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A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights; the straights transition to the circular turn through a moderate easement curve. The first velodromes were constructed during the mid-late 19th century; some were purpose-built just for cycling, others were built as part of facilities for other sports. Reflecting the then-lack of international standards, sizes varied and not all were built as ovals: for example, the oldest velodrome in the world, at Preston Park, Brighton, is 579 m long and features four straights linked by banked curves, while the 536 m Portsmouth velodrome, in Portsmouth, has a single straight linked by one long curve. Early surfaces included cinders or shale, though concrete and tarmac became more common. Indoor velodromes were common in the late 19th and early 20th century. For example, the Vélodrome d'hiver was built in Paris in 1909 and featured a 250 m indoor track with a wooden surface.

International competitions such as the Olympic Games led to more standardisation: two-straight oval tracks became the norm, lap lengths reduced. The Vélodrome de Vincennes, used for the 1896 Games was 500 m per lap, while Antwerp's Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg, used in 1920, Helsinki Velodrome, used in 1952, were both 400 m. By the 1960s, tracks of 333.33 m length were used for international competitions. Since 1990, such events are held on velodromes with 250 m laps. London's 2012 Olympic velodrome and a new velodrome in Turkmenistan's capital city Ashgabat both have a 250 m track and a 6,000-seat spectator capacity. Banking in the turns, called superelevation, allows riders to keep their bikes perpendicular to the surface while riding at speed; when travelling through the turns at racing speed, which may exceed 85 km/h, the banking attempts to match the natural lean of a bicycle moving through that curve. At the ideal speed, the net force of the centrifugal force and gravity is angled down through the bicycle, perpendicular to the riding surface.

Riders are not always travelling at a specific radius. Most events have riders all over the track. Team races have some riders at speed and others riding more slowly. In match sprints riders may come to a stop by performing a track stand in which they balance the bicycle on the sloped surface while keeping their feet locked into the pedals. For these reasons, the banking tends to be 10 to 15 degrees less; the straights are banked 10 to 15 degrees more than physics would predict. These compromises make the track ridable at a range of speeds. From the straight, the curve of the track increases into the circular turn; this section of decreasing radius is called the easement transition. It allows bicycles to follow the track around the corner at a constant radial position, thus riders can concentrate on tactics rather than steering. Bicycles for velodromes have no brakes, they employ a single fixed rear gear, or cog. This helps maximise speed, reduces weight, avoids sudden braking while allowing the rider to slow by pushing back against the pedals.

Modern velodromes are constructed by specialised designers. The Schuermann architects in Germany have built more than 125 tracks worldwide. Most of Schuermann's outdoor tracks are made of wood trusswork with a surface of strips of the rare rain-forest wood Afzelia. Indoor velodromes are built with less expensive pine surfaces; the track is measured along a line 20 cm up from the bottom. Olympic and World Championship velodromes must measure 250 m. Other events on the UCI International Calendar may be held in velodromes that measure between 133 m and 500 m inclusive, with a length such that a whole or half number of laps give a distance of 1 km; the velodrome at Calshot, Hampshire, UK is only 142 m and has steep banking because it was built to fit inside an aircraft hangar. Forest City Velodrome in London, Canada, is the world's shortest at 138 m. Built to fit a hockey arena, it too has steep banking; the smaller the track, the steeper the banking. A 250 m track banks around 45°, while a 333.33 m track banks around 32°.

Some older velodromes were built to imperial standards. The Dick Lane Velodrome in East Point, Georgia USA, is 321.9 m. Velodrome tracks can be surfaced with different materials, including timber and concrete. Shorter and Olympic quality tracks tend to be timber or synthetics. Important cycling events are held on tracks which have lines laid out in a specified arrangement; some other tracks follow these protocols, but others have a different arrangement of lines to suit their facility and to assist riders in holding a straight line and in avoiding drifting onto the flatter section below the bankings where they risk their tyres sliding out. Between the infield and the actual track is the blue band, 10% of the surface; the blue band is not technically a part of the track.

Yolanda of Poland

Yolanda of Poland was the daughter of King Béla IV of Hungary and Maria Laskarina. She was the sister of Margaret of Kinga of Poland. One of her paternal aunts was the Franciscan Elizabeth of Hungary; as a young girl, Yolanda was sent to Poland to be tutored under the supervision of her sister, married to the Duke of Poland. There, she was encouraged to marry Bolesław the Pious, which she did in 1257, they had three daughters: Elisabeth of Kalisz. During the time of her marriage, she was noted for her great services to the poor and needy of the country, as well as being a major benefactor of the monasteries and hospitals connected to them, her husband gave her so much support in her charities that he earned the nickname "the Pious". She was widowed in 1279. Following Boleslaus' death and Kinga, along with one of Yolanda's daughters, retired to the Poor Clare monastery that Kinga had founded in Sandez. Forced to relocate due to armed conflict in the region, Yolanda founded a new monastery in Gniezno.

She was persuaded to become abbess of the community of nuns shortly before her death. She has been declared a candidate for sainthood, her sisters and Margaret, have been canonized. Helen of Poland Cawley, Her listing along with her siblings; the project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies and testaments.", Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy

Tombstone Valentine

Tombstone Valentine is a studio album released by Wigwam in 1970. While the previous album Hard'n' Horny was more of a jazz influenced album, Tombstone Valentine in one of their more pop-ish albums; the album sounds more like the records of the "Deep Pop" era than the records of the progressive rock era. This is the first album with Pekka Pohjola in the band. Guitarist Nikke Nikamo left after Hard'n' Horny, but a permanent replacement for him couldn't be found, so Jukka Tolonen of Tasavallan Presidentti plays guitar on some of the tracks. Tombstone Valentine represents the sound they forsook for the next two progressive albums and Being. Unlike the other Wigwam albums, this was produced by "non-Finnish" producer, the American Kim Fowley; the track "The Dance of the Anthropoids" is not a Wigwam track, but an experimental electronic piece by Erkki Kurenniemi, recorded in 1968 originally. Kim Fowley thought. "Tombstone Valentine" - 3:03 "In Gratitude" - 3:44 "The Dance of the Anthropoids - 1:07 "Frederick & Bill" - 4:23 "Wishful Thinker" - 3:44 "Autograph" - 2:36 "1936 Lost in the Snow" - 2:09 "Let the World Ramble On" - 3:19 "For America" - 4:19 "Captain Supernatural" - 3:01 "End" - 3:36 Jukka Gustavson - Vocals, Piano Jim Pembroke - Vocals Pekka Pohjola - Bass, Violin Ronnie Österberg - Drums

William Shaw (1797-1853)

William Shaw "of the strand" was a British agricultural writer and translator, first editor of the agricultural journal Mark Lane Express, of The Farmer's almanac and calendar, co-founder of the Farmers Club in 1842. He is known for advocating agricultural improvements. William Shaw was born in Bath, Somerset as eldest son of John Shaw of Bath, he spent two years from June 1813 to June 1815 at Wadham College and was admitted to the Inner Temple on 20 June 1828, being called to the bar on 22 November 1833. In 1832 Shaw co-founded the weekly agricultural journal Mark Lane Express, of which he became its first editor; the other co-founders were Cuthbert William Johnson, John Rogerson and Joseph Rogerson, farmers from Lincolnshire, Doctor J. Blackstone, George Parker Tuxford. In his position as editor Shaw played a leading role in advocating innovative farming techniques and the formation of agricultural societies and farmer's clubs in Britain. Shaw further came into public prominence in connection with his efforts towards the establishment of the Royal Agricultural Society.

He took a leading part in the preliminary work of forming this society, at the inaugural meeting held on 9 May 1838. He was chosen the first secretary, a position which he resigned in the following year, when he was elected 7 August 1839 a member of the council. Shaw was elected honorary member of the French Académie d'Agriculture. In 1838 he had started with Cuthbert William Johnson. In 1841 they started as the first editors of The Farmer's calendar; this publication had an annual sale of about 15,000 between 1841 and 1865, was according to Goddard, "probably among the most read of all agricultural publications of the nineteenth century." The Farmers' Almanack and Calendar continued to be issued annually in their joint names, notwithstanding Shaw's death in 1853, until 1872. Shaw was a great supporter of farmers' clubs, a frequent speaker and reader of papers at them; the establishment of the London Farmers Club in 1842 was owing to his efforts, he was honorary secretary from 1840 to 1843. Other founders of the Farmers Club were James Allen Ransome, Robert Baker, one or two others.

In 1844 Shaw and Johnson translated and brought out an English edition of Von Thaer's Principles of Agriculture. Between 1846 and 1849, Shaw edited the Steeplechase Calendar and collaborated with Henry Corbet, editor of the Mark Lane Express since its foundation in 1832, Philip Pusey in an investigation into tenant rights, he read before this body six papers on two on agricultural statistics. He took up enthusiastically the novel but soon burning question of tenant right. In 1848 with Corbet he published an extensive Digest of Evidence on the Agricultural Customs of England and Wales; this was a digest of the evidence on tenant right given in the previous year before the famous committee of the House of Commons presided over by Philip Pusey. This digest was popular, is still useful for reference. In 1849 he participated in the North Hampshire by-election as tenant farmer. On 1 April 1850 Shaw was presented with a service of silver plate by the tenant farmers for his advocacy of their cause, when he was described by the chairman who made the presentation as "the Cobden of Agriculture."

He was one of the chief founders of the Farmers' Insurance Company established in 1840, amalgamated in 1888 with the Alliance Insurance Company, of which he was managing director. He was managing director of a less successful venture, the Farmers' and Graziers' Mutual Cattle Insurance Association, established 1844, which fell into difficulties in 1849. Other ventures of Shaw's proved unsuccessful, during the time of the railway mania he had money troubles. In November 1852 he fled to Australia to escape bankruptcy, some time in 1853, he died miserably in the gold diggings far up the country, with only a few pence in his pocket, he lived apart from his wife. Shaw had fine features. There is a small portrait of him by Richard Ansdell in the rooms of the Royal Agricultural Society at 13 Hanover Square; this was reproduced in the engraving of the society subsequently published in 1843. Back in London Henry Corbet succeeded Shaw, both as editor of The Farmer's almanac and calendar, as secretary of the Farmers Club.

Cuthbert W. Johnson and William Shaw; the Farmer's calendar. 1841–50 Albert D. Thaër. Tr. by William Shaw and Cuthbert W. Johnson; the principles of agriculture. London, Ridgway, 1844. William Shaw. To the Right Honorable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, to the members of the House of Commons by William Shaw. 1847. William Shaw and Henry Corbet. Digest of evidence taken before a committee of the House of Commons appointed to inquire into the agricultural customs of England and Wales in respect to tenant-right. 1849 Attribution This article incorporates public domain material from: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Shaw, William". Dictionary of National Biography. 51. London: Smith, Elder & Co


Radiographers known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology. Radiographers are infrequently, always erroneously, known as x-ray technicians. In countries that use the title radiologic technologist they are informally referred to as techs in the clinical environment; the term radiographer can refer to a therapeutic radiographer known as a radiation therapist. Radiographers work in both public healthcare and private healthcare and can be physically located in any setting where appropriate diagnostic equipment is located, most in hospitals; the practice varies from country to country and can vary between hospitals in the same country. Radiographers are represented by a variety of organizations worldwide, including the International Society of Radiographers and Radiologic Technologists which aims to give direction to the profession as a whole through collaboration with national representative bodies.

Radiography's origins and fluoroscopy's origins can both be traced to 8 November 1895, when German physics professor Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-ray and noted that, while it could pass through human tissue, it could not pass through bone or metal. Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X", he received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery. There are conflicting accounts of his discovery because Röntgen had his lab notes burned after his death, but this is a reconstruction by his biographers: Röntgen was investigating cathode rays using a fluorescent screen painted with barium platinocyanide and a Crookes tube which he had wrapped in black cardboard to shield its fluorescent glow, he noticed a faint green glow from the screen, about 1 metre away. Röntgen realized some invisible rays coming from the tube were passing through the cardboard to make the screen glow: they were passing through an opaque object to affect the film behind it. Röntgen discovered X-rays' medical use when he made a picture of his wife's hand on a photographic plate formed due to X-rays.

The photograph of his wife's hand was the first photograph of a human body part using X-rays. When she saw the picture, she said, "I have seen my death."The first use of X-rays under clinical conditions was by John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England on 11 January 1896, when he radiographed a needle stuck in the hand of an associate. On 14 February 1896, Hall-Edwards became the first to use X-rays in a surgical operation; the United States saw its first medical X-ray obtained using a discharge tube of Ivan Pulyui's design. In January 1896, on reading of Röntgen's discovery, Frank Austin of Dartmouth College tested all of the discharge tubes in the physics laboratory and found that only the Pulyui tube produced X-rays; this was a result of Pulyui's inclusion of an oblique "target" of mica, used for holding samples of fluorescent material, within the tube. On 3 February 1896 Gilman Frost, professor of medicine at the college, his brother Edwin Frost, professor of physics, exposed the wrist of Eddie McCarthy, whom Gilman had treated some weeks earlier for a fracture, to the X-rays and collected the resulting image of the broken bone on gelatin photographic plates obtained from Howard Langill, a local photographer interested in Röntgen's work.

X-rays were put to diagnostic use early. Indeed, Marie Curie pushed for radiography to be used to treat wounded soldiers in World War I. Many kinds of staff conducted radiography in hospitals, including physicists, physicians and engineers; the medical speciality of radiology grew up over many years around the new technology. When new diagnostic tests were developed, it was natural for the radiographers to be trained in and to adopt this new technology. Radiographers now perform fluoroscopy, computed tomography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging as well. Although a nonspecialist dictionary might define radiography quite narrowly as "taking X-ray images", this has long been only part of the work of "X-ray Departments", Radiologists. Radiographs were known as roentgenograms, while Skiagrapher was used until about 1918 to mean Radiographer; the history of magnetic resonance imaging includes many researchers who have discovered NMR and described its underlying physics, but it is regarded to be invented by Paul C.

Lauterbur in September 1971. The factors leading to image contrast had been described nearly 20 years earlier by Erik Odeblad and Gunnar Lindström. In 1950, spin echoes and free induction decay were first detected by Erwin Hahn and in 1952, Herman Carr produced a one-dimensional NMR spectrum as reported in his Harvard PhD thesis. In the Soviet Union, Vladislav Ivanov filed a document with the USSR State Committee for Inventions and Discovery at Leningrad for a Magnetic Resonance Imaging device, although this was not approved until the 1970s. By 1959, Jay Singer had studied blood flow by NMR relaxation time measurements of blood in living humans; such measurements were not introduced into common medical practice until the mid-1980s, although a patent for a whole-body NMR machine to measure blood flow in the human body was filed by Alexander Ganssen in early

Port Huron Statement

The Port Huron Statement is a 1962 political manifesto of the American student activist movement Students for a Democratic Society. It was written by SDS members, completed on June 15, 1962, at a United Auto Workers retreat in Port Huron, for the group's first national convention. SDS developed from the Student League for Industrial Democracy, the youth branch of a socialist educational organization known as the League for Industrial Democracy. LID descended from the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, started in 1905. Early in 1960, the SLID changed its name into Students for a Democratic Society; the Port Huron Statement was adopted at the organization's first convention in 1962 based on an earlier draft by staff member Tom Hayden. The Port Huron Statement was a broad critique of the political and social system of the United States for failing to achieve international peace and economic justice. In foreign policy, the statement took issue with the American government's handling of the Cold War, both the existential threat of nuclear war, the actual arms race.

In domestic matters, it criticized racial discrimination, economic inequality, big businesses, trade unions and political parties. In addition to its critique and analysis of the American system, the statement suggested a series of reforms: it proclaimed a need to reshape into two genuine political parties to attain greater democracy, for stronger power for individuals through citizen's lobbies, for more substantial involvement by workers in business management, for an enlarged public sector with increased government welfare, including a "program against poverty." The document provided ideas of what and how to work for and to improve, advocated nonviolent civil disobedience as the means by which student youth could bring forth the concept of "participatory democracy." The statement presented SDS's break from the mainstream liberal policies of the postwar years. It was written to reflect their view; the authors hoped that the movement would not get sidetracked on single-issue struggles but would stay focused on the broader struggles on all fronts at the same time.

The statement expressed SDS's willingness to work with groups. In doing so, they sought the rejection of the extant anti-communism of the time. In the concurrent Cold War environment, such a statement of inclusion for the heretofore "evil" Communist ideology, by extension, socialist concepts, was seen as a new, radical view contrasting with the position of much of the traditional American Left; the latter had developed a anti-communist orthodoxy in the wake of the HUAC and Army-McCarthy hearings. Without being Marxist or pro-communism, the Port Huron conference denounced anti-communism as being a social problem and an obstruction to democracy, they criticized the United States for its exaggerated paranoia and exclusive condemnation of the Soviet Union, blamed this for being the reason for failing to achieve disarmament and to assure peace. The Port Huron Statement was a document of idealism, a philosophical template for a more egalitarian society, a call to participatory democracy where everyone was engaged in issues that affected all people - in civil rights, in political accountability, in labor rights, in nuclear disarmament.

It closed with the following: "If we appear to seek the unattainable, as it has been said let it be known that we do so to avoid the unimaginable." In a world haunted daily by the prospect of nuclear war, a country roiling in the civil rights movement, being inextricably drawn into a civil war in Southeast Asia based on the so-called domino theory, what could be a more noble goal? The ideals that led those gathered at Port Huron, Michigan in 1962 to issue this call to action not only added to the discussion of what became the Great Society of the mid-60s, but helped frame the issues that fueled the rising anti-war movement, college campus activism, the broader social movement known as the counterculture that carried into the early 1970s in the United States; the 25,700-word statement "articulated the fundamental problems of American society and laid out a radical vision for a better future". It issued a nonideological call for participatory democracy, "both as a means and an end", based on non-violent civil disobedience and the idea that individual citizens could help make "those social decisions determining the quality and direction" of their lives.

Known as the "Agenda for a Generation", it "brought the term'participatory democracy' into the common parlance". It has been described as "a seminal moment in the development of the New Left" and a "classic statement of principles", but it revealed the 1960s' tension between communitarianism and individualism. In particular, the statement viewed race and Cold War–induced alienation as the two main problems of modern society. "Universal controlled disarmament must replace deterrence and arms control as the national defense goals." "An imperative task for these publicly disinherited groups is to demand a Democratic Party responsible to their interests. They must support Southern voter registration and Negro political candidates and demand that Democratic Party liberals do the same. Labor should begin a major drive in the South. In the North, reform clubs should be fo