Vestavia Hills, colloquially known as Vestavia, is a city in Jefferson and Shelby counties in the U. S. state of Alabama. It is a suburb of Birmingham and it is made up of Vestavia, Liberty Park, Cahaba Heights; as of the 2010 census, its population was 34,033, up from 24,476 in 2000. It moved up from the fifth largest city in Jefferson County in 2000 to the third largest in 2010, behind Birmingham and Hoover. Vestavia Hills is named for the 20-acre estate of former Birmingham mayor George B. Ward, it was situated on the crest of Shades Mountain in. Ward's mansion at the Vestavia estate became a landmark in the area as soon as it was completed in 1925; the 2 1⁄2-story house was patterned after the circular Temple of Vesta in Rome, with dark pink sandstone walls encircled by 20 massive white Doric columns surmounted by a carved entablature. The extensive gardens, populated by statuary and peacocks, surrounded a smaller domed gazebo patterned after the Temple of Sibyl in Tivoli. After Ward's death, the house, something of a tourist stop near the highway between Birmingham and Montgomery, was used as a tearoom and reception hall before being purchased by Vestavia Hills Baptist Church.
The church met in the temple like structure for several years before demolishing a portion of the building in 1971 to make way for a larger building. The local garden club moved the gazebo to a prominent outcropping closer to the highway, there to serve as a landmark gateway into the community; the development of Vestavia Hills as a residential suburb began in 1946, when developer Charles Byrd planned a subdivision for 1,000 people on the southern flank of Shades Mountain. The suburb was incorporated as a separate city on November 8, 1950, has since grown, by rapid development and annexation, into a thriving small city of over 34,000 by 2010. Vestavia Hills is located at 33°25′59″N 86°46′44″W; the Vestavia Hills Federal Information Processing Standard code is 78552. The city is located along U. S. Route 31, which runs north to south through the city, leading north 7 mi to downtown Birmingham and southwest 4 mi to Hoover. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.41 square miles, of which 19.40 square miles is land and 0.07%, water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 34,033 people, in 13,388 households residing in the city. The population density was 1,753.5 people per square mile. There were 14,952 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 90.4% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from two or more races. 2.5 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 14,952 housing units and 13,388 households, with a home ownership rate of 76.8%. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.03. The Median value of owner-occupied housing units was $318,200; the median household income was $87,154 with 4.0% of the population below the poverty line. The per capita income for the city was $50,017. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. 52.4% of the population is female. The high quality of the school system in Vestavia Hills has been recognized by the Wall Street Journal and other sources.
It comprises five elementary schools, two middle schools, one alternative school and one high school, with a total enrollment of some 6,000 students. Vestavia Hills High School is known for the success of its math and debate teams, which have each won several national competitions; the schools' band and baseball programs have received much recognition. The 2008/2009 boys' basketball team won the Alabama state championship in division 6A. Vestavia Hills’ wrestling team won the 7A AHSAA State Championship in 2016 and 2017, holds the record for state championship titles in Alabama state history with 15 Wrestling State Championships. Vestavia opened its 8th school in Liberty Park Middle School. In Fall 2006, the Vestavia Hills Board of Education moved to petition the federal government to end the required desegregation busing of predominantly black students from the Shannon/Oxmoor Valley area due to overcrowding; the Unitary Status court settlement was federally approved in July 2007. Any students enrolled at any Vestavia Hills' school will be allowed to continue in the system until graduation.
Vestavia Hills is a large community that offers its citizens many open spaces for families to enjoy the day, participate in sporting events, take part in community events. The city of Vestavia offers many club sports and the variety of sports is always growing. Right now, the city of Vestavia supports youth baseball, softball and boys basketball, soccer, football, flag-football, cheerleading and swimming; these clubs use many of the facilities offered by the city. Wald Park is one of the biggest parks in the main part of Vestavia; the park sits on top of a hill right next to Vestavia Hills Elementary West and overlooks Vestavia Hills Elementary Central. The park includes many community areas such as the Vestavia Hills Swimming Pool, the Civic Center, the Senior's Lodge, it is a great place for kids and families. Wald Park offers five baseball fields, a walking track, a Community Playground, as well as a skatepark; the park is open every day from 5 a.m. until 9:30 p.m. Pets are allowed, but must be kept on a leash.
Byrd Park is a smaller local park, located next to Vestavia Hills Elementary East. It is a small area encircled by a walking path, offers a picnic area and a playground for the children. McCallum
Aaron Geddes Graham is a former professional American football center who played six seasons in the National Football League for the Arizona Cardinals, the Oakland Raiders, the Tennessee Titans. Graham played college football for the University of Nebraska–Lincoln from 1991 to 1995, where he played in three national championship games, winning two in 1994 and 1995. Graham attended Denton High School in Denton, where he played for the Denton Broncos high school football team. Graham attended the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where he played college football for the Nebraska Cornhuskers from 1991 to 1995 under head coach Tom Osborne. Graham played as the starting center for most of the 1993 through 1995 seasons, played in three national championship games, winning two back-to-back in 1994 and 1995. During his 1993 season and the Cornhuskers entered the 1993 Orange Bowl ranked number 11 at 9-2 but lost to Florida State University. In 1994, Graham and the Cornhuskers finished the season with an 13–0 record, beating Miami for the national title in the 1994 Orange Bowl.
In his senior season and the Cornhuskers won the rest of their regular season games, finishing 12-0. Nebraska won the championship game against Florida in the Fiesta Bowl, 62-24; as a senior, Graham was named the 1995 AP All-American Football Player. He won multiple awards during his college career such as Academic All-American from 1994 to 1995 and the 1996 Top Eight Award, given to the nation's elite scholar athletes. While playing college ball for Nebraska he was recognized by the NCAA for "athletic accomplishments, academic achievements, character and other activities". Graham played six seasons as center in the NFL with the Arizona Cardinals, the Oakland Raiders, the Tennessee Titans. Graham was planning on going back for his 7th season with the Tennessee Titans, but instead retired after six seasons with the NFL. Just Sports Stats
Taiwan is famous for its tea which are of four main types: oolong tea, black tea, green tea and white tea. The earliest record of tea trees found in Taiwan can be traced back to 1717 in Shui Sha Lian, present-day Yuchi and Puli, Nantou County; some of the teas retain Formosa. Oolongs grown in Taiwan account for about 20% of world production. According to Lian Heng's General History of Taiwan, in the late 18th century, Ke Chao brought some tea trees from Fujian into Taiwan and planted them in Jieyukeng, in the area of modern-day Ruifang District, New Taipei City. However, transaction records indicate that tea business in Muzha area started as early as late 18th century; these records indicate. In 1855, Lin Fengchi brought the Qingxin Oolong plants from the Wuyi Mountains of Fujian to Taiwan and planted them in Dongding Village; this is said to be the origin of Tung-ting tea. After the Treaty of Tientsin was ratified in 1860 and the port of Tamsui was opened for trade, Scottish entrepreneur John Dodd began working with tea merchants and farmers to promote Taiwan tea developing it as an export item.
Before long, tea ranked first among Taiwan's top three exports, ahead of camphor. The earliest teas exported during the Qing dynasty were oolong and baozhong tea, which began to be sold abroad in 1865 and 1881, respectively. In 1867, Dodd started a tea company in Wanhua and started to sell Taiwanese oolong tea to the world under the name "Formosa Oolong". Aware of British plans to develop a tea industry in India, he sought profit in developing an alternative tea product on the island. Pouchong oolong was considered to be more flowery than Baihao Oolong, Pouchong was exported under the name "Formosa Pouching". In fact, Dongding Oolong, White Tip Oolong and Baochong Oolong, Alpine or High Mountain Oolong, are all categorized as Oolong tea, which contributes a large part of Taiwan tea industry. Oolong tea was synonymous with Taiwanese tea in the late 19th century, competitors in Ceylon sought a US market advantage by publishing materials emphasizing the use of human foot trampling during its production.
This was countered by the introduction of mechanical processing publicized at the St. Louis Exhibition. Mainland China was subject to trade embargos during the 1950s and 1960s, during this time Taiwanese tea growers and marketers focused on existing, well-known varieties. After the mainland's products became more available and the market for teas became more competitive, the Taiwanese tea industry changed its emphasis to producing special varieties of Oolong. A government Tea. 17,384 tonnes of tea were produced in 2008. The government-supported Tea Research and Extension Station, established to promote Taiwanese tea in 1903, conducts research and experimentation. Major tea growing areas: Northern Taiwan: Includes Hsindian, Muzha, Shidian, Sanhsia and Yilan. Mid-central Area: Includes Miaoli, Hsinchu. Eastern Taiwan: Includes Taitung, Hualian. South-central Taiwan: Includes Nantou, Chiayi and Yunlin. High Mountain Regions: Includes Alishan, Yu Shan, Hsueh Shan, Taitung mountain ranges; as Taiwan is lucky to have great environment for tea growing, with the developing of tea technology, Taiwan has produced many top quality teas, all can be called as “Formosa Tea”.
The best known ones including "Formosa Dongding oolong", "Formosa Alishan Oolong", "Formosa Wenshan Pouchong","Formosa Oriental Beauty", "Formosa Shanlinxi Oolong", "Formosa Jade Oolong" and more. According to the 1997 version of the Joy of Cooking, Taiwanese oolongs are considered to be some of the finest by some tea connoisseurs; the US cooks Julee Rosso and Sheila Lukins describe three Taiwanese oolongs as the "Champagne of tea". Their special quality may be due to unique growing conditions. Oolong is harvested five times per year between April and December; the July and August crops receive the highest grades. This tea, grown on Dongding mountain in Nantou County, was brought to Taiwan during the 19th century from the mainland's Wuyi Mountains, its special qualities have been attributed to an continuous fog. Teas harvested in the spring are entered in a competition and the winners are bespoken at premium prices, fetching US$2,000 for a 600-gram package during the 1990s, it undergoes less fermentation than most oolongs.
A 40-minute roasting over charcoal contributes to its flavor, which has "nutty and chestnut" elements. Pouchong oolong called light oolong, is a oxidized tea, twist shape, with floral notes, not roasted, somewhere between green tea and what is considered oolong tea, though classified with the latter due to its lack of the sharper green tea flavours. Pouchong refers to its paper wrapping. White Tip Oolong is fruity in taste and got the name "Oriental Beauty" from Queen Elizabeth II in the 1960s, thus "Formosa Oolong" became popular in the western world for "Oriental Beauty". Along with Lishan Oolong, it was one of the most costly exported Taiwanese teas during the 2000s, its unique flavor originates in part from the inclusion of insect eggs and egg sacs during harvesting, contributing an element, described as "earthier and more robust" than Earl Grey tea. The acceptance of this flavor has led to tolerance of the insects and organic growing practices for this tea; this variety originated on the mainland, is associated with a legend in which
UWA Publishing known as the University of Western Australia Press, is a Western Australian publisher established in 1935. It produces a range of non-fiction and fiction titles, introducing cookbooks into its list in 2008. Australia's first scholarly publisher was Melbourne University Press, established in 1922; the University of Queensland proposed an Australia-wide university press at the 1932 Universities Conference, but the Melbourne press did not support this idea. University students' ongoing difficulties with obtaining textbooks were common at the time, the Australian universities had different ways of addressing the issue. During the 1920s, the University of Western Australia appointed several booksellers, who each reported that selling textbooks was not commercially viable due to low student numbers. UWA's vice-chancellor, Hubert Whitfeld, believed that "Australian universities ought to publish much more than they do", established the Text Books Board in 1935 with support from academics Walter Murdoch and Fred Alexander.
It was known as the Text Books Board until 1948, when it took on the name University of Western Australia Press. Scholarly publishing at the UWA Press continually struggled to be commercially viable; the market was small and the press was isolated from other cities and markets. Subsidised journals were published during the 1960s for UWA's departments, which were time consuming for press staff and despite the subsidies met their costs. Production of the journals ended in 1973. During the 1970s, textbooks were replaced with "recommended readings", students no longer needed to purchase textbooks. During the 1980s, advances in printing processes reduced the cost of printing books, but the rising popularity of photocopiers saw lecturers create course readers to save students time and money. Course readers contain photocopies of journal articles, book chapters and monographs, specific to a particular course or topic. Several university presses in Australia closed during the 1980s, the UWA Press's grant and staff levels were reduced.
The press combined with the Western Australian History Foundation in 2000 to offer the WA History Foundation Award, which encourages and publishes works on Western Australian history. The first work published was Blood Sweat and Welfare: A History of White Bosses and Aboriginal Pastoral Workers by Mary Anne Jebb. Since 2000, it has had a quarterly newsletter. In 2001, the press selected the Eurospan Group to promote and distribute their books in the United Kingdom and the Middle East. In 2004, it ran a series of articles on the members of the board; the organisation celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2005, gave an opportunity to post-graduate students to have their manuscripts published. Fiction series editor Terri-ann White explained, "We're looking for literary fiction, so that's the distinction. We're not looking for mass market." The press approached Australian university coordinators in creative writing courses for recommendations of the work of post-graduate students in PhDs and master's degrees.
The publishing house changed its name to UWA Publishing in 2009. In 2015 it established the Dorothy Hewett Award for an unpublished completed manuscript of fiction, narrative nonfiction or poetry. In November 2019 the University of Western Australia announced its plans to close UWA Publishing. UWAP web site Melbourne University Publishing Sesquicentenary Celebrations Series
The Ongerup Football Association is an Australian rules football competition based in the Great Southern region of rural Western Australia. It was formed in 1962 with the current reserves competition inaugurated in 1980; the association commenced in 1962 with just two clubs and Hassell, after two seasons Borden and Pingrup joined making four clubs. Hassell demerged in 1968 into Boxwood Hills making five clubs. Kent Districts joined in 1972 after leaving the Central Great Southern Football League and won the premiership the following year. Newdegate was next to join the Association when the ‘Lions’ entered in 1983. Gnowangerup joined in 1987 after leaving the CGSFL with the last team to join being Lake Grace with an immediate merger with Pingrup ending up in Lake Grace/Pingrup; the 2010's was a tough decade for the OFA with Ongerup, Kent & Borden all folding taking it from an 8 to a 5 team competition. Tony Evans - West Coast Quentin Lynch - West Coast, Collingwood Jason Spinks - Sydney Brett Spinks - West Coast, Geelong Chris Mayne - Fremantle, Collingwood Mark Williams - Hawthorn, Essendon Cale Morton - Melbourne Jarrod Morton - Hawthorn Mitch Morton - West Coast,Richmond, Sydney Liam Baker - Richmond Nat Fyfe - Fremantle Angus Litherland - Hawthorn A Way of Life - The Story of country football in Western Australia - Alan East
Vratsa is the largest city in northwestern Bulgaria. Administrative and economic center of the municipality of Vratsa and Vratsa district, it is located about 112 km north of 40 km southeast of Montana. Situated at the foot of the Vrachanski Balkan, the town is the starting point for numerous caves and interesting rock formations; the most famous of them are Skaklya Waterfall and the Vratsata Pass. In Vratsa History Museum is stored the Rogozen treasure, the largest Thracian treasure. Botev Days are held annually in the city, culminating in the rally-dawn on June 1, held at Hristo Botev Square, as well as the national worship on June 2 at Mount Okolchitsa. Vratsa's motto is "A city like the Balkan - ancient and young"; the name comes from the Vratsata Pass nearby, from the Slavic word vrata + the Slavic diminutive placename suffix -itsa, "little gate", used to translate the Latin name Valve. The city of Vratsa is located on the banks of Leva River; the city is 116 km away from the national capital Sofia.
The area has diverse natural features. Several protected natural attractions and historical monuments are located on the territory of the Vratsa State Forestry; the climate is similar to that of Sofia. The average annual temperature is about 11 °C. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". The number of the residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1990-1991 when exceeded 85,000; as of February 2011, the town has a population of 60,692 inhabitants. The following table presents the change of the population after 1887. According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: Bulgarians: 53,275 Roma: 1,045 Turks: 54 Others: 185 Indefinable: 216 Undeclared: 5,937 Total: 60,692 The ethnic composition of Vratsa Municipality is 64334 Bulgarians and 2215 Gypsies among others. Vratsa is an ancient city found by ancient Thracians.
Vratsa was called Valve by the Romans due to a narrow passage where the main gate of the city fortress was located. Nowadays, this passage is the symbol of Vratsa, is shown on the town's Coat of arms. After the fall of Rome, Vratsa became part of the Eastern Roman Empire. At the end of the 6th century AD, Vratsa was populated by the South Slavic tribes. If they came from Pannonia and Dacia on the north, the town remained under Byzantine rule. In the 7th century, the Bulgars and the Slavs found the First Bulgarian Empire and the Slavic Vratsa became part of it; the city grew into important strategic location because of its proximity to the South State border. Vratsa became famous for its goldsmiths and silversmiths production and trade, high-quality earthenware and military significance. In the 8th century, the Bulgarian army captured Sofia, which led to the decreasing of Vratsa's importance because of the better strategic position of Sofia, its more developed economy and larger size, but Vratsa was again key for the resistance against the Byzantine and Magyar invasions in the Middle Ages.
On 1 May 1966 in the village of Sgorigrad, a Mir-Plakanista mine tailings dam collapsed, causing a flood of mud and debris that killed 488 people. It remains one of the biggest disasters in Vratsa since the Semtepber 30, 1923 fire and the Anglo-American bombing of January 23, 1944; the mountains and forests are suitable for development of different types of tourism — hunting and fishing, speleology, delta-gliding, photo-tourism, etc. Good opportunities exist for exercising different sport activities such as mountaineering, bicycle sport and for those who enjoy being thrilled can go for hanggliding and paragliding, or set out for carting and motocross racing tracks. Conditions are provided for rest and entertainment — children's and adults' swimming pools, water cycles, bars, excellent hotel facilities and good service. If you are a fervent admirer of winter sports you will be glad to hear that the rope lines near the Parshevitsa Chalet are working, the skiing tracks are well maintained. There are a Museum of History and an Ethnographic and Revival Complex.
Vratsa has a humid continental climate. Ledenika is the most visited Bulgarian cave. Ledenika is located in the Stresherski part of the Vratsa mountain, its entrance being at 830m above sea level. It features an abundance of galleries and impressive karst formations including stalactites and stalagmites, dating back a thousand years; the cave contains ten separate halls. The cave is part of the 100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria Vratsata Gorge – the highest cliffs on the Balkan Peninsula. Vratsata Gorge is situated in Vratsa Mountain; the area is accessible from Vratsa. The limestone of Vratsata Central Wall and the other rocks offer many possibilities for climbing and alpinism, connected by more than 70 alpine routes of all categories of difficulty. Skaklya waterfall - highest temporary waterfall in Bulgaria and the Balkans - 141 meters. Regional historical museum in Vratsa preserves the Rogozen Treasure - the biggest Thracian treasure, discovered on the territory of Bulgaria The main building of the museum houses several exhibitions.
Prehistory Hall Antiquity Hall The Middle Ages Hall The Thracian Treasures Hall The Rogozen Treasure Hall Hristo Botev exhibition Hall New History Hall Stone arc Hall Lapidarium. The strategic location of Vratsa is determined by the major rail and road corridors