Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose, under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa. The greatest diversity of wild species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds, the fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, China is the worlds largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years, in the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms.
Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India, for example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 3400 and 2300 BC. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and this may be a reference to tree cotton, Gossypium arboreum, which is a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, Cotton has been spun, woven and it clothed the people of ancient India and China.
Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, in Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran, in Persian poets poems, especially Ferdowsis Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited the Safavid Persia, during the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt, and dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops
Transparency and translucency
In the field of optics, transparency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale, the photons can be said to follow Snells Law, in other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity, transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color. When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in different ways. These interactions depend on the wavelength of the light and the nature of the material, photons interact with an object by some combination of reflection and transmission. Some materials, such as glass and clean water, transmit much of the light that falls on them and reflect little of it. Many liquids and aqueous solutions are highly transparent, absence of structural defects and molecular structure of most liquids are mostly responsible for excellent optical transmission.
Materials which do not transmit light are called opaque, many such substances have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. Many substances are selective in their absorption of light frequencies. They absorb certain portions of the spectrum while reflecting others. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected or transmitted for our physical observation and this is what gives rise to color. The attenuation of light of all frequencies and wavelengths is due to the mechanisms of absorption. Transparency can provide almost perfect camouflage for animals able to achieve it and this is easier in dimly-lit or turbid seawater than in good illumination. Many marine animals such as jellyfish are highly transparent, at the atomic or molecular level, physical absorption in the infrared portion of the spectrum depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds, and on selection rules. Nitrogen and oxygen are not greenhouse gases because there is no absorption because there is no molecular dipole moment.
With regard to the scattering of light, the most critical factor is the scale of any or all of these structural features relative to the wavelength of the light being scattered. Primary material considerations include, Crystalline structure, whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit the long-range order evidenced in crystalline solids, glassy structure, scattering centers include fluctuations in density or composition. Microstructure, scattering centers include internal surfaces such as boundaries, crystallographic defects
This effort could include both the design of new buildings and other structures, as well as the planning for reconstruction of early historic structures. A building is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures, the gallery below gives an overview of different types of building. The practice of designing and operating buildings is most usually a collective effort of different groups of professionals, depending on the size and purpose of a particular building project. A design process may include a series of steps followed by designers, depending on the product or service, some of these stages may be irrelevant, ignored in real-world situations in order to save time, reduce cost, or because they may be redundant in the situation. Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views, sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales and cross referencing.
Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, the twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently. Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects, however and designers are not always influenced by the same values and intentions. Value and intentions differ between different architectural movements and it differs between different schools of architecture and schools of design as well as among individual architects and designers. One of the tools in architectural design is the floor plan. This diagram shows the relationships between rooms and other features at one level of a structure. Dimensions are usually drawn between the walls to specify room sizes and wall lengths, floor plans will include details of fixtures like sinks, water heaters, etc. Floor plans will include notes to specify finishes, construction methods, similar to a map in a floor plan the orientation of the view is downward from above, but unlike a conventional map, a plan is understood to be drawn at a particular vertical position.
Objects below this level are seen, objects at this level are shown cut in plan-section, plan view or planform is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane, like a map. A plan is typically any procedure used to achieve an objective and it is a set of intended actions, through which one expects to achieve a goal. Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individuals in all of their pursuits, building construction is the process of preparing for and forming buildings and building systems. Construction starts with planning and financing and continues until the structure is ready for occupancy, far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, documenting an architecture or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets. Introduced in the 19th century, the process allowed rapid and accurate reproduction of documents used in construction, the blue-print process was characterized by light-colored lines on a blue background, a negative of the original. The process was unable to color or shades of grey. Various base materials have been used for blueprints, paper was a common choice, for more durable prints linen was sometimes used, but with time, the linen prints would shrink slightly. To combat this problem, printing on imitation vellum and, polyester film was implemented, the process has been largely displaced by the diazo whiteprint process and by large-format xerographic photocopiers, so reproduced drawings are usually called prints or just drawings. The term blueprint is used formally to refer to any floor plan. In 1861, Alphonse Louis Poitevin, a French chemist, found that ferro-gallate in gum is light sensitive, light turns this to an insoluble permanent blue. A coating of this chemical on a paper or other base may be used to reproduce an image from a translucent document, the ferro-gallate is coated onto a paper from aqueous solution and dried.
In darkness, it is stable for up to three days and it is clamped under glass and a light transmitting document in a daylight exposure frame which is similar to a picture frame. The frame is put out into daylight requiring a minute or two under a sun or about ten times this under an overcast sky. Where ultra-violet light is transmitted the coating converts to a blue or black dye. The image can be seen forming, when a strong image is seen the frame is brought indoors and the unconverted coating, under the original image, is washed away. The result is a copy of the image with the clear background area rendered dark blue. The contact printing process has the advantage that no optical system is required. A further advantage is that the document will have the same scale as the original. Since the paper is soaked in liquid during processing, a change of scale can occur. Engineering drawings often are marked to remind users not to rely on the scale of reproductions, other blueprint processes based on photosensitive ferric compounds have been used.
The best known is probably a process using ammonium ferric citrate, in this procedure, a distinctly blue compound is formed and the process is known as cyanotype
Watercolor or watercolour, aquarelle, a diminutive of the Latin for water, is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution. Watercolor refers to both the medium and the resulting artwork, the traditional and most common support—material to which the paint is applied—for watercolor paintings is paper. Other supports include papyrus, bark papers, vellum, or leather, wood, Watercolor paper is often made entirely or partially with cotton, which gives a good texture and minimizes distortion when wet. Watercolors are usually translucent, and appear luminous because the pigments are laid down in a form with few fillers obscuring the pigment colors. Watercolors can be made opaque by adding Chinese white, in East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, india and other countries have long watercolor painting traditions as well. Fingerpainting with watercolor paints originated in mainland China, its continuous history as an art medium begins with the Renaissance.
The German Northern Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer, who painted several fine botanical, wildlife, an important school of watercolor painting in Germany was led by Hans Bol as part of the Dürer Renaissance. Despite this early start, watercolors were used by Baroque easel painters only for sketches, copies or cartoons. Notable early practitioners of watercolor painting were Van Dyck, Claude Lorrain, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, botanical illustration and wildlife illustration perhaps form the oldest and most important traditions in watercolor painting. Botanical illustrations became popular during the Renaissance, both as hand-tinted woodblock illustrations in books or broadsheets and as tinted ink drawings on vellum or paper. Wildlife illustration reached its peak in the 19th century with such as John James Audubon. Several factors contributed to the spread of watercolor painting during the 18th century, Watercolor artists were commonly brought with the geological or archaeological expeditions, funded by the Society of Dilettanti, to document discoveries in the Mediterranean and the New World.
This example popularized watercolors as a form of personal tourist journal, the confluence of these cultural, scientific and amateur interests culminated in the celebration and promotion of watercolor as a distinctly English national art. William Blake published several books of hand-tinted engraved poetry, provided illustrations to Dantes Inferno, from the late 18th century through the 19th century, the market for printed books and domestic art contributed substantially to the growth of the medium. Satirical broadsides by Thomas Rowlandson, many published by Rudolph Ackermann, were extremely popular. Among the important and highly talented contemporaries of Turner and Girtin, were John Varley, John Sell Cotman, Anthony Copley Fielding, Samuel Palmer, William Havell, the Swiss painter Louis Ducros was widely known for his large format, romantic paintings in watercolor. These societies provided annual exhibitions and buyer referrals for many artists, in particular, the graceful and atmospheric watercolors by Richard Parkes Bonington created an international fad for watercolor painting, especially in England and France in the 1820s
Movable type is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document usually on the medium of paper. In 1377, currently the oldest extant movable metal print book, the diffusion of both movable-type systems was, limited. Around 1450 Johannes Gutenberg made another version of a metal printing press in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix. The more limited number of characters needed for European languages was an important factor, Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead and antimony—and these materials remained standard for 550 years. For alphabetic scripts, movable-type page setting was quicker than woodblock printing, the metal type pieces were more durable and the lettering was more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The high quality and relatively low price of the Gutenberg Bible established the superiority of movable type in Europe, the printing press may be regarded as one of the key factors fostering the Renaissance and due to its effectiveness, its use spread around the globe.
The 19th-century invention of hot metal typesetting and its successors caused movable type to decline in the 20th century, the technique of imprinting multiple copies of symbols or glyphs with a master type punch made of hard metal first developed around 3000 BC in ancient Sumer. These metal punch types can be seen as precursors of the letter punches adapted in millennia to printing with metal type. Cylinder seals were used in Mesopotamia to create an impression on a surface by rolling the seal on wet clay and they were used to sign documents and mark objects as the owners property. By 650 BC the ancient Greeks were using larger diameter punches to imprint small page images onto coins and tokens and stamps may have been precursors to movable type. A few authors even view the disc as technically meeting all definitional criteria to represent an early incidence of movable-type printing, recently it has been alleged by Jerome Eisenberg that the disk is a forgery. The Prüfening dedicatory inscription is medieval example of movable type stamps being used, yet copying books by hand was still labour-consuming.
Not until the Xiping Era, towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty did sealing print and it was soon used for printing designs on fabrics, and for printing texts. Woodblock printing, invented by about the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty, carvers cut away the parts of the board that were not part of the character, so that the characters were cut in relief, completely differently from those cut intaglio. When printing, the characters would have some ink spread on them. With workers’ hands moving on the back of paper gently, characters would be printed on the paper, by the Song Dynasty, woodblock printing came to its heyday. Although woodblock printing played a role in spreading culture, there remained some apparent drawbacks. Firstly, carving the printing plate required considerable time and materials, secondly, it was not convenient to store these plates, with woodblock printing, one printing plate could be used for tens of hundreds of books, playing a magnificent role in spreading culture
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive, for protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, a cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Bookbinding is a trade that relies on basic operations of measuring, cutting. A finished book depends on a minimum of two dozen operations to complete but sometimes more than double that according to the specific style. All operations have an order and each one relies on accurate completion of the previous step with little room for back tracking. An extremely durable binding can be achieved by using the best hand techniques, Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, and graphic arts.
It requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly, a working knowledge of the materials involved is required. Bookbinding is a craft of great antiquity, and at the same time. The division between craft and industry is not so wide as might at first be imagined and it is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions, second was Letterpress binding which deals with making new books intended to be read from and includes fine binding, library binding, edition binding, and publishers bindings. A result of the new bindings is a third division dealing with the repair, with the digital age, personal computers have replaced the pen and paper based accounting that used to drive most of the work in the stationery binding industry.
There is a grey area between the two divisions. There are cases where the printing and binding jobs are combined in one shop, a step up to the next level of mechanization is determined by economics of scale until you reach production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory employing a dozen or more workers. The craft of bookbinding probably originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus, the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, and two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book, when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC, similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex, writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls, these were stored in boxes or shelving with small cubbyholes, similar to a modern winerack
Portolan or portulan charts are navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea. They were first made in the 13th century in Italy, and in Spain and Portugal, with the advent of widespread competition among seagoing nations during the Age of Discovery and Spain considered such maps to be state secrets. The English and Dutch relative newcomers found the description of Atlantic and Indian coastlines extremely valuable for their raiding, the word portolan comes from the Italian adjective portolano, meaning related to ports or harbors, or a collection of sailing directions. Portolan maps all share the characteristic rhumbline networks, which emanate out from compass roses located at points on the map. These, better called windrose lines, are generated by observation and the compass, as Leo Bagrow states. the word is wrongly applied to the sea-charts of this period, since a loxodrome gives an accurate course only when the chart is drawn on a suitable projection.
Cartometric investigation has revealed that no projection was used in the early charts and these charts, actually rough maps, were based on accounts by medieval Europeans who sailed the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. Such charts were drafted for coastal resources in the Atlantic, frequently drawn on sheepskin vellum, portolan charts show coastal features and ports. During that period, smaller ships could use more of the coastline as harbours than in the present era and they might need to seek refuge more often, and crews intentionally beached some ships for maintenance and repairs. Thus, mariners sought to learn of protected bays or flat beaches, not only for safe harbour, thus the grid lines varied slightly for charts produced in different eras, due to the natural changes of the Earths magnetic declination. These lines are similar to the compass rose displayed on maps, all portolan charts have wind roses, though not necessarily complete with the full thirty-two points, the compass rose.
Seems to have been a Catalan innovation, the portolan combined the exact notations of the text of the periplus or pilot book with the decorative illustrations of a medieval T and O map. In addition, the charts provided realistic depictions of shores and they were meant for practical use by mariners of the period. Portolans were most useful in close quarters identification of landmarks, portolani were useful for navigation in smaller bodies of water, such as the Mediterranean, Black, or Red Seas. The oldest extant portolan is the Carta Pisana, dating from approximately 1296 and this led towards two families of Portolan charts, the ones that are purely nautical and those that are nautical and geographical. The Catalan portolan charts are of second type, being usually made in Majorca. The copious number of Italian Portolan charts begins in mid-s. XIII, with the oldest called Carta Pisana and they introduced a novelty in the nautical cartography for they are geographical maps, all with common stylistic representation of certain accidents and geographical areas.
The masterpiece of the Majorcan Portolan charts is the Catalan Atlas made by Abraham Cresques in 1375, Abraham Cresques was a Majorcan Jew who worked at the service of Pedro IV of Aragon. In his buxolarum workshop he was helped by his son Jafuda, the Atlas is a World Map, that is, world map and regions of the Earth with the various peoples who live there
The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. It is composed of units that support Cabinet committees and which co-ordinate the delivery of government objectives via other departments. It currently has just over 2,000 staff, most of work in Whitehall. Staff working in the Prime Ministers Office are part of the Cabinet Office and this includes working with the Treasury to drive efficiency and reform across the public sector. Other functions include oversight of the Crown Commercial Service and the accreditation of Social Impact Contractors, the department was formed in December 1916 from the secretariat of the Committee of Imperial Defence under Sir Maurice Hankey, the first Cabinet Secretary. Traditionally the most important part of the Cabinet Offices role was facilitating collective decision-making by the Cabinet and it contains miscellaneous units that do not sit well in other departments.
For example, The Historical Section was founded in 1906 as part of the Committee for Imperial Defence and is concerned with Official Histories, the Joint Intelligence Committee was founded in 1936 and transferred to the department in 1957. It deals with intelligence assessments and directing the national organisations of the UK. The Ceremonial Branch was founded in 1937 and transferred to the department in 1981 and it was originally concerned with all ceremonial functions of state, but today it handles honours and appointments. In modern times the Cabinet Office often takes on responsibility for areas of policy that are the priority of the Government of the time, the units that administer these areas migrate in and out of the Cabinet Office as government priorities change. The Cabinet Office Ministers are as follows, All of the Cabinet Offices ministers are Cabinet members, the Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service is Sir Jeremy Heywood, the Permanent Secretary and Chief Executive of the Home Civil Service is John Manzoni.
The Cabinet Office supports the work of, the Leader of the House of Commons, the Leader of the House of Lords, and the Whips Office. Cabinet Committees have two key purposes, To relieve the burden on the Cabinet by dealing with business that does not need to be discussed at full Cabinet. Appeals to the Cabinet should be infrequent, and Ministers chairing Cabinet Committees should exercise discretion in advising the Prime Minister whether to allow them. To support the principle of responsibility by ensuring that, even though a question may never reach the Cabinet itself. In this way, the judgement is sufficiently authoritative that Government as a whole can be expected to accept responsibility for it. In this sense, Cabinet Committee decisions have the authority as Cabinet decisions. The main building of the Cabinet Office is at 70 Whitehall, remains of Henry VIIIs tennis courts from the Palace of Whitehall can be seen within the building
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles, thicker walls and being dark colored. Pumice is created when super-heated, highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano, the unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases that are dissolved in the lava, the simultaneous cooling and depressurization freezes the bubbles in a matrix. Eruptions under water are cooled and the large volume of pumice created can be a shipping hazard for cargo ships. Pumice is composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin and it is commonly, but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition, but basaltic and other compositions are known.
Pumice is commonly pale in color, ranging from white, blue or grey and it forms when volcanic gases exsolving from viscous magma form bubbles that remain within the viscous magma as it cools to glass. Pumice is a product of explosive eruptions and commonly forms zones in upper parts of silicic lavas. Pumice has a porosity of 90%, and initially floats on water. Scoria differs from pumice in being denser, with larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls, it sinks rapidly. The difference is the result of the viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. When larger amounts of gas are present, the result is a variety of pumice known as pumicite. Pumice is considered a glass because it has no crystal structure, pumice varies in density according to the thickness of the solid material between the bubbles, many samples float in water. After the explosion of Krakatoa, rafts of pumice drifted through the Pacific Ocean for up to 20 years, in fact, pumice rafts disperse and support several marine species. In 1979,1984 and 2006, underwater volcanic eruptions near Tonga created large pumice rafts, there are two main forms of vesicles.
Most pumice contains tubular microvesicles that can impart a silky or fibrous fabric, the elongation of the microvesicles occurs due to ductile elongation in the volcanic conduit or, in the case of pumiceous lavas, during flow. The other form of vesicles are subspherical to spherical and result from high pressure during eruption. Pumice is widely used to make concrete or insulative low-density cinder blocks
Old master print
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition. Fifteenth-century prints are rare that they are classed as old master prints even if they are of crude or merely workmanlike artistic quality. A date of about 1830 is usually taken as marking the end of the period whose prints are covered by this term, the main techniques used, in order of their introduction, are woodcut, etching and aquatint, although there are others. Different techniques are combined in a single print. With rare exceptions printed on textiles, such as silk, or on vellum, many great European artists, such as Albrecht Dürer and Francisco Goya, were dedicated printmakers. In their own day, their international reputations largely came from their prints, influences between artists were mainly transmitted beyond a single city by prints, for the same reason. Prints therefore are frequently brought up in detailed analyses of individual paintings in art history, thanks to colour photo reproductions, and public galleries, their paintings are much better known, whilst their prints are only rarely exhibited, for conservation reasons.
But some museum print rooms allow visitors to see their collection, the oldest technique is woodcut, or woodblock printing, which was invented as a method for printing on cloth in China, and perhaps separately in Egypt in the Byzantine period. This had reached Europe via the Byzantine or Islamic worlds before 1300, religious images and playing cards are documented as being produced on paper, probably printed, by a German in Bologna in 1395. However, the most impressive printed European images to survive from before 1400 are printed on cloth, for use as hangings on walls or furniture, including altars, some were used as a pattern to embroider over. Some religious images were used as bandages, to speed healing, the earliest print images are mostly of a high artistic standard, and were clearly designed by artists with a background in painting. Whether these artists cut the blocks themselves, or only inked the design on the block for another to carve, is not known, the great majority of surviving 15th-century prints are religious, although these were probably the ones more likely to survive.
Their makers were sometimes called Jesus maker or saint-maker in documents, as with manuscript books, monastic institutions sometimes produced, and often sold, prints. No artists can be identified with specific woodcuts until towards the end of the century, the little evidence we have suggests that woodcut prints became relatively common and cheap during the fifteenth century, and were affordable by skilled workers in towns. For example, what may be the earliest surviving Italian print, the school caught fire, and the crowd who gathered to watch saw the print carried up into the air by the fire, before falling down into the crowd. This was regarded as an escape and the print was carried to Forlì Cathedral. Like the majority of prints before approximately 1460, only a single impression of this print has survived, Woodcut blocks are printed with light pressure, and are capable of printing several thousand impressions, and even at this period some prints may well have been produced in that quantity.
Many prints were hand-coloured, mostly in watercolour, in fact the hand-colouring of prints continued for many centuries, Germany and the Netherlands were the main areas of production, England does not seem to have produced any prints until about 1480
Kashrut is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws. Food that may be consumed according to halakha is termed kosher /ˈkoʊʃər/ in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér, there are laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact the suitability of food for consumption. Most of the laws of kashrut are derived from the Torahs Books of Leviticus. Their details and practical application, are set down in the oral law, while the Torah does not state the rationale for most kashrut laws, many reasons have been suggested, including philosophical and hygienic. Over the past century, there have developed numerous rabbinical organizations that certify products, currently, about a sixth of American Jews or 0. 3% of the American population fully keep kosher, and many more abstain from some non-kosher foods, especially pork. Some Jewish scholars say that kashrut should be categorized as laws for which there is no particular explanation, in this line of thinking, the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of Gods authority, and man must obey without asking why.
However, Maimonides believed that Jews were permitted to seek out reasons for the laws of the Torah, some theologians have said that the laws of kashrut are symbolic in character, Kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices. The 1st century BCE Letter of Aristeas argues that the laws have been given, to awake pious thoughts and to form the character. This view reappears in the work of the 19th century Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, the Torah prohibits seething the kid in its mothers milk. While the Bible does not provide a reason, it has suggested that the practice was perceived as cruel. These sparks of Holiness are released whenever a Jew manipulates any object for a reason, however. The Hasidic argument is that animals are imbued with signs that reveal the release of these sparks, in 1953, David Macht, an Orthodox Jew and proponent of the theory of biblical scientific foresight, conducted toxicity experiments on many kinds of animals and fish. At the same time, these explanations are controversial, scholar Lester L.
Grabbe, writing in the Oxford Bible Commentary on Leviticus, says n explanation now almost universally rejected is that the laws in this section have hygiene as their basis. Although some of the laws of ritual purity roughly correspond to ideas of physical cleanliness. For example, there is no evidence that the animals are intrinsically bad to eat or to be avoided in a Mediterranean climate. The laws of kashrut can be classified according to the origin of the prohibition, biblically prohibited foods include, Non-kosher animals and birds, mammals require certain identifying characteristics, while birds require a tradition that they can be consumed. All invertebrates are non-kosher apart from certain types of locust, on which most communities lack a clear tradition, no reptiles or amphibians are kosher. Carrion, meat from an animal that has not been slaughtered according to the laws of shechita