In rail terminology, a railway turntable or wheelhouse is a device for turning railway rolling stock locomotives, so that they can be moved back in the direction from which they came. This is true in areas where economic considerations or a lack of sufficient space have served to weigh against the construction of a turnaround wye. In the case of steam locomotives, railways needed a way to turn the locomotives around for return trips as their controls were not configured for extended periods of running in reverse and in many locomotives the top speed was lower in reverse motion. In the case of diesel locomotives, though most can be operated in either direction, they are treated as having "front ends" and "rear ends"; when operated as a single unit, the railway company prefers, or requires, that a diesel locomotive is run "front end" first. When operated as part of a multiple unit locomotive consist, the locomotives can be arranged so that the consist can be operated "front end first" no matter which direction the consist is pointed.
Turntables were used to turn observation cars so that their windowed lounge ends faced toward the rear of the train. Early wagonways were industrial railways for transporting goods—initially bulky and heavy items mined stone and coal—from one point to another, most to a dockside to be loaded onto ships; these early wagonways used a single point-to-point track, when operators had to move a truck to another wagonway, they did so by hand. The lack of switching technology limited the weight of any loaded wagon combination; the first railway switches were in fact wagon turnplates. Turnplates were made of two or four pieces of wood, circular in form, that replicated the track running through them, their diameter matched that of the wagons used on any given wagonway, they swung around a central pivot. Loaded wagons could be moved onto the turnplate, rotating the turnplate 90 degrees allowed the loaded wagon to be moved to another piece of wagonway. Thus, wagon weight was limited only by the strength of the wood used in the turnplates or sliding rails.
When iron and steel replaced stone and wood, weight capacity rose again. However, the problems with turnplates and sliding rails were twofold. First, they were small, which limited the wagon length that could be turned. Second, their switching capacity could only be accessed when the wagon was on top of them and still, which limited the total capacity of any wagonway; the railway switch, which overcame both of these problems, was patented by Charles Fox in 1832. As steam locomotives replaced horses as the preferred means of power, they became optimised to run in only one direction for operational ease and to provide some weather protection; the resulting need to turn heavy locomotives required an engineering upgrade to the existing turnplate technology. Like earlier turnplates, most new turntables consisted of a circular pit in which a steel bridge rotated; the bridge was supported and balanced by the central pivot, to reduce the total load on the pivot and to allow easy turning. This was most achieved by a steel rail running around the floor of the pit that supported the ends of the bridge when a locomotive entered or exited.
The turntables had a positive locking mechanism to prevent undesired rotation and to align the bridge rails with the exit track. Rotation of the bridge could be accomplished manually, by an external power source, or by the braking system of the locomotive itself, though this required a locomotive to be on the table for it to be rotated; the turntable bridge could span depending on the railway's needs. Larger turntables were installed in maintenance facilities for longer locomotives, while short line and narrow gauge railways used smaller turntables. Turntables as small as 6 feet in diameter have been installed in some industrial facilities where pieces of equipment are small enough to be pushed one at a time by humans or horsepower. In engine maintenance facilities, a turntable was surrounded, in part or in whole, by a roundhouse, it was more common for the roundhouse to only cover a portion of the land around a turntable but circular roundhouses exist, such as these preserved roundhouses: The roundhouse that serves as the basis for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Museum in Baltimore, MD The Roundhouse in London, now an arts centre.
Junee Roundhouse Railway Museum Due to the asymmetric design of many locomotives, turntables still in use are more common in North America than in Europe, where locomotive design favors configurations with a controller cabin on both ends or in the middle. In San Francisco, USA, the Powell cable car line uses turntables at the end of the routes, since the cable cars have operating controls at only one end of the car. In Britain, where steam hauled trains have vacuum operated brakes, it was quite common for turntables to be operated by vacuum motors worked from the locomotive's vacuum ejector or pump via a flexible hose or pipe although a few manually and electrically operated examples exist; the major manufacturers were Ransomes and Rapier and Cowans Sheldon, Carlisle. The GWR was the railway company. There was a turntable at the Talaguppa end of the Shimoga-Talaguppa railway, one at Howbagh Railway Station near Jabalpur on the Balaghat-Jabalpur Narrow Gauge Line. Both were used
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water, to provide emergency storage for fire protection. In some places, the term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a water tower. Water towers operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used. Other types of water towers may only store raw water for fire protection or industrial purposes, may not be connected to a public water supply. Water towers are able to supply water during power outages, because they rely on hydrostatic pressure produced by elevation of water to push the water into domestic and industrial water distribution systems. A water tower serves as a reservoir to help with water needs during peak usage times; the water level in the tower falls during the peak usage hours of the day, a pump fills it back up during the night. This process keeps the water from freezing in cold weather, since the tower is being drained and refilled.
Although the use of elevated water storage tanks has existed since ancient times in various forms, the modern use of water towers for pressurized public water systems developed during the mid-19th century, as steam-pumping became more common, better pipes that could handle higher pressures were developed. In the United Kingdom, standpipes consisted of tall, exposed, n-shaped pipes, used for pressure relief and to provide a fixed elevation for steam-driven pumping engines which tended to produce a pulsing flow, while the pressurized water distribution system required constant pressure. Standpipes provided a convenient fixed location to measure flow rates. Designers enclosed the riser pipes in decorative masonry or wooden structures. By the late 19th-Century, standpipes grew to include storage tanks to meet the ever-increasing demands of growing cities. Many early water towers are now considered significant and have been included in various heritage listings around the world; some are converted to exclusive penthouses.
In certain areas, such as New York City in the United States, smaller water towers are constructed for individual buildings. In California and some other states, domestic water towers enclosed by siding were once built to supply individual homes. Water towers were used to supply water stops for steam locomotives on railroad lines. Early steam locomotives required water stops every 7 to 10 miles. A variety of materials can be used to construct a typical water tower; the reservoir in the tower may be spherical, cylindrical, or an ellipsoid, with a minimum height of 6 metres and a minimum of 4 m in diameter. A standard water tower has a height of 40 m. Pressurization occurs through the hydrostatic pressure of the elevation of water. 30 m of elevation produces 300 kPa, enough pressure to operate and provide for most domestic water pressure and distribution system requirements. The height of the tower provides the pressure for the water supply system, it may be supplemented with a pump; the volume of the reservoir and diameter of the piping sustain flow rate.
However, relying on a pump to provide pressure is expensive. During periods of low demand, jockey pumps are used to meet these lower water flow requirements; the water tower reduces the need for electrical consumption of cycling pumps and thus the need for an expensive pump control system, as this system would have to be sized sufficiently to give the same pressure at high flow rates. High volumes and flow rates are needed when fighting fires. With a water tower present, pumps can be sized for average demand, not peak demand. Using wireless sensor networks to monitor water levels inside the tower allows municipalities to automatically monitor and control pumps without installing and maintaining expensive data cables. Water towers can be surrounded by ornate coverings including fancy brickwork, a large ivy-covered trellis or they can be painted; some city water towers have the name of the city painted in large letters on the roof, as a navigational aid to aviators and motorists. Sometimes the decoration can be humorous.
An example of this are water towers built side by side, labeled HOT and COLD. Cities in the United States possessing side-by-side water towers labeled HOT and COLD include Granger, Iowa; when a third water tower was built next to the Okemah, Oklahoma set of Hot and Cold towers, the town considered naming it "Running", but decided to use "Home of Woody Guthrie". The House in the Clouds in Thorpeness, located in the English county of Suffolk, was built to resemble a house in order to disguise the eyesore, whilst the lower floors were used for accommodation
Hostels provide lower-priced, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, private rooms may be available. In the 2010s, hostels have wifi access. Hostels are cheaper for both the operator and occupants than hotels. In India and South Africa, hostel refers to boarding schools or student dormitories in resident colleges and universities. In other parts of the world, the word hostel refers to properties offering shared accommodation to travellers or backpackers. In 1912, in Altena Castle in Germany, Richard Schirrmann created the first permanent Jugendherberge or "Youth Hostel." These first youth hostels were an exponent of the vision of the German Youth Movement to let poor city youngsters breathe fresh air outdoors. The youths were supposed to manage the hostel themselves as much as possible, doing chores to keep the costs down and build character, be physically active outdoors; because of this, many youth hostels closed during the middle part of the day.
There are several differences between hostels and hotels, including: Hostels tend to be budget-oriented. Hostels tend to have single beds in a shared room, rather than private rooms. For those who prefer an informal environment, hostels do not have the same level of formality as hotels. For those who prefer to socialize with their fellow guests, hostels have more common areas and opportunities to socialize; the dormitory aspect of hostels increases the social factor. Hostels are self-catering, with a shared kitchen that all the guests use to make their food. Hostels close during the day to keep down cost. Hostels lack the extra amenities provided in hotel rooms. There is less privacy in a hostel than in a hotel. Sharing sleeping accommodation in a dormitory is different from staying in a private room in a hotel or bed and breakfast, might not be comfortable for those requiring more privacy. For some hostel users, the shared accommodation makes it easier to meet new people; some hostels encourage more social interaction between guests due to the shared sleeping areas and communal areas such as lounges and internet cafes.
Lounges have sofas and chairs, coffee tables, board games, books and Internet access. The lounge provides a location for social activities. Washing machines and tumble driers are provided for cleaning and drying clothes, with pay machines used. Care should be taken with personal belongings, as guests may share a common living space, so it is advisable to secure guests' belongings against theft. Most hostels offer some sort of system for safely storing valuables, an increasing number of hostels offer private lockers. Noise can make sleeping difficult on occasions, whether from snoring and social activities in the lounge, people staying up to read with the light on, someone either returning late from bars, or leaving early, or the proximity of so many people. To mitigate this, some wear earplugs and/or eye-covering sleeping masks. In attempts to attract more visitors, many hostels nowadays provide additional services not available, such as airport shuttle transfers, internet cafés, swimming pools and spas, tour booking and carfree hire.
Some hostels may include food in the price. The traditional hostel format involved dormitory style accommodation; some newer hostels include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms, though to be considered a hostel they must provide dormitory accommodation. In recent years, the numbers of independent and backpackers' hostels have increased to cater for the greater numbers of overland, multi-destination travellers; the quality of such places has improved dramatically. While most hostels still insist on a curfew, daytime lockouts few require occupants to do chores apart from washing and drying up after food preparation. Richard Schirrmann's idea of hostels spread overseas and resulted in Hostelling International, an organisation composed of more than 90 different youth hostel associations representing over 4,500 youth hostels in over 80 countries; some HI Youth Hostels cater more to school-aged children and parents with their children, whereas others are more for travellers intent on learning new cultures.
However, while the exploration of different cultures and places is emphasised in many hostels in cities or popular tourist destinations, there are still many hostels providing accommodation for outdoor pursuits such as hillwalking and bicycle touring. In 2017, Hostelling International reported that it has added hotels and package resorts to their networks in addition to hostels. Despite their name, in most countries membership is not limited to youth. Independent hostels are not affiliated with one of the national bodies of Hostelling International, Youth Hostel Association or any other hostel network; the word independ
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Ron Jones (ice hockey)
Ronald Perry Jones is a Canadian retired ice hockey defenceman. Jones was born in Alberta. Selected by the Boston Bruins in the 1971 NHL Entry Draft, Jones played for the Bruins, Pittsburgh Penguins, Washington Capitals. Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database Profile at hockeydraftcentral.com
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000