The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy. It started in 12th-century France to combat religious dissent, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians. Other groups investigated included the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites and the Beguines. Beginning in the 1250s, inquisitors were chosen from members of the Dominican Order, replacing the earlier practice of using local clergy as judges; the term Medieval Inquisition covers these courts up to mid-15th century. During the Late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, the concept and scope of the Inquisition expanded in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, it expanded to other European countries, resulting in the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The Spanish and Portuguese operated inquisitorial courts throughout their empires in Africa and the Americas; the Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions focused on the issue of Jewish anusim and Muslim converts to Catholicism because these minority groups were more numerous in Spain and Portugal than in many other parts of Europe, because they were considered suspect due to the assumption that they had secretly reverted to their previous religions.
With the exception of the Papal States, the institution of the Inquisition was abolished in the early 19th century, after the Napoleonic Wars in Europe and the Spanish American wars of independence in the Americas. The institution survived as part of the Roman Curia, but in 1908 it was renamed the "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office". In 1965 it became the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; the term Inquisition comes from the Medieval Latin word "inquisitio", which referred to any court process, based on Roman law, which had come back into use during the late medieval period. Today, the English term "Inquisition" can apply to any one of several institutions that worked against heretics within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church. Although the term Inquisition is applied to ecclesiastical courts of the Catholic Church, it has several different usages: an ecclesiastical tribunal, the institution of the Catholic Church for combating heresy, a number of historical expurgation movements against heresy, or the trial of an individual accused of heresy."he Inquisition, as a church-court, had no jurisdiction over Moors and Jews as such."
The Inquisition was concerned only with the heretical behaviour of Catholic adherents or converts."The overwhelming majority of sentences seem to have consisted of penances like wearing a cross sewn on one's clothes, going on pilgrimage, etc." When a suspect was convicted of unrepentant heresy, the inquisitorial tribunal was required by law to hand the person over to the secular authorities for final sentencing, at which point a magistrate would determine the penalty, burning at the stake although the penalty varied based on local law. The laws were inclusive of proscriptions against certain religious crimes, the punishments included death by burning, although the penalty was banishment or imprisonment for life, commuted after a few years, thus the inquisitors knew what would be the fate of anyone so remanded, cannot be considered to have divorced the means of determining guilt from its effects. The 1578 edition of the Directorium Inquisitorum spelled out the purpose of inquisitorial penalties:... quoniam punitio non refertur primo & per se in correctionem & bonum eius qui punitur, sed in bonum publicum ut alij terreantur, & a malis committendis avocentur.
Before 1100, the Catholic Church suppressed what they believed to be heresy through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture, resorting to executions. Such punishments were opposed by a number of clergymen and theologians, although some countries punished heresy with the death penalty. In the 12th century, to counter the spread of Catharism, prosecution of heretics became more frequent; the Church charged councils composed of archbishops with establishing inquisitions. The first Inquisition was temporarily established in Languedoc in 1184; the murder of Pope Innocent's papal legate Pierre de Castelnau in 1208 sparked the Albigensian Crusade. The Inquisition was permanently established in 1229, run by the Dominicans in Rome and at Carcassonne in Languedoc. Historians use the term "Medieval Inquisition" to describe the various inquisitions that started around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition and the Papal Inquisition; these inquisitions responded to large popular movements throughout Europe considered apostate or heretical to Christianity, in particular the Cathars in southern France and the Waldensians in both southern France and northern Italy.
Other Inquisitions followed after these first inquisition movements. The legal basis for some inquisitorial activity came from Pope Innocent IV's papal bull Ad extirpanda of 1252, which explicitly authorized the use of torture by the Inquisition for eliciting confessions from heretics. However, Nicho
Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school. The speed with which he painted, the unprecedented boldness of his brushwork, were both admired and criticized by his contemporaries. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso, his work is characterised by his muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective, in the Mannerist style. In his youth, Tintoretto was known as Jacopo Robusti as his father had defended the gates of Padua in a way that others called robust, against the imperial troops during the War of the League of Cambrai, his real name "Comin" was discovered by Miguel Falomir of the Museo del Prado and was made public on the occasion of the retrospective of Tintoretto at the Prado in 2007. Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language. Tintoretto was born in Venice as the eldest of 21 children, his father, was a dyer, or tintore. The family was believed to have originated from Brescia, in Lombardy part of the Republic of Venice.
Older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family. In childhood Jacopo, a born painter, began daubing on the dyer's walls; this was around 1533, when Titian was over 40 years of age. Tintoretto had only been ten days in the studio when Titian sent him home for good, because the great master observed some spirited drawings, which he learned to be the production of Tintoretto. This, however, is mere conjecture. From this time forward the two always remained upon distant terms, though Tintoretto being indeed a professed and ardent admirer of Titian, but never a friend, Titian and his adherents turned a cold shoulder to him. There was active disparagement, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto; the latter studied on his own account with laborious zeal. His noble conception of art and his high personal ambition were both evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano, he studied more from models of Michelangelo's Dawn, Noon and Night, became expert in modelling in wax and clay method which afterwards stood him in good stead in working out the arrangement of his pictures.
The models were sometimes taken from dead subjects studied in anatomy schools. Now and afterwards he frequently worked by night as well as by day; the young painter Andrea Schiavone, four years Tintoretto's junior, was much in his company. Tintoretto helped Schiavone at no charge with wall-paintings; the two earliest mural paintings of Tintoretto—done, like others, for next to no pay—are said to have been Belshazzar's Feast and a Cavalry Fight. These have both long since perished, as have all his frescoes, later; the first work of his to attract some considerable notice was a portrait-group of himself and his brother—the latter playing a guitar—with a nocturnal effect. It was followed by some historical subject. One of Tintoretto's early pictures still extant is in the church of the Carmine in Venice, the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple. For the Scuola della Trinità he painted four subjects from Genesis. Two of these, now in the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice, are Adam and Eve and the Death of Abel, both noble works of high mastery, which leave us in no doubt that Tintoretto was by this time a consummate painter—one of the few who have attained to the highest eminence in the absence of any recorded formal training.
Up till 2012, The Embarkation of St Helena in the Holy Land was attributed to his contemporary Andrea Schiavone. But new analysis of the work has revealed it as one of a series of three paintings by Tintoretto, depicting the legend of St Helena And The Holy Cross; the error was uncovered during work on a project to catalogue continental European oil paintings in the UK. The Embarkation of St Helena was acquired by the V&A in 1865, its sister paintings, The Discovery Of The True Cross and St Helen Testing The True Cross, are held in galleries in the US. Towards 1546 Tintoretto painted for the church of the Madonna dell'Orto three of his leading works: the Worship of the Golden Calf, the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, the Last Judgment, he took the commission for two of the paintings, the Worship of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, on a cost only basis in order to make himself better known. He settled down in a house hard by the church, it is a Gothic building, looking over the Fondamenta de Mori, still standing.
In 1548 he was commissioned for four pictures
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy. The term sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto. By the thirteenth century it signified a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure. Conventions associated with the sonnet have evolved over its history. Writers of sonnets are sometimes called "sonneteers"; the sonnet was created by Giacomo da Lentini, head of the Sicilian School under Emperor Frederick II. Guittone d'Arezzo rediscovered it and brought it to Tuscany where he adapted it to his language when he founded the Siculo-Tuscan School, or Guittonian school of poetry, he wrote 250 sonnets. Other Italian poets of the time, including Dante Alighieri and Guido Cavalcanti, wrote sonnets, but the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. Other fine examples were written by Michelangelo; the structure of a typical Italian sonnet of the time included two parts that together formed a compact form of "argument". First, the octave, forms the "proposition", which describes a "problem", or "question", followed by a sestet, which proposes a "resolution".
The ninth line initiates what is called the "turn", or "volta", which signals the move from proposition to resolution. In sonnets that don't follow the problem/resolution structure, the ninth line still marks a "turn" by signaling a change in the tone, mood, or stance of the poem; the ABBA ABBA pattern became the standard for Italian sonnets. For the sestet there were two different possibilities: CDE CDE and CDC CDC. In time, other variants on this rhyming scheme were introduced, such as CDCDCD. Petrarch used an ABBA ABBA pattern for the octave, followed by either CDE CDE or CDC CDC rhymes in the sestet; the Crybin variant of the Italian sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABBA CDDC EFG EFG. In English, both the English or Shakespearean sonnet, the Italian Petrarchan sonnet are traditionally written in iambic pentameter; the first known sonnets in English, written by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, used the Italian, Petrarchan form, as did sonnets by English poets, including John Milton, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
Early twentieth-century American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay wrote Petrarchan sonnets. On His Blindness by Milton, gives a sense of the Petrarchan rhyme scheme: Most Sonnets in Dante's La Vita Nuova are Petrarchan. Chapter VII gives sonnet "O voi che per la via", with two sestets and two quatrains, Ch. VIII, "Morte villana", with two sestets and two quatrains; the sole confirmed surviving sonnet in the Occitan language is confidently dated to 1284, is conserved only in troubadour manuscript P, an Italian chansonnier of 1310, now XLI.42 in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence. It is addressed to Peter III of Aragon, it employs the rhyme scheme ABAB ABAB CDCDCD. This poem is interesting for its information on north Italian perspectives concerning the War of the Sicilian Vespers, the conflict between the Angevins and Aragonese for Sicily. Peter III and the Aragonese cause was popular in northern Italy at the time and Paolo's sonnet is a celebration of his victory over the Angevins and Capetians in the Aragonese Crusade: An Occitan sonnet, dated to 1321 and assigned to one "William of Almarichi", is found in Jean de Nostredame and cited in Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni's, Istoria della volgar poesia.
It congratulates Robert of Naples on his recent victory. Its authenticity is dubious. There are two poorly regarded sonnets by the Italian Dante de Maiano. In the 16th century, around Ronsard ), Joachim du Bellay and Jean Antoine de Baïf, there formed a group of radical young noble poets of the court, who began writing in, amongst other forms of poetry, the Petrarchan sonnet cycle; the character of La Pléiade literary program was given in Du Bellay's manifesto, the "Defense and Illustration of the French Language", which maintained that French was a worthy language for literary expression and which promulgated a program of linguistic and literary production and purification. By the late 17th century poets on relied on stanza forms incorporating rhymed couplets, by the 18th century fixed-form poems – and, in particular, the sonnet – were avoided; the resulting versification – less constrained by meter and rhyme patterns than Renaissance poetry – more mirrored prose. The Romantics were responsible for a return to many of the fixed-form poems used during the 15th and 16th centuries, as well as for the creation of new forms.
The sonnet however was little used until the Parnassians brought it back into favor, the sonnet would subsequently find its most significant practitioner in Charles Baudelaire. The traditional French sonnet form was however modified by Baudelaire, who used 32 different forms of sonnet with non-traditional rhyme patterns to great effect in his Les Fleurs du mal; when English sonnets were introduced by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century, his sonnets and those of his contemporary the Earl of Surrey were chiefly translations from the Italian of Petrarch and the French of Ronsard and others. While Wyatt introduced the
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys