysler/Simca range was sold under the Talbot badge until production of Talbot-branded passenger cars was shelved in 1987, all of this investment caused serious financial problems for the entire PSA group, PSA lost money from 1980 to 1985.
In 1987, the dropped the Talbot brand for passenger cars when it ceased production of the Simca-developed Horizon. What was to have been the Talbot Arizona became the Peugeot 309, with the former Rootes plant in Ryton, producing Peugeots in Ryton was significant, as it signalled the first time that PSA would build cars in the UK. The Talbot name survived for a longer on commercial vehicles until 1992 before being shelved completely. From 1987 to 1995, the plant produced the Peugeot 405 saloon, on 29 February 2012, PSA announced the creation of a major alliance with General Motors, as part of which GM became PSAs second-largest shareholder, after the Peugeot family, with a holding of 7%. The alliance was intended to enable $2 billion per year of cost savings through platform sharing, common purchasing and other economies of scale. In July 2012, an official said that PSA Peugeot Citroën would cut as much as 10 percent of its French workforce of 100,356 employees on permanent. The jobs cut was more than previously announced, on 24 October, PSA said it was close to an agreement with creditor banks on €11.5 billion of refinancing and had won state guarantees on €7 billion in further borrowing by its Banque PSA Finance.
And in doing so, PSA ended up losing revenue rapidly, CEO Philippe Varin says that Citroën and Peugeot are too close, so he plans on positioning Citroën C-line models lower than Peugeot with DS models above Peugeot. On 12 December 2013, General Motors announced it was selling its 7% stake in PSA Peugeot Citroën, in early 2016, PSA unveiled a roadmap detailing its plan to re-enter the North American car market for the first time in almost forty years. Although many only expected the DS to enter the North American market, on 10 February 2017, PSA announced the purchase of Hindustan Motors and the Hindustan Ambassador brand, which will be used to sell Peugeot and Citröen vehicles in India beginning in 2018
Luton is a large town and unitary authority area of Bedfordshire, England. Luton and its neighbours and Houghton Regis, form the Luton/Dunstable Urban Area with a population of about 258,000. It is located 20 miles east of Aylesbury,14 miles west of Stevenage,30 miles north-northwest of London, and 22 miles southeast of Milton Keynes. Luton is home to League Two team Luton Town Football Club and they play at Kenilworth Road stadium, which has been their home since 1905. London Luton Airport, opened in 1938, is one of Britains major airports, during the Second World War it doubled as an RAF base. The University of Bedfordshire is based in the town, the Luton Carnival, which was traditionally been held on the Whitsun May bank holiday, is the largest one-day carnival in Europe. In 2012, it was moved to July to coincide with the Olympic Torch Relay, the town was for many years famous for hat-making, and had a large Vauxhall Motors factory. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until 2002, production of commercial vehicles continues, and the head office of Vauxhall Motors is still situated in the town.
Luton derives its name from Saxon -tun, and the Brittonic element -lug, the joint linguistic heritage may indicate the towns foundation as an early Anglo-Saxon outpost in a newly conquered area. The earliest settlements in the Luton area were at Round Green and Mixes Hill, settlements re-appeared after the ice had retreated in the Mesolithic period around 8000 BC. Traces of these settlements have found in the Leagrave area of the modern town. Remains from the Neolithic period are more common. A particular concentration of Neolithic burials occurs at Galley Hill, the most prominent Neolithic structure is Wauluds Bank – a henge dating from around 3000 BC. From the Neolithic onwards, the area seems to have been populated, Luton itself is believed to have been founded as Lea-tun by the Anglo-Saxons sometime in the 6th century. And very soon after that, as the one force came home, the Domesday Book records Luton as Loitone and as Lintone. Agriculture dominated the economy at that time, and the towns population was around 700 to 800.
But this number could represent a reduced population as a direct result of the Norman Invasion. The Domesday Book records the value of King Williams English possessions 20 years after his victory at Hastings, during which period, as the book would suggest, much destruction and death took place
The Opel Cascada is a Mid-size convertible engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel since 2013. It is marketed as the Opel Cabrio in Spain, Vauxhall Cascada in the United Kingdom, the Holden Cascada in Australia and New Zealand, the Opel Cascada was unveiled in Late 2012 for a 2013 European launch. At launch Opel offered the Cascada with a two choices of 4 cylinder petrol, a 1. 4L or 1. 6L engine and these were offered with either a six-speed manual or six-speed automatic. A2. 0L Diesel was available at launch, Opel touted that the body of the Cascada was 43% stiffer that of the previous generation Astra TwinTop and works in tandem with the HiPer Strut suspension layout. In January 2015, the Buick Cascada was unveiled at the 2015 North American International Auto Show in January 2015 and it went on sale in January 2016 and is the brands first factory convertible since the 1991 Buick Reatta and first 2-door model since the 1999 Buick Riviera. The Cascada was available in two trims, the 1SV and Premium, the Buick is only available with the 1. 6L inline 4.
In April 2015, the Holden Cascada went on sale and is Holdens most recent convertible since the Astra TwinTop was discontinued in 2009, at launch the Cascada was offered with only the 1. 6L petrol engine and a six-speed automatic. Two trim levels were available which are base and launch edition, the Launch edition offered 20-inch alloys, nappa leather sport seats, ventilated front seats, adaptive bi-xenon headlights and LED daytime running lights. The Cascada shares much of its design with the Opel Astra J on which it is based.0 Intellelink Infotainment System branded as MyLink for the Holden. Regional differences include ISOFIX points standard both Opel and Holden models while the Holden Cascada has top-tether mounts, excluding Holden all Buick and Vauxhall Cascadas include GMs OnStar System as of 2016 as GM expands the service into Europe. The Cascada has a turbocharged 1. 6-liter four-cylinder Medium Gasoline Engine with Spark Ignition Direct Injection technology and its relatively low power output in the Cascadas mass lets it achieve a modest 0-60 mph time in the 8-9 second range.
The only available engine in the Buick and Holden Cascada is the 200 hp turbocharged 1. 6-liter four-cylinder with Spark Ignition Direct Injection technology, the engine produces 170 PS of power and 280 N·m of torque between 1650-3200 rpm. Other engines, not available in the US, include two 1.4 L Family 0 petrol with 120 PS and 140 PS both with 200 Nm and 2.0 L CDTI diesel with 165 PS and 380 N·m. Official Vauxhall Cascada website Buick Cascada website Official Holden Cascada Website Test, Captive to a German sense of humour
The Opel Karl is a city car designated by the German manufacturer Opel as their entry model for the line-up. It replaced the Agila in December 2014 and it is named after Adam Opels oldest son, Karl. In the UK, it has been marketed as the Vauxhall Viva since December 2014. The car is built in South Korea, with a price of under £8,000. The Viva range includes the base SE model, the SE A/C, the SL offers digital climate control, partial leather trim and alloy wheels. Options include an electronically operated glass sunroof, a touch screen entertainment system and a Winter Pack comprising heated seats, steering wheel, media related to Opel Karl at Wikimedia Commons
Brooklands was a 2. 75-mile motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the worlds first purpose-built motor racing circuit as well as one of Britains first airfields, the Brooklands motor circuit was the brainchild of Hugh F. Locke King, and was the first purpose-built banked motor race circuit in the world. Apparently drawing inspiration from the development at Brooklands, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was built soon afterwards, requirements of speed and spectator visibility led to the Brooklands track being built as a 100 ft wide,2.75 miles long, banked oval. The banking was nearly 30 feet high in places, in addition to the oval, a bisecting Finishing Straight was built, increasing the track length to 3.25 miles, of which 1.25 miles was banked. It could host up to 287,000 spectators in its heyday, owing to the complications of laying tarmacadam on banking, and the expense of laying asphalt, the track was built in uncoated concrete.
This led in years to a bumpy ride, as the surface suffered differential settlement over time. Along the centre of the track ran a black line. By driving over the line, a driver could take the banked corners without having to use the steering wheel. The Brooklands Mountain Circuit was a section of the track giving a lap 1¼ miles long, running from the Fork to the rear of Members Hill. It was created in 1930 using movable barriers, on 28–29 June 1907, eleven days after the circuit opened, it played host to the worlds first 24-hour motor event, with Selwyn Edge leading three specially converted Napier cars around the circuit. A statement of intent had been made in 1906, and Selwyn Edge entered into a training program to prepare for the event. His car,804 was extensively modified, having a fuel tank, bodywork removed. Over 300 red railway lamps were used to light the track during the night, flares were used to mark the upper boundary of the track. Edge drove his car for the duration, with the drivers of the other two cars taking the more familiar shift approach.
During the event Edge covered a distance of 1,581.74 mi at an speed of 65.91 mph. Women were not allowed to compete for several years, edges leading driver, was refused entry despite having been the first English-woman to compete in a motor race in 1903, and holding the Ladies World Land Speed Record. Edge completed 2,545 km at an average 106.06 km/h, the first standard race meeting would be held the next week, on 6 July. George E. Stanley broke the record at Brooklands race track on a Singer motorcycle in 1912
The Opel Insignia is a midsize luxury car engineered and produced by the German automaker Opel. Production of the Insignia began in 2008 as a replacement for the Vectra, the vehicle is sold under the Vauxhall marque in the United Kingdom, and known as the Buick Regal in China and North America. It was launched in Australia and New Zealand under the Holden marque in 2015, in Chile, the vehicle was originally due to be marketed as the Chevrolet Vectra, but is now sold as the Opel Insignia. The Insignia made its debut in Australia in 2012, badged as an Opel. but was dropped a year after the brand was withdrawn from the market, the Insignia is produced in Opels plant in Rüsselsheim, Germany. The Opel Insignia Concept is a luxury car presented by the German automaker Opel at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show in Germany. The car has a V8 engine from the Corvette with 344 PS, the Insignia Concept has a hydropneumatic suspension system, a pantograph-like mechanism for the rear sliding doors, and LED lighting technology.
In early 2005, it was announced by Opel that this car will not be built, because it would be too heavy. This vehicle remained therefore a pure concept study, this concept car inspired the 2015 Buick Avenir. In December 2006, What Car. announced that Vauxhall was to ditch the Vectra nameplate from the previous model, in March 2007, What Car. reported the car would première in 2008s British International Motor Show. Previously, it was thought it would première in 2008s Geneva Motor Show, in October 2005, Auto Express produced computer generated images, which showed an unused design. In September 2007, What Car. produced computer generated images and that month, What Car. gave an update, confirming the car would première in London, thanks to the success of the Corsa C. In November 2007, What Car. announced that Vauxhall had confirmed that the name would be Insignia. The Insignia debuted at the 2008 British International Motor Show in London on 23 July as the Opel/Vauxhall Insignia and this reflected the Vauxhall brand that is unique to the United Kingdom.
The Insignia is the first production car to be based on the Epsilon II platform, which was used on other models such as the 2010 Saab 9-5. Advanced Front-Lighting System, static cornering light, complemented by daytime running lights with LEDs, sensors and software monitor the surroundings and weather conditions so that the system can activate the appropriate lighting function. Opel Eye – This uses a camera at the top of the windscreen to monitor the area in front of the vehicle, information from the camera is continuously analysed to identify road markings and traffic signs. Road markings are used as the basis of the first of Opel Eye’s two functions, lane departure warning, traffic signs are recognised and indicated to the driver in the second function, traffic sign memory. At speeds above 60 km/h, Opel Eye warns the driver if the car is about to veer out of the lane in which it is travelling
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or a plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an engine is listed either as I4 or L4. The inline-four layout is in primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars. However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from an imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, the inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular. This inline engine configuration is the most common in cars with a displacement up to 3.0 L, in practice, the displacement of inline-four petrol engines in cars rarely exceeds this figure.
For example, the largest engine of this form on the U. S. market in model year 2015 is the Toyota 2TR-FE, there are some notable exceptions. Early vehicles tended to have engines with larger displacements to develop horsepower, the Model A Ford was built with a 3.3 L inline-four engine. Inline-four diesel engines, which are lower revving than gasoline engines, Mitsubishi still employs a 3.0 L inline-four diesel. Generally and Asian manufacturers of trucks with a vehicle weight rating between 7.5 and 18 tonnes use inline four-cylinder diesel engines with displacements around 5 L. The MAN D0834 engine is a 4.6 L inline-4 with 220 hp and 627 lb·ft, the Isuzu Forward is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.2 L inline-four engine that delivers 210 hp and 470 lb·ft. The Hino Ranger is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.1 L inline-four engine that delivers 175 hp and 465 lb·ft, the earlier Hino Ranger even had a 5.3 L inline-four engine. The Kubota M135X is a tractor with a 6.1 L inline-four and this turbo-diesel engine has a bore of 118 mm and a relatively long stroke of 140 mm.
One of the strongest Powerboat-4-cylinders is the Volvo Penta D4-300 turbodiesel and this is a 3.7 L-inline-4 with 300 hp and 516 lb·ft. Brunswick Marine built a 127 kW3.7 L 4-cylinder gasoline engine for their Mercruiser Inboard/outboard line, the block was formed from one half of a Ford 460 cubic inch V8 engine. This engine was produced in the 1970s and 1980s, One of the largest inline-four engines is the MAN B&W 4K90 marine engine
Fuel economy in automobiles
The fuel economy of an automobile is the fuel efficiency relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle. Consumption can be expressed in terms of volume of fuel to travel a distance, different measurement cycles are used to approximate the actual performance of the vehicle. The energy in fuel is required to overcome various losses in propelling the vehicle, various measures can be taken to reduce losses at each of the conversions between chemical energy in fuel and kinetic energy of the vehicle. Driver behavior can affect fuel economy, maneuvers such as sudden acceleration, electric cars do not directly burn fuel, and so do not have fuel economy per se, but equivalence measures, such as miles per gallon gasoline equivalent have been created to attempt to compare them. Fuel economy is the relationship between the distance traveled and fuel consumed and Canadian law allow for the use of either liters per 100 kilometers or miles per imperial gallon. Recently, the sticker on new US cars has started displaying the vehicles fuel consumption in US gallons per 100 miles.
Units of distance per fixed fuel unit Miles per gallon is used in the United States, the United Kingdom. Kilometers per liter is more commonly used elsewhere in the Americas, continental Europe, parts of Africa, in Arab countries km/20 L which is known as kilometers per Tanaka is used, where Tanaka is a metal container which has a volume of 20 liters. Both mpg and km/L are units of distance per fixed fuel amount whereas L/100 km is a unit of consumption per a fixed unit of distance. When the mpg unit is used, it is necessary to identify the type of gallon used, the imperial gallon is 4.5 liters, and the U. S. gallon is 3.785 liters. Conversions of units, While the thermal efficiency of engines has increased since the beginning of the automotive era to around 20-30%. The design of automobile as a whole and usage pattern affects the fuel economy, published fuel economy is subject to variation between jurisdiction due to variations in testing protocols. One of the first studies to determine fuel economy in the United States was the Mobil Economy Run and it was designed to provide real fuel efficiency numbers during a coast to coast test on real roads and with regular traffic and weather conditions.
The Mobil Oil Corporation sponsored it and the United States Auto Club sanctioned and operated the run, in more recent studies, the average fuel economy for new passenger car in the United States rose from 17 mpg in 1978 to more than 22 mpg in 1982. The average fuel economy in 2008 for new cars, light trucks and SUVs in the United States was 26.4 mpgUS.5 L/100 km for a diesel-fueled car, the proportion of driving on high speed roadways varies from 4% in Ireland to 41% in the Netherlands. When the US National Maximum Speed Laws 55 mph speed limit was mandated, there were complaints that fuel economy could decrease instead of increase. The 1997 Toyota Celica got 1 mpg better fuel-efficiency at 105 km/h than it did at 65 km/h, although almost 5 mpg better at 60 mph than at 65 mph, and its best economy at only 25 mph. Other vehicles tested had from 1.4 to 20. 2% better fuel-efficiency at 90 km/h vs.105 km/h and their best economy was reached at speeds of 40 to 90 km/h. 2% drop from annualized 1973 gasoline consumption levels
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. The concept was applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy. The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine, other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are used in the cells of organisms in a known as cellular respiration. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy or mechanical energy. The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus near 2,000,000 years ago, throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans.
Charcoal, a derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals. It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century, charcoal briquettes are now commonly used as a fuel for barbecue cooking. Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China, coal was used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the use of coal is to generate electricity. Fossil fuels were rapidly adopted during the revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources. They have become a part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power. Currently the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols, chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion.
Most of the energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways, first, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence and secondary, solid fuels include wood, peat, Hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets made from wood, wheat and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology uses solid fuel, solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
The Vauxhall 30-98 is a car manufactured by Vauxhall at Luton, Bedfordshire from 1913 to 1927. In its day, its configuration was the Vauxhall Velox standard 4-seater with open tourer body. Vauxhalls own description was the 30-98 hp Vauxhall-Velox sporting car, the 30-98 is known to enthusiasts by Vauxhalls chassis code E. The first 30-98 was constructed at the behest of car dealer and motor sport competitor Joseph Higginson, however they were not racing machines but fast touring cars. The exhaust made a tranquillising rumble, there was no howl, no shriek, but there was the quiet satisfaction, if stripped for action, the car could lap Brooklands at 100 mph. Some owners had to watch their car being given the test to be reassured, the 30-98s used the Prince Henry chassis, they were distinguished by having more-or-less flat rather than V-shaped radiators. Laurence Pomeroy took the Prince Henry L-head side-valve engine, bored it out 3 mm, the camshaft was given a new chain drive at the front of the engine, high lift cams and new tappet clearances.
The Prince Henry chassis was modified and the whole given a narrow alloy four-seater body. Before war intervened only 13 30-98s were made and they were for selected drivers, however it was found, the name 30-98 looked and sounded so well. When production began in 1919 an electric starter would be supplied for an extra £50 though it was standard on Vauxhalls 25 hp car. But Vauxhall did make no charge for, electric lighting. Customers could choose between a bonnet of plain polished aluminium or have it painted to match the rest of the car. Advertisements for the OE when introduced in 1922 noted the electric lighting now included six lamps, the Vauxhall-built Velox four-seater tourer body was the standard coachwork. The 1920 catalogue included a Vauxhall Velox featherweight coupé to seat two in the interior and with chauffeurs dicky seat, electric lamp in roof and V-shaped windscreen, though of extremely light construction the wood frame on which the metal panels are laid are contrived to give sufficient strength.
The coupé was upholstered in blue leather with head lining, silk cords. There were blinds of a blue silk with tassels. These were special body fittings for the cars in the show, there was a mid-twenties fashion for car bodies styled on the lines of motorboats. Described in its advertisement as an ultra-sporting body a factory-built boat-tailed open two or three-seater with flared wings called the Wensum was introduced at extra cost in 1924, the third seat really was for decoration