Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of beauty; as the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, Venus can cast shadows and is visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Venus lies within Earth's orbit, so never appears to venture far from the Sun, either setting in the west just after dusk or rising in the east a bit before dawn. Venus orbits the Sun every 224.7 Earth days. With a rotation period of 243 Earth days, it takes longer to rotate about its axis than any planet in the Solar System and does so in the opposite direction to all but Uranus. Venus does not have any moons, a distinction it shares only with Mercury among planets in the Solar System. Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, proximity to the Sun, bulk composition, it is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide.
The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth, or the pressure found 900 m underwater on Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 735 K though Mercury is closer to the Sun. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light, it may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water has photodissociated, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field. Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and is periodically resurfaced by volcanism; as one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been a major fixture in human culture for as long as records have existed. It has been made sacred to gods of many cultures, has been a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the morning star and evening star.
Venus was the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky, as early as the second millennium BC. As the planet with the closest approach to Earth, Venus has been a prime target for early interplanetary exploration, it was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft, the first to be landed on. Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. Plans have been proposed for rovers or more complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus's hostile surface conditions. In January 2020, astronomers reported evidence that suggests that Venus is volcanically active. Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, meaning that it is a rocky body like Earth, it is similar to Earth in size and mass, is described as Earth's "sister" or "twin". The diameter of Venus is 12,103.6 km —only 638.4 km less than Earth's—and its mass is 81.5% of Earth's. Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth because its dense atmosphere is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% being nitrogen.
The Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century. Venera landers in 1975 and 1982 returned images of a surface covered in sediment and angular rocks; the surface was mapped in detail by Magellan in 1990–91. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism, the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been recent eruptions. About 80% of the Venusian surface is covered by smooth, volcanic plains, consisting of 70% plains with wrinkle ridges and 10% smooth or lobate plains. Two highland "continents" make up the rest of its surface area, one lying in the planet's northern hemisphere and the other just south of the equator; the northern continent is called Ishtar Terra after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, is about the size of Australia. Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra, its peak is 11 km above the Venusian average surface elevation. The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, is the larger of the two highland regions at the size of South America.
A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area. The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible calderas remains an enigma; the planet has few impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is young 300–600 million years old. Venus has some unique surface features in addition to the impact craters and valleys found on rocky planets. Among these are flat-topped volcanic features called "farra", which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20 to 50 km across, from 100 to 1,000 m high; these features are volcanic in origin. Most Venusian surface features are named after mythological women. Exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, highland regions Alpha Regio, Beta Regio, Ovda Regio; the last three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union, the body which oversees planetary nomenclature. The longitude of
Bjørn Fongaard was a Norwegian composer and teacher. In addition to being concerned with microtonal and electronic music, he was the first to use the prepared guitar. "Fongaard's output is considerable... Due to the experimental notation, these works have not become known." He studied at the Oslo Conservatory of Music with teachers including Per Steenberg, Sigurd Islandsmoen, Bjarne Brustad, Karl Andersen. He started off by constructing a quarter tone guitar with adaption of the fretboard, but early left this in favor of a diverse set of prepared guitar techniques, his first pieces in this genre came in the mid 60's. A sampler CD of his own recordings entitled Elektrofoni: Works For Micro Intervallic Guitar 1965-1978 was released in 2011. In 2015, a double disc of new recordings by Norwegian guitarist Anders Førisdal was released on Aurora Records. Galaxy op. 46 Homo Sapiens op. 80 Genesis Sinfonia Microtonalis op. 79 Orchestra Antiphonalis Symphony of Space Universum Mare Tranquilitatis 23 Concertos for Piano and Orchestra 0p.
118 12 Concertos for Solo Instrument and Orchestra op. 120 21 String Quartets op. 123 57 Sonatas for One Instrument op. 125 41 Concertos for Solo Instrument and Tape op. 131 "Bjørn Fongaard: Elektrofoni 3CD/1DVD Box-Set", PrismaRecords. BlogSpot.com. "Bjørn Fongaard, "Elektrofoni: Works for Micro Intervallic Guitar 1965-1978"", BrainWashed.com
The Wagenburg is a museum of carriages and vehicles used by the imperial household of the Austrian Empire. It is housed in the grounds of the Schloss Schönbrunn in the Hietzing district of Vienna and is a department of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, its exhibits include the Imperialwagen. Highlights of the exhibition: the gilded “Imperial Carriage,” the Golden Carousel Carriage of Maria Theresia, the Child’s Phaeton of Napoleon’s son, the Black Hearse of the Viennese Court, the personal Landaulet of Empress Elisabeth and the only preserved Court Automobile of 1914. Wagenburg Museum