Jacopo dAntonio Sansovino was an Italian sculptor and architect, known best for his works around the Piazza San Marco in Venice. Andrea Palladio, in the Preface to his Quattro Libri was of the opinion that Sansovinos Biblioteca Marciana was the best building erected since Antiquity, giorgio Vasari uniquely printed his Vita of Sansovino separately. He was born in Florence and apprenticed with Andrea Sansovino whose name he subsequently adopted, in Rome he attracted the notice of Bramante and Raphael and made a wax model of the Deposition of Christ for Perugino to use. He returned to Florence in 1511 where he received commissions for sculptures of St. James for the Duomo. In the period of 1510-17 he shared a studio with the painter Andrea del Sarto, like all sixteenth-century Italian architects, Sansovino devoted considerable energy to elaborate but temporary structures related to courtly ritual. The triumphant entry of Pope Leo X into Florence in 1515 was a highpoint of this genre and he subsequently returned to Rome where he stayed for nine years, leaving for Venice in the year of the Sack of Rome.
In 1529, Sansovino became chief architect and superintendent of properties to the Procurators of San Marco, the appointment came with a salary of 80 ducats and an apartment near the clocktower in San Marco. Within a year his salary was raised to 180 ducats per year, among palaces and buildings are the Scuola Grande della Misericordia, Ca de Dio, Palazzo Dolfin Manin, Palazzo Corner, Palazzo Moro, and the Fabbriche Nuove di Rialto. His masterpiece is the Library of Saint Marks, the Biblioteca Marciana, one of Venices most richly decorated Renaissance structures, construction spanned fifty years and cost over 30,000 ducats. In it he made the architectural language of classicism, traditionally associated with severity and restraint. This paved the way for the architecture of Andrea Palladio. He died in Venice and his sepulchre is in the Baptistery of St and his most important follower in the medium of sculpture was Alessandro Vittoria, another disciple was the architect and sculptor Danese Cataneo.
Jacopo Sansovinos works Renaissance Classicism Boucher, Bruce and catalogue raisonné of the sculpture. Jacopo Sansovino Architecture and Patronage in Renaissance Venice
The Gallerie dellAccademia is a museum gallery of pre-19th-century art in Venice, northern Italy. It is housed in the Scuola della Carità on the bank of the Grand Canal. The two institutions remained in the building until 2004, when the art school moved to the Ospedale degli Incurabili. The Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia was founded on 24 September 1750, the first director was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Gianbattista Tiepolo became the first president after his return from Würzburg. It was one of the first institutions to study art restoration starting in 1777 with Pietro Edwards, in 1807 the academy was re-founded by Napoleonic decree. The collections of the Accademia were first opened to the public on 10 August 1817, the Gallerie dellAccademia became independent from the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia in 1879. Like other state museums in Italy, it falls under the Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, the Napoleonic administration had disbanded many institutions in Venice including some churches and Scuole.
The Scuola della Carità, the Convento dei Canonici Lateranensi and the church of Santa Maria della Carità thus became the home of the Accademia. The Scuola della Carità was the oldest of the six Scuole Grandi, the Convento dei Canonici Lateranensi was started in 1561 by Andrea Palladio, though it was never fully completed. The facade of Santa Maria della Carità was completed in 1441 by Bartolomeo Bon, the Gallerie dell’Accademia contains masterpieces of Venetian painting up to the 18th century, generally arranged chronologically though some thematic displays are evident. Media related to Gallerie dellAccademia at Wikimedia Commons
Doge of Venice
The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-states aristocracy, commonly the man selected as Doge was the shrewdest elder in the city. The doge was neither a duke in the sense, nor the equivalent of a hereditary duke. The title doge was the title of the senior-most elected official of Venice and Genoa, a doge was referred to variously by the titles My Lord the Doge, Most Serene Prince, and His Serenity. After a deadlocked tie at the election of 1229, the number of electors was increased from forty to forty-one, new regulations for the elections of the doge introduced in 1268 remained in force until the end of the republic in 1797. Their object was to minimize as far as possible the influence of great families. Thirty members of the Great Council, chosen by lot, were reduced by lot to nine, the nine chose forty and the forty were reduced by lot to twelve, the twenty-five were reduced by lot to nine and the nine elected forty-five.
Then the forty-five were once more reduced by lot to eleven, none could be elected but by at least twenty-five votes out of forty-one, nine votes out of eleven or twelve, or seven votes out of nine electors. A detailed description of this process, and the procession that followed, is preserved in Martin Da Canales work Les Estoires de Venise. This practice came to an end in 1423, after the election of Francesco Foscari, the doges normally ruled for life. After a doges death, a commission of inquisitori passed judgment upon his acts, the official income of the doge was never large, and from early times holders of the office remained engaged in trading ventures. These ventures kept them in touch with the requirements of the grandi, from 7 July 1268, during a vacancy in the office of doge, the state was headed ex officio, with the style vicedoge, by the senior consigliere ducale. One of the duties of the doge was to celebrate the symbolic marriage of Venice with the sea. This was done by casting a ring from the state barge, in its earlier form this ceremony was instituted to commemorate the conquest of Dalmatia by Doge Pietro II Orseolo in 1000, and was celebrated on Ascension Day.
It took its and more magnificent form after the visit of Pope Alexander III, on state occasions the Doge was surrounded by an increasing amount of ceremony, and in international relations he had the status of a sovereign prince. The doge took part in processions, which started in the Piazza San Marco. The doge would appear in the center of the procession, preceded by civil servants ranked in ascending order of prestige, from the 14th century onwards, the ceremonial crown and well-known symbol of the doge of Venice was called corno ducale, a unique kind of a ducal hat. Every Easter Monday the doge headed a procession from San Marco to the convent of San Zaccaria where the abbess presented him a new camauro crafted by the nuns, the Doges official costume included golden robes, slippers and a sceptre for ceremonial duties
Vittore Carpaccio was a Venetian painter of the Venetian school, who studied under Gentile Bellini. He is best known for a cycle of nine paintings, The Legend of Saint Ursula and his style was somewhat conservative, showing little influence from the Humanist trends that transformed Italian Renaissance painting during his lifetime. He was influenced by the style of Antonello da Messina and Early Netherlandish art, Carpaccio was born in Venice, the son of Piero Scarpazza, a leather merchant. Carpaccio, or Scarpazza, as the name was rendered, came from a family originally from Mazzorbo. Documents trace the family back to at least the 13th century and his principal works were executed between 1490 and 1519, ranking him among the early masters of the Venetian Renaissance. He is first mentioned in 1472 in a will of his uncle Fra Ilario, upon entering the Humanist circles of Venice, he changed his family name to Carpaccio. He was a pupil of Lazzaro Bastiani, like the Bellini and Vivarini, was the head of an atelier in Venice.
Carpaccios earliest known works are a Salvator Mundi in the Collezione Contini Bonacossi. These works clearly show the influence of Antonello da Messina and Giovanni Bellini - especially in the use of light and colors - as well as the influence of the schools of Ferrara and Forlì. In 1490 Carpaccio began the famous Legend of St. Ursula, the subject of the works, which are now in the Gallerie dellAccademia, was drawn from the Golden Legend of Jacopo da Varagine. In 1491 he completed the Glory of St. Ursula altarpiece, many of Carpaccios major works were of this type, large scale detachable wall-paintings for the halls of Venetian scuole, which were charitable and social confraternities. Three years he took part in the decoration of the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista, in the opening decade of the sixteenth century, Carpaccio embarked on the works that have since awarded him the distinction as the foremost orientalist painter of his age. From 1502 to 1507 Carpaccio executed another notable series of panels for the Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni which served one of Venices immigrant communities, unlike the slightly old-fashioned use of a continuous narrative sequence found in the St.
Jerome, St. George and St. Trifon. Moreover, several of the scenes deal directly with cross-cultural issues, for example, St. Jerome, translated the Greek Bible to Latin in the fourth century. Then the St. George story addressed the theme of conversion, according to the Golden Legend, George, a Christian knight, rescues a Libyan princess who has been offered in sacrifice to a dragon. Horrified that her family would do such a thing, George brings the dragon back to her town. The St. George tale was popular during the renaissance. Carpaccios depiction of the event thus has a history, less common is his rendition of the baptism moment
‹See Tfd› Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of ones sins or wrongs. Buddhism has been from its primarily a tradition of renunciation. Within the monastic framework of the regular confession of wrongdoing to superiors is mandatory. In the sutras of the Pali Canon Bhikkhus confessed their wrongdoing to the Buddha himself and that part of the Pali Canon called the Vinaya requires that monks confess their individual sins before the bi-weekly convening for the recitation of the Patimokkha. In Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance is the method of the Church by which men and women may confess sins committed after baptism and have them absolved by a priest. Although it is not mandatory, the Catholic rite is usually conducted within a confessional box and this sacrament is known by many names, including penance and confession. For the Catholic Church, the intent of this sacrament is to provide healing for the soul as well as to regain the grace of God, in theological terms, the priest acts in persona Christi and receives from the Church the power of jurisdiction over the penitent.
The Catholic Church teaches that sacramental confession requires three acts on the part of the penitent, disclosure of the sins, the basic form of confession has not changed for centuries, although at one time confessions were made publicly. Typically, the penitent begins sacramental confession by saying, Bless me Father and it has been since my last confession. The penitent must confess what he/she believes to be grave and mortal sins, the sinner may confess venial sins, this is especially recommended if the penitent has no mortal sins to confess. According to the Catechism, without being strictly necessary, confession of faults is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church. Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ, by receiving more frequently through this sacrament the gift of the Fathers Mercy, we are spurred to be merciful as He is merciful. When Christs faithful strive to confess all the sins that they can remember, as a result, even mortal sins which the penitent inadvertently forgot are forgiven if the confession was good.
In general, Eastern Catholic and Orthodox Christians choose an individual to trust as his or her spiritual guide. In most cases this is the parish priest, but may be a starets or any individual, male or female and this person is often referred to as ones spiritual father or spiritual mother. Once chosen, the turns to his spiritual guide for advice on his or her spiritual development, confessing sins. What is confessed to ones spiritual guide is protected by the seal as would be any priest hearing a confession. While one does not have to be a priest to hear confession, Confession does not take place in a confessional, but normally in the main part of the church itself, usually before an analogion set up near the iconostasion
Patrician (post-Roman Europe)
In the rise of European towns in the 10th and 11th centuries, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirennes view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie, except for the republics of Italy. As in Ancient Rome, patrician status could only be inherited. However, membership in the patriciate could be passed on through the female line, accession to a patriciate through this mechanism was referred to as erweibern. In any case, only patricians could hold, or participate in elections for. Often, as in Venice, non-patricians had almost no political rights, lists were maintained of who had the status, of which the most famous is the Libro dOro of the Venetian Republic. For instance in Scandinavia, the term synonymous with the rich mercantile class. The allegiance of the Principality of Salerno was bought in 887 by investing Prince Guaimar I, in 909 the Prince of Benevento, Landulf I, personally sought and received the title in Constantinople for both himself and his brother, Atenulf II.
Amalfi was ruled by a series of Patricians, the last of whom was elected Duke, in the late Middle Ages and early modern period patricians acquired noble titles, sometimes simply by acquiring domains in the surrounding contado that carried a heritable fief. The Republic of Genoa had a class, much smaller, of nobility. Some cities, such as Naples and Rome, which had never been republics in post-Classical times, had patrician classes, though most holders had noble titles. The Republic of Ragusa was ruled by a strict patriciate that was established in 1332. Subsequently, patrician became a term used for aristocrats and elite bourgeoisie in many countries. Florence, in 1244, came late in the peak period of these transformations. However Florence was to have other upheavals, reducing the power of the class, in the movement leading to the Ordinances of Justice in 1293. Of the major republics, only Venice managed to retain an exclusively patrician government, venetians with a disputed claim to the patriciate were required to present to the avogadori di commun established to adjudicate such claims a genealogy called a prova di nobiltà, a test of nobility.
Beginning in the 11th century, a class which much came to be called Patrizier formed in the German-speaking free imperial cities. Besides wealthy merchant Grand Burghers, they were recruited from the ranks of knights and ministeriales
Old master print
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition. Fifteenth-century prints are rare that they are classed as old master prints even if they are of crude or merely workmanlike artistic quality. A date of about 1830 is usually taken as marking the end of the period whose prints are covered by this term, the main techniques used, in order of their introduction, are woodcut, etching and aquatint, although there are others. Different techniques are combined in a single print. With rare exceptions printed on textiles, such as silk, or on vellum, many great European artists, such as Albrecht Dürer and Francisco Goya, were dedicated printmakers. In their own day, their international reputations largely came from their prints, influences between artists were mainly transmitted beyond a single city by prints, for the same reason. Prints therefore are frequently brought up in detailed analyses of individual paintings in art history, thanks to colour photo reproductions, and public galleries, their paintings are much better known, whilst their prints are only rarely exhibited, for conservation reasons.
But some museum print rooms allow visitors to see their collection, the oldest technique is woodcut, or woodblock printing, which was invented as a method for printing on cloth in China, and perhaps separately in Egypt in the Byzantine period. This had reached Europe via the Byzantine or Islamic worlds before 1300, religious images and playing cards are documented as being produced on paper, probably printed, by a German in Bologna in 1395. However, the most impressive printed European images to survive from before 1400 are printed on cloth, for use as hangings on walls or furniture, including altars, some were used as a pattern to embroider over. Some religious images were used as bandages, to speed healing, the earliest print images are mostly of a high artistic standard, and were clearly designed by artists with a background in painting. Whether these artists cut the blocks themselves, or only inked the design on the block for another to carve, is not known, the great majority of surviving 15th-century prints are religious, although these were probably the ones more likely to survive.
Their makers were sometimes called Jesus maker or saint-maker in documents, as with manuscript books, monastic institutions sometimes produced, and often sold, prints. No artists can be identified with specific woodcuts until towards the end of the century, the little evidence we have suggests that woodcut prints became relatively common and cheap during the fifteenth century, and were affordable by skilled workers in towns. For example, what may be the earliest surviving Italian print, the school caught fire, and the crowd who gathered to watch saw the print carried up into the air by the fire, before falling down into the crowd. This was regarded as an escape and the print was carried to Forlì Cathedral. Like the majority of prints before approximately 1460, only a single impression of this print has survived, Woodcut blocks are printed with light pressure, and are capable of printing several thousand impressions, and even at this period some prints may well have been produced in that quantity.
Many prints were hand-coloured, mostly in watercolour, in fact the hand-colouring of prints continued for many centuries, Germany and the Netherlands were the main areas of production, England does not seem to have produced any prints until about 1480
Jacopo Bellini was one of the founders of the Renaissance style of painting in Venice and northern Italy. His sons Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, and his son-in-law Andrea Mantegna, were famous painters. Few of Bellinis paintings still exist, but his surviving sketch-books show an interest in landscape and his surviving works show how he accommodated linear perspective to the decorative patterns and rich colors of Venetian painting. Born in Venice, Jacopo had been a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano, in 1411–1412 he was in Foligno, where with Gentile he worked at the Palazzo Trinci frescoes. In 1423 Bellini was in Florence, where he knew the new works by Brunelleschi, Masolino da Panicale, in 1424 he opened a workshop in Venice, which he ran right up until his death. Many of his greatest works, including the enormous Crucifixion in the cathedral of Verona, have disappeared, from c.1430 is the panel with Madonna and Child, in the Accademia Carrara, once attributed to Gentile da Fabriano. In 1441, at Ferrara, where he was at the service of Leonello dEste together with Leon Battista Alberti, he executed a portrait of that Marquess, of this period the Madonna dellUmiltà, probably commissioned by one of the brothers of Leonello.
Later he contributed with works now lost to the Venetian churches of San Giovanni Evangelista, from 1459 is a Madonna with Blessing Child in the Gallerie dellAccademia. Later he sojourned in Padua, where he trained a young Andrea Mantegna in perspective and classicist themes, of his late phase, a ruined Crucifix in the Museum of Verona and an Annunciation in the church of SantAlessandro of Brescia remain. Eisler, The genius of Jacopo Bellini, the paintings and drawings Chisholm, Hugh. Italian Paintings, Venetian School, a catalog containing information about Bellini
Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista
The Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista is a confraternity building located in the San Polo sestiere of the Italian city of Venice. Founded in the 13th century by a group of flagellants it was to one of the five Scuole Grandi of Venice. These organisations provided a variety of functions in the city as well as becoming patrons of the arts. No longer in the school, these came into public ownership during the Napoleonic era and are now housed in the Gallerie dellAccademia, the scuola is open to visitors on a limited number of days, detailed on the official website. Founded in 1261, San Giovanni Evangelista is the second oldest scuola in Venice, though scuola developed a primary meaning of school, in Venice these organisations retain their medieval Latin meaning of confraternities, social organisations founded on spiritual principles. Their main buildings were used as meeting and assembly halls. The founders of San Giovanni were a confraternity of flagellants who took part in ceremonies, whipping their backs.
This practice was outlawed in the city of Venice in the year the scuola was founded. In 1369 Philip de Mezières, the Chancellor of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, a reliquary was constructed to house the relic and this was soon after connected with a miracle that reportedly took place in Venice during the period 1370-82. According to contemporary accounts, when dropped into a canal during a congested procession the relic did not sink but hovered over the water. This continued until Andrea Vendramin dived in and retrieved it and this was the same Andrea who, as head of the scuola, had been presented with the relic in 1369. This miracle was depicted by Vittorio Carpaccio, Gentile Bellini, nearly 200 years the reliquary was the focal point of the Vendramin family portrait by Titian, now in the National Gallery, showing the prestige the events had given to the family. During the Renaissance period the scuola was made into a Scuola Grande under the control of Venices Council of Ten, in 1485 the architect Pietro Lombardo completed the schools most distinctive architectural feature, the outdoor atrium and gateway which separate the complex from the campo to which it adjoins.
Shortly after, in 1498, the architect Mauro Codussi completed work on a staircase linking the upper and lower halls. It is illuminated by a window on the landing between the two flights of stairs, an element common to much of Codussis work. The final major changes were made during the 18th century. Following the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797 the schools were suppressed by a Napoleonic edict, during the 19th century San Giovanni Evangelista was one of the ones re-constituted. The school is defined externally by the open air atrium or courtyard, though appearing harmonious the courtyard is the work of several different periods
Republic of Venice
It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice. It was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages, the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade, in subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy. It dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Asia and North Africa, the Venetian navy was used in the Crusades. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea, the city became home to an extremely wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the citys lagoons. Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe, the city was the birthplace of great European explorers, including Marco Polo, as well as the classical music composer Vivaldi. The republic was ruled by the Doge, who was elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the ruling class was an oligarchy of merchants and aristocrats.
Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism, Venetian citizens generally supported the system of governance. The city-state enforced strict laws and employed ruthless tactics in its prisons, the opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venices decline as a maritime republic. The city state suffered defeats from the navy of the Ottoman Empire, in 1797, the country was colonized by Austria and France, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte. Venice became a part of a unified Italy in the 19th century and it was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the Most Serene Republics. He was the first historical Doge of Venice, whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursuss successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s and he was the son of Ursus and represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty.
Such attempts were more commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire, another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The other main faction was pro-Frankish, supported mostly by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers, the successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence, many centuries later, the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars
Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice
The Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, known in Venetian as San Zanipolo, is a church in the Castello sestiere of Venice, Italy. One of the largest churches in the city, it has the status of a minor basilica, after the 15th century the funeral services of all of Venices doges were held here, and twenty-five doges are buried in the church. The huge brick edifice was designed in the Italian Gothic style and it is the principal Dominican church of Venice, and as such was built to hold large congregations. In 1246, Doge Jacopo Tiepolo donated some swampland to the Dominicans after dreaming of a flock of white doves flying over it, the first church was demolished in 1333, when the current church was begun. It was not completed until 1430, San Giovanni e Paolo is a parish church of the Vicariate of San Marco-Castello. Other churches of the parish are San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti, the Ospedaletto, the Renaissance Equestrian Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, by Andrea del Verrocchio, is located next to the church.
The belltower has 3 bells in D major, the famous The Feast in the House of Levi, painted for the refectory, is now in the Accademia Gallery. After the 15th century the funeral services of all of Venices doges were held in San Giovanni e Paolo
Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V, born Camillo Borghese, was Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621. He is best remembered today as the Pope who persecuted Galileo Galilei, Camillo Borghese was born on 17 September 1550 into the noble Borghese family of Siena which had recently fled to Rome, thus the reason as to why ROMANUS appears in most of his inscriptions. He began his career as an educated at Perugia and in Padua. In June 1596 he was made the Cardinal-Priest of SantEusebio and the Cardinal Vicar of Rome by Pope Clement VIII, during this time, he opted for other titular churches like San Crisogono and Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Clement VIII bestowed upon him episcopal consecration in 1597 after his appointment as Bishop of Jesi, in character he was very stern and unyielding, a lawyer rather than diplomat, who defended the privileges of the Church to his utmost. His first act was to send home to their sees the bishops who were sojourning in Rome, Paul met with Galileo Galilei in 1616 after Cardinal Bellarmine had, on his orders, warned Galileo not to hold or defend the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus.
Whether there was an not to teach those ideas in any way has been a matter for controversy. Paul V canonised Charles Borromeo on 1 November 1610 and Frances of Rome on 29 May 1608 and he canonized Pompejanus in 1615 and canonized Cardinal Albert de Louvain on 9 August 1621. He beatified a number of individuals which included Ignatius Loyola, Philip Neri, Theresa of Avila, and Francis Xavier. Venice passed two laws obnoxious to Paul, one forbidding the alienation of real estate in favour of the clergy, two priests charged by the Venetian state with cruelty, wholesale poisoning and licentiousness, were arrested by the Senate and put in dungeons for trial. Having been found guilty, they were committed to prison, Paul V insisted that they be released to the Church. He demanded the release of the priests as not being amenable to the secular law, when this was refused, the Pope threatened an interdict on account of the property laws and the imprisonment of ecclesiastics, which threat was presented to the Senate on Christmas 1605.
The Venetian position was defended by a canon lawyer, Paolo Sarpi. In April 1606 the Pope excommunicated the entire government of Venice, Father Sarpi strongly advised the Venetian government to refuse to receive the Popes interdict, and to reason with him while opposing force by force. The rest of the Catholic clergy sided with the city, with the exception of the Jesuits, the Theatines, the dissenting clergy were forthwith expelled from Venetian territories. Masses continued to be said in Venice, and the feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with displays of pomp and magnificence. Within a year the disagreement was mediated by France and Spain, the Most Serene Republic refused to retract the laws, but asserted that Venice would conduct herself with her accustomed piety. The Jesuits, which Venice considered subversive Papal agents, remained banned, in September 1607, after unsuccessfully attempting to lure Father Sarpi to Rome, the Pope responded by putting out a contract on his life