Gran Colombia is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. It included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru, western Guyana, the first three were the successor states to Gran Colombia at its dissolution. Panama was separated from Colombia in 1903, since Gran Colombias territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast. Its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized. The two men had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward, the official name of the country at the time was the Republic of Colombia. The name Colombia comes from the Spanish version of the eighteenth-century New Latin word Columbia and it was the term preferred by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World, especially to all American territories and colonies under Spanish rule.
He used an improvised, quasi-Greek adjectival version of the name, Colombeia, to papers and things relating to Colombia. Bolívar and other Spanish American revolutionaries used the word Colombia in the continental sense, the establishment in 1819 of a nation with the name Colombia by the Congress of Angostura gave the term a specific geographic and political reference. The Republic of Colombia comprised more or less the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and it united the territories of the former Third Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the former Royal Audiencia of Panama and the Presidency of Quito. Before a new constitution could be written by the Congress of Cúcuta, under the Constitution of Cúcuta, the country was divided into twelve departments governed by an intendant. Departments were further divided into provinces headed by a governor. Military affairs at the department level were overseen by a commandant general, all three offices were appointed by the central government.
The central government, which temporarily was to reside in Bogotá, consisted of a presidency, a bicameral congress, the president was the head of the executive branch of both the central and local governments. The president could be granted extraordinary powers in military fronts, such as the area that became Ecuador, the vice-president assumed the presidency in case of the absence, demotion, or illness of the president. Since President Bolívar was absent from Gran Colombia for the years of its existence, executive power was wielded by the vice-president. The vote was given to persons who owned 100 pesos in landed property or had an equivalent income from a profession, in that year, none of the provinces of Quito, nor many in Venezuela and New Granada, were free yet. The Constitution of Cúcuta was drafted in 1821 at the Congress of Cúcuta, Bolívar and Santander were elected as the nations president and vice-president. To break up regionalist tendencies and to set up efficient central control of local administration, the Gran Colombian army consolidated the independence of Peru in 1824
Spanish colonial real
The silver real was the currency of the Spanish colonies in America and the Philippines. In the seventeenth century the real was established at two billon reals or sixty-eight maravedís. A reform in 1737 set the real at two and half billon reals or eighty-five maravedís. This coin, called the real de plata fuerte, became the new standard, the gold escudo was worth 16 reales de plata fuerte. Coins were produced at mints in Bogotá, Guatemala City, Mexico City, Popayán, Potosí, from 1572 to 1773 Spanish colonial silver coins were cobs. Initially cut from a bar and hammer struck on a coin die, they were accurate in weight. However unlike machined coins, they were irregular in shape. After 1732 similar, but better shaped cobs were produced on screw presses, cob denominations were 1/2,1,2,4, and 8 reales. When circulating in New England the larger coins might be cut to give intermediate values, since a real was nicknamed a bit, unlike in Spain, the copper coins were generally not struck by the colonial mints.
Most issued silver coins in denominations of ¼, ½,1,2,4 and 8 reales, currency of Spanish America Peso Spanish dollar Spanish escudo Spanish real Viceroyalty
This drove the liberals to look for greater autonomy for the provinces. It was the biggest and bloodiest civil war Venezuela had had since its independence, hundreds of thousands died in the violence of the war, or from hunger or disease, in a country with a population of just over a million people. The Federal War was mainly a war largely without a centralized command for the Federalists. The hostilities ended with the signing of the Treaty of Coche in April 1863, politics of Venezuela Great War, Virtual Gallery
Coat of arms of Venezuela
The current coat of arms of Venezuela was primarily approved by the Congress on April 18,1836, undergoing small modifications through history, reaching the present version. The coat of arms was established in the Law of the National Flag and Anthem, passed on February 17,1954, by the governor of Venezuela. The shield is divided in the colors of the national flag, in the dexter chief, on a red field, wheat represents the union of the 20 states of the Republic existing at the time and the wealth of the nation. In sinister chief, on a field and two national flags are tied by a branch of laurel, as a symbol of triumph in war. In base, on a blue field, a wild white horse runs free. Above the shield are two crossed cornucopias, pouring out wealth, the shield is flanked by an olive branch and another of palm, both tied at the bottom of the coat with a large band that represents the national tricolour. Prior to 2006, the horse was running to the side of the shield with its head turned to the dexter.
In heraldic practice and beasts are to appear facing to the dexter, the Economist observed that Hugo Chávez ordered the seal changed after his daughter, Rosinés Chávez Rodríguez, had described the previous horse as “looking backwards”. Government supporters state, that if the presidents daughter was the one who sparked the discussion. Many critics have suggested that the horse, now running to the dexter is a statement of the current left-wing government of President Hugo Chávez. Previously in the Venezuelan arms adopted in 1863, the horse was moving as it is seen today, political opponents have claimed that in addition to being politically motivated, the changes were economically wasteful. At the time of the unveiling, the opposition party stated that they will not use the new flag or coat of arms. However, by 2008, and with an improved political climate. Heraldist Fabio Cassani Pironti, commissioned by the National Assembly, made the reform of the National coats of arms. In heraldic descriptions dexter means right from the viewpoint of a person standing behind the shield, i. e.
the viewers left, sinister means left, ley de Bandera, Escudo e Himno Nacionales - Law of the National Flag, Coat of Arms and Anthem. La octava estrella de Bolívar - The eighth star of Bolivar
Margarita Island is the largest island in the Venezuelan state of Nueva Esparta, situated off the northeastern coast of the country, in the Caribbean Sea. The capital city of Nueva Esparta, La Asunción, is located on the island, primary industries are tourism and construction. Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive on Margarita Island in 1498, the local natives were the Guaiqueries people. The coast of the island was abundant in pearls, which represented almost a third of all New World tribute to the Spanish Crown, Margarita Island was fortified against the increasing threat of pirate attacks, and some fortifications remain today. It was the center of Spanish colonial Margarita Province, established in 1525, in 1561, the island was seized by Lope de Aguirre, a notoriously violent and rebellious conquistador. Around 1675, the island was captured again, this time by Red Legs Greaves and he captured a fleet of Spanish ships off port, before turning the guns on the forts which he stormed and claimed a large booty of pearls and gold.
Construction of the fort Santa Rosa was ordered by the governor, Juan Muñoz de Gadea, the island gained independence from the Spanish in 1814 after the collapse of the First Republic of Venezuela. It became the first permanently free territory in Venezuela, simón Bolívar was confirmed as Commander in Chief of the Second Republic of Venezuela on the island in 1816. From there he started a campaign to free Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru. Located in the Caribbean Sea between latitudes 10°52N and 11°11N and longitudes 63°48W and 64°23W, the island, along with the islands of Coche and Cubagua, the island is split into two peninsulas joined by an 18 kilometres long isthmus and covers an area of 1,020 km². It is 78 kilometres long and measures roughly 20 kilometres at its widest, the climate is sunny and dry with average temperatures ranging from 24 to 37 °C. Most of the islands 420,000 residents live in the developed eastern part of the island. The island can be reached by flights from Caracas or ferries from Puerto La Cruz, Cumaná.
There are no flights to the island at present. The Macanao peninsula to the west has a mountain range in the east-west direction. The highest altitude is 760 metres at Pico de Macanao, several smaller ranges derive from this axis following a north-south orientation with deep valleys between them. The most notable of these valleys is San Francisco in the part of the peninsula. The Paraguachoa peninsula to the East is formed by a range in the north-south direction from Porlamar to Cabo Negro
Venezuela Department (1824)
Venezuela Department was one of the departments of Gran Colombia from 1824 to 1830. It had borders to Atlantic Ocean in the North, Caracas, Caucagua, Chaguaramas, La Guaira, La Victoria, Villa de Cura, Ocumare y San Sebastián. Cantones, Barquisimeto, Puerto Cabello, San Felipe y Tocuyo
Politics of Venezuela
The politics of Venezuela occurs in a framework explained in Government of Venezuela. Venezuela has a dominant-party system, dominated by the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, the governing United Socialist Party of Venezuela was created in 2007, uniting a number of smaller parties supporting Hugo Chávezs Bolivarian Revolution with Chávezs Fifth Republic Movement. PSUV and its forerunners have held the Presidency and National Assembly since 1998, the Democratic Unity Roundtable, created in 2008, unites much of the opposition. Democratic Action led the government during Venezuelas first democratic period, after an intervening decade of dictatorship saw ADˣ excluded from power, four Venezuelan presidents came from Democratic Action from the 1960s to the 1990s. This period, known as the Fourth Republic, is marked by the development of the 1958 Punto Fijo Pact between the parties, with the notable exclusion of the Communist Party of Venezuela. Democratic Actions last president was impeached for corruption in 1993, the other main traditional party Copei, provided two Venezuelan presidents.
By 1998, support for Democratic Action and COPEI had fallen further. Chávez launched what he called the Bolivarian Revolution, and fulfilled a promise by calling a Constituent Assembly in 1999. The United Socialist Party of Venezuela was created in 2007, uniting a number of parties supporting Hugo Chávezs Bolivarian Revolution with Chávezs Fifth Republic Movement. The Democratic Unity Roundtable, created in 2008, unites much of the opposition, the National Assembly has twice voted to grant Chávez the ability to rule by decree in several broadly defined areas, once in 2000 and again in 2007. In 2008, the government expelled the US-based Human Rights Watch, there is a history of tension between church and state in the country. The Catholic Church has accused Chavez of concentrating power in his own hands, in its 2009 Easter address to the nation, the bishops said the countrys democracy was in serious danger of collapse. In 2009 when Caracas, the capital, elected an opposition mayor, Venezuela abolished the death penalty in 1863, making it the country where this practice has been outlawed the longest.
Venezuela elects at a level the President of Venezuela as head of state and head of government. The President of Venezuela is elected for a term by direct election plurality voting. The National Assembly has 165 members, elected for five-year terms, elections take place at state level and local level
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
It is the seat of the Roman Catholic archdiocese of Calabozo. Calabozo is situated in the midst of an extensive llano on the bank of the Guárico River. In its vicinity are thermal springs, the principal occupation of its inhabitants is cattle-raising. The town is built, regularly laid out with streets crossing at right angles, and possesses several fine old churches. It is a place of commercial importance because of its situation in the midst of a rich cattle-raising country. It is believed to have been an Indian town originally, and was made a town as one of the stations of the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas in 1730. However, like most Venezuelan towns, Calabozo made little growth during the 19th century, in 1820 the Spanish forces under Francisco Tomás Morales were defeated here by the revolutionists under Simón Bolívar and José Antonio Páez. Its waters have accumulated numbers of Caribbean fish, this book changed the economic face of Calabozo happened to become the pilot site of a complex agricultural economy.
The irrigation system has encouraged the cultivation of rice, pulses, tomatoes, paprika and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, in addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru. Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, the rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult. The Wayuu had never subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a more or less permanent state of war, there had been rebellions in 1701,1727,1741,1757,1761 and 1768. In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law, of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses.
In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena, the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church, the Spanish immediately dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed and this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, and more men joined the revolt. According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms, many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes even from the Spanish. This enabled the rebels to take all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed, many cattle were taken by the rebels. The Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the rebels themselves were not unified.
Sierras relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death, a battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad. That and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador, the Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856. The name Colombia reappeared in the United States of Colombia, the new name for the country having been introduced by a government after a civil war
El Tocuyo is a fertile valley and city in west-central Venezuela at 622 m elevation. It is located in south-central Lara State about 60 km southwest of Barquisimeto, the town of El Tocuyo was founded by Juan de Carvajal in 1545 on the banks of the Tocuyo River and it was the administrative capital of Venezuela Province from 1546 to 1548. Its original name was Nuestra Señora de la Pura y Limpia Concepción del Tocuyo, El Tocuyo is now just the municipal seat of Morán. The surrounding area has soil and an ideal climate for agriculture, dry. The area has been occupied since prehistoric times, when the Spanish arrived they found the Gayones Indians, who inhabited this valley, sowing corn and other agricultural products as cotton and yucca. After the Spanish came, sugar cane was, for centuries, the biggest crop, but since 1980 vegetables such as tomatoes, onions and potatoes are taking its place. Historia de Venezuela para nosotros, El Tocuyo Fundación Empresas Polar, in Spanish, title History of Venezuela for us, El Tocuyo http, //www. eltocuyo. 8m. com
Before the arrival of European explorers, the Guianas were populated by scattered bands of Arawak Indians. Over the centuries of the era, the ebb and flow of power between Arawak and Carib interests throughout the Caribbean resulted in a great deal of intermingling. This ethnic mixing, particularly in the Caribbean margins like the Guianas, walter Raleigh began the exploration of the Guianas in earnest in 1594. He was in search of a golden city at the headwaters of the Caroní River. A year he explored what is now Guyana and eastern Venezuela in search of Manoa, Raleigh described the city of El Dorado as being located on Lake Parime far up the Orinoco River in Guyana. After the publication of Raleighs accounts, several other European powers developed interest in the Guianas, the Dutch joined in the exploration of the Guianas before the end of the century. With this goal in mind, the Dutch dispatched explorer Jacob Cornelisz to survey the area in 1597 and his clerk, Adriaen Cabeliau, related the voyage of Cornelisz and his survey of Indian groups and areas of potential trade partnerships in his diary.
The company, established in 1621 for such purposes, benefited from an investment of capital than the English, primarily through foreign investors like Isaac de Pinto. English and Dutch settlers were regularly harassed by the Spanish and Portuguese, in 1613, Dutch trading posts on the Essequibo and Corantijn Rivers were completely destroyed by Spanish troops. Nonetheless, the Dutch returned in 1615, founding a new settlement at present-day Cayenne, one on the Wiapoco River, the French had made less significant attempts at colonization, first in 1604 along the Sinnamary River. The settlement collapsed within a summer, and initial attempts at settlement near modern-day Cayenne, French priorities — land acquisition and Catholic conversion — were not easily reconciled with the difficulties of initial settlement-building on the Wild Coast. Even as late as 1635, the King of France granted permission to the whole of Guiana to a company of Norman merchants. When these merchants made a settlement near the city of Cayenne.
Eight years later, a reinforcement contingent led by Charles Poncet de Brétigny found only a few of the colonists left alive. Cayenne itself, the first permanent settlement of size to the Dutch colonies. The Dutch appointed a new commandeur of the Guiana settlements in 1742, in this year, Laurens Storm van s Gravesande took over the region. He held the position for three decades, coordinating the development and expansion of the Dutch colonies from his Netherlands home in Soestdijk, gravesande’s tenure brought significant change to the colonies, though his policy was in many ways an extension of his predecessor, Hermanus Gelskerke. Commandeur Gelskerke had begun pressing for change from a focus to one of cultivation