A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm and bran. The term may refer to the resulting grain itself. Cereal grain crops are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat and chia, are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural, whole grain form, cereals are a rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and protein; when processed by the removal of the bran, germ, the remaining endosperm is carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed countries, cereal consumption is still substantial; the word cereal is derived from the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Agriculture allowed for the support of an increased population, leading to larger societies and the development of cities, it created the need for greater organization of political power, as decisions had to be made regarding labor and harvest allocation and access rights to water and land.
Agriculture bred immobility, as populations settled down for long periods of time, which led to the accumulation of material goods. Early Neolithic villages show evidence of the development of processing grain; the Levant is the ancient home of the ancestors of wheat and peas, in which many of these villages were based. There is evidence of the cultivation of figs in the Jordan Valley as long as 11,300 years ago, cereal production in Syria 9,000 years ago. During the same period, farmers in China began to farm rice and millet, using man-made floods and fires as part of their cultivation regimen. Fiber crops were domesticated as early as food crops, with China domesticating hemp, cotton being developed independently in Africa and South America, Western Asia domesticating flax; the use of soil amendments, including manure, fish and ashes, appears to have begun early, developed independently in several areas of the world, including Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and Eastern Asia. The first cereal grains were domesticated by early primitive humans.
About 8,000 years ago, they were domesticated by ancient farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region. Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley were three of the so-called Neolithic founder crops in the development of agriculture. Around the same time and rices were starting to become domesticated in East Asia. Sorghum and millets were being domesticated in sub-Saharan West Africa. During the second half of the 20th century there was a significant increase in the production of high-yield cereal crops worldwide wheat and rice, due to an initiative known as the Green Revolution; the strategies developed by the Green Revolution focused on fending off starvation and were successful in raising overall yields of cereal grains, but did not give sufficient relevance to nutritional quality. These modern high yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins and other quality factors. While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar.
Most are annual plants. Wheat, triticale, oats and spelt are the "cool-season" cereals; these are hardy plants that cease to grow in hot weather. The "warm-season" cereals are prefer hot weather. Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops per year. For the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in perennial grain plants; this interest developed due to advantages in erosion control, reduced need for fertiliser, potential lowered costs to the farmer. Though research is still in early stages, The Land Institute in Salina, Kansas has been able to create a few cultivars that produce a good crop yield; the warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions.
Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn and grow vegetatively become dormant during winter, they mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season. Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization: exposure to low temperatures for a genetically determined length of time. Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop, farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals. Once the cereal plants have grown their seeds, they have completed their life cycle; the plants di
A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, peas, lentils, lupin bean, carob, soybeans and tamarind. Legumes produce a botanically unique type of fruit – a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla and of the radish. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation; the term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, is reserved for crops harvested for the dry seed. This excludes green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Excluded are seeds that are grown for oil extraction, seeds which are used for sowing forage.
However, in common usage, these distinctions are not always made, many of the varieties used for dried pulses are used for green vegetables, with their beans in pods while young. Some Fabaceae, such as Scotch broom and other Genisteae, are leguminous but are not called legumes by farmers, who tend to restrict that term to food crops. Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested. Grain legumes known as pulses, are cultivated for their seeds; the seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lupins and peanuts. Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber and dietary minerals. Like other plant-based foods, pulses contain little fat or sodium. Legumes are an excellent source of resistant starch, broken down by bacteria in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids used by intestinal cells for food energy.
Preliminary studies in humans include the potential for regular consumption of legumes in a plant-based diet to reduce the prevalence or risk of developing metabolic syndrome. There is evidence that a portion of pulses in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the supporting data. FAO recognizes 11 primary pulses. Dry beans Kidney bean, navy bean, pinto bean, haricot bean Lima bean, butter bean Adzuki bean, azuki bean Mung bean, golden gram, green gram Black gram, urad Scarlet runner bean Ricebean Moth bean Tepary bean Dry broad beans Horse bean Broad bean Field bean Dry peas Garden pea Protein pea Chickpea, Bengal gram Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules Lentil Bambara groundnut, earth pea Vetch, common vetch Lupins Pulses NES, Minor pulses, including: Lablab, hyacinth bean Jack bean, sword bean Winged bean Velvet bean, cowitch Yam bean Forage legumes are of two broad types.
Some, like alfalfa, vetch, stylo, or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or cut by humans to provide livestock feed. Legumes base feed fed to animals improves animal performance compared to diets of perennial grass diet. Factors that attribute towards such result: larger consumption, quicker rate of digestion and feed conversion rate efficiency. Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena and Sesbania species.
Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe. Legume trees like the locust trees or the Kentucky coffeetree can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume tre
Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, as a component of various health foods, it is used in soups and stews, in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2016, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind maize and wheat; the Old English word for'barley' was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour". The direct ancestor of modern English "barley" in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley"; the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.
The word barn, which meant "barley-house", is rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the grass family, it is a diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. Spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, is abundant in disturbed habitats and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley is the ancestor of domestic barley. Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. Wild barley has a brittle spike. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes.
The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele; each plant gets a set of genes from both parents, so two copies of each gene are in every plant. If one gene copy is a nonworking mutant, but the other gene copy works, the mutation has no effect. Only when the plant is homozygous with both copies of the gene as nonworking mutants does the mutation show its effect by exhibiting the nonshattering condition. Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. Spikelets are arranged in triplets. In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile; this condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys.
Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used. Hulless or "naked" barley is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain for swine and poultry. Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, for its value-added products.
These include flour for multiple food applications. In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L. six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg. Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. VocabularyDON: Acronym for deoxynivalenol, a toxic byproduct of Fusarium head blight known as vomitoxin Heading date: A parameter in barley cultivation Lodging: The bending over of the stems near ground level Nutans: A designation for a variety with a lax ear, as opposed to'erectum' (with an erect ea
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Bone char is a porous, granular material produced by charring animal bones. Its composition varies depending on, it is used for filtration and decolorisation. Bone char is made from cattle and pork bones; the bones are heated in a sealed vessel at up to 700 °C. Most of the organic material in the bones is driven off by heat, was collected as Dippel's oil. Heating bones in an oxygen-rich atmosphere gives bone ash, chemically quite different. Used bone char can be regenerated by washing with hot water to remove impurities, followed by heating to 500 °C in a kiln with a controlled amount of air; the tricalcium phosphate in bone char can be used to remove fluoride and metal ions from water, making it useful for the treatment of drinking supplies. Bone charcoal is the oldest known water defluoridation agent and was used in the United States from the 1940s through to the 1960s; as it can be generated cheaply and locally it is still used in certain developing countries, such as Tanzania. Bone chars have lower surface areas than activated carbons, but present high adsorptive capacities for certain metals those from group 12.
Other toxic metal ions, such as those of arsenic and lead may be removed. The practical example of the use of bone char in water purification is demonstrated in Nanofilter invention in Tanzania Historically, bone char was used in sugar refining as a decolorizing and deashing agent in cane sugar as this contains more colored impurities. Bone char possesses a low decoloration capacity and must be used in large quantities, however, it is able to remove various inorganic impurities; the removal of these is beneficial, as it reduces the level of scaling in the refining process, when the sugar solution is concentrated. Modern alternatives to bone char include activated ion-exchange resins. Bone char is used as a black pigment for artist's paint, printmaking and drawing inks as well as other artistic applications because of its deepness of color and excellent tinting strength. Bone black and ivory black are artists' pigments which have been in use since historic times--both by old masters like Rembrandt and Velázquez, more modern painters such as Manet and Picasso.
The black dresses and high hats of the gentlemen in Manet's Music in the Tuileries are painted in ivory black. Ivory black was made by grinding charred ivory in oil. Nowadays ivory black is considered a synonym for bone black. Actual ivory is no longer used because of the expense and because animals who are natural sources of ivory are subject to international control as endangered species, it is used to refine crude oil in the production of petroleum jelly. In the 18th and 19th century, bone char mixed with tallow or wax were used by soldiers in the field to impregnate military leather equipment, both to increase its lifespan and as the simplest way to obtain pigment for black leatherwares. Military and civilians used it as shoe polish and preservative, including on shoes with the "rough" side out. In period reference materials, it is referred to as "black ball"; the ESA-NASA Solar Orbiter satellite uses a refined form of bone char, applied to its titanium heatshield. This protects it against the heat of the sun.
The coating was developed by Irish company Enbio and uses its'CoBlast' technique developed to coat titanium medical implants. The production of bone char was featured on the Discovery Channel's TV series Dirty Jobs, on episode 24 of season 4, "Bone Black" broadcast on 9 February 2010. Human bone char, referred to as "bone charcoal," is mentioned in Thomas Pynchon's novel The Crying of Lot 49; the bones come from US soldiers who died in combat during WWII and were buried in a lake in Italy, the char is used for filters in cigarettes. Potash Carbon black Activated carbon "Blacks". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. Ivory black, ColourLex Bone black, ColourLex
Buckwheat, or common buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum tataricum, is a domesticated food plant common in Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel and rhubarb; because its seeds are rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal. The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples; the name "buckwheat" or "beech wheat" comes from its triangular seeds, which resemble the much larger seeds of the beech nut from the beech tree, the fact that it is used like wheat. The word may be a translation of Middle Dutch boecweite: boec, "beech" and weite, wheat, or may be a native formation on the same model as the Dutch word; the wild ancestor of common buckwheat is F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale. F. homotropicum is interfertile with F. esculentum and the wild forms have a common distribution, in Yunnan, a southwestern province of China.
The wild ancestor of tartary buckwheat is F. tataricum ssp. potanini. Common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in inland Southeast Asia around 6000 BCE, from there spread to Central Asia and Tibet, to the Middle East and Europe. Domestication most took place in the western Yunnan region of China; the oldest remains found in China so far date to circa 2600 BCE, while buckwheat pollen found in Japan dates from as early as 4000 BCE. It is the world's highest-elevation domesticate, being cultivated in Yunnan on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau or on the plateau itself. Buckwheat was one of the earliest crops introduced by Europeans to North America. Dispersal around the globe was complete by 2006, when a variety developed in Canada was planted in China. In India, buckwheat flour is known as kuttu ka atta and is culturally associated with the Navratri festival. On the day of this festival, food items made only from buckwheat are consumed. Buckwheat, a short-season crop, does well on low-fertility or acidic soils, but the soil must be well drained.
Too much fertilizer nitrogen, reduces yields. In hot climates it can be grown only by sowing late in the season, so that it blooms in cooler weather; the presence of pollinators increases the yield. The nectar from buckwheat flower makes a dark-colored honey. Buckwheat is sometimes used as a green manure, as a plant for erosion control, or as wildlife cover and feed; the plant has a branching root system with a primary taproot that reaches into moist soil. Buckwheat has triangular seeds and produces a flower, white, although can be pink or yellow. Buckwheat branches as opposed to tillering or producing suckers, causing a more complete adaption to its environment than other cereal crops; the seed hull density is less than that of water. Buckwheat is raised for grain where a short season is available, either because it is used as a second crop in the season, or because the climate is limiting. Buckwheat can be a reliable cover crop in summer to fit a small slot of warm season, it establishes which suppresses summer weeds.
Buckwheat has a growing period of only 10–12 weeks and it can be grown in high latitude or northern areas. It grows 30 to 50 inches tall. 71 -- 78 % in groats 70 -- 91 % in different types of flour Starch is 75 % amylopectin. Depending on hydrothermal treatment, buckwheat groats contain 7–37% of resistant starch. Crude protein is 18%, with biological values above 90%; this can be explained by a high concentration of all essential amino acids lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids. Rich in iron and selenium 10–200 ppm of rutin, 0.1–2% of tannins and presence of catechin-7-O-glucoside in groats. Buckwheat contains 0.4 to 0.6 mg/g of fagopyrins Salicylaldehyde was identified as a characteristic component of buckwheat aroma. 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-furanone, -2,4-decadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, -2-nonenal and hexanal contribute to its aroma. They all have odour activity value more than 50, but the aroma of these substances in an isolated state does not resemble buckwheat.
In a 100-gram serving providing 343 calories dry and 92 calories cooked, buckwheat is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, four B vitamins and several dietary minerals, with content high in niacin, magnesium and phosphorus. Buckwheat is 72 % carbohydrates, including 3 % fat and 13 % protein; as buckwheat contains no gluten, it may be eaten by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or dermatitis herpetiformis. Buckwheat may have gluten contamination. Cases of severe allergic reactions to buckwheat and buckwheat-containing products have been reported. Buckwheat contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. Seeds and teas are safe when consumed in normal amounts, but fagopyrism can appear in people with diets based on high consumption of buckwheat sprouts, flowers or fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts. Symptoms of fagopyrism in humans may include skin inflammation in sunlight-exposed areas, cold sensitivity, tingling or numbness in the hands.
The fruit is an achene, similar to sunflower seed, with a single seed inside a hard outer hull. The starchy endosperm is white and makes