SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Veterinarian

A veterinarian known as a veterinary surgeon or veterinary physician, is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases and injuries in non-human animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or licensure are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered veterinary physicians, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a veterinarian, prescribe any drugs, or perform treatment. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings; these veterinarians may be involved in a general practice. As with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients.

Current debates within the profession include the ethics of certain procedures believed to be purely cosmetic or unnecessary for behavioral issues, such as declawing of cats, docking of tails, cropping of ears and debarking on dogs. The word "veterinary" comes from the Latin veterinae meaning "working animals". "Veterinarian" was first used in print by Thomas Browne in 1646. Although "vet" is used as an abbreviation everywhere, the occupation is formally referred to as a veterinary surgeon in the United Kingdom and Ireland and now as a veterinarian in most of the rest of the English-speaking world. Ancient Indian sage and veterinary physician Shalihotra, the son of a sage, Hayagosha, is considered the founder of veterinary sciences; the first veterinary college was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease.

The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain. A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The professionalization of the veterinary trade was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research. Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis and aftercare; the scope of practice and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery.

Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely on clinical signs, as animals are unable to vocalize symptoms as a human would. In some cases, owners may be able to provide a medical history and the veterinarian can combine this information along with observations, the results of pertinent diagnostic tests such as radiography, CT scans, MRI, blood tests and others. Veterinarians must consider the appropriateness of euthanasia if a condition is to leave the animal in pain or with a poor quality of life, or if treatment of a condition is to cause more harm to the patient than good, or if the patient is unlikely to survive any treatment regimen. Additionally, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the client's finances; as with human medicine, much veterinary work is concerned with prophylactic treatment, in order to prevent problems occurring in the future. Common interventions include vaccination against common animal illnesses, such as distemper or rabies, dental prophylaxis to prevent or inhibit dental disease.

This may involve owner education so as to avoid future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have the prevention of zoonoses; the majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals. Small animal veterinarians work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both. Large animal veterinarians spend more time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them, such as zoos or farms. Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of veterinary medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies, pharmaceutical companies. In many countries, the government may be a major employer of veterinarians, such as the United States Department of Agriculture or the Animal and Plant Health Agency in the United Kingdom. State

St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust called St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, is based in Tooting in the London Borough of Wandsworth, serves a population of 1.3 million across southwest London. A large number of services, such as cardiothoracic medicine and surgery and renal transplantation cover significant populations from Surrey and Sussex, totalling about 3.5 million people. As of 2018, the trust employs 9,309 staff. On 1 October 2010 St George's Healthcare integrated with Community Services Wandsworth the provider arm of NHS Wandsworth; this integration saw Community Services Wandsworth become the Community Services Wandsworth division of St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, with the 1,200 members of staff becoming employees of St George's Healthcare under TUPE. St George's Healthcare incorporates St George's Hospital in Tooting and a full range of community services provided at Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, St John's Therapy Centre in Battersea, HMP Wandsworth, health centres and clinics, GP surgeries, schools and in people's homes throughout Wandsworth.

St George's Hospital is one of the UK's largest teaching hospitals. It shares its main hospital site in Tooting, England with the renowned St George's, University of London which trains NHS staff and carries out advanced medical research; the hospital has around 1,000 beds and provides all the usual care you would expect from a local NHS hospital, such as accident and emergency, maternity services and care for older people and children. However, as a major acute hospital, St George's Hospital offers specialist care for the most complex of injuries and illnesses, including trauma, cardiac care, renal transplantation, cancer care and stroke, it is home to one of four major trauma centres and one of eight hyper-acute stroke units for London. St George's Hospital provides care for patients from a larger catchment area in the South East of England, for specialties such as complex pelvic trauma. Other services treat patients from all over the country, such as family HIV care and bone marrow transplantation for non-cancer diseases.

The trust provides a nationwide state-of-the-art endoscopy training centre. Opened in February 2007 on the same site as its predecessor building, St John's Therapy Centre in Battersea brings together community-based therapy services, a mental health unit and two GP practices, bringing a range of multi-disciplinary professionals closer together. In December 2008, all St George's Healthcare services provided at the Bolingbroke Hospital in Battersea, were relocated to St John's. St John's Therapy Centre was opened on Thursday 2 July 2009 by Professor Ann Keen MP, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State for Health. A modern flexible building, the new centre is much larger than its predecessor and allows patients to access a variety of services under one roof; the success of the building's architectural design was praised when it was awarded a Wandsworth Design Award in 2007. The awards, which are presented by Wandsworth Borough Council, recognise buildings that have made a positive contribution to the local environment.

Queen Mary's Hospital is a large community hospital housed in a state of the art, four-storey building containing all the modern equipment needed to offer the local population and its patients from around the world the latest treatment techniques. The rebuilt hospital was opened in the grounds of the original hospital in February 2006. Services continued to be delivered in the old hospital whilst the new building was developed; the development of Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton was funded as a PFI scheme. Queen Mary's Hospital provides outpatient rapid diagnostic and treatment facilities, mental health community services, a minor injuries unit, burns dressing clinic, limb fitting services, a sexual health clinic, 69 mental healthcare beds, 50 elderly and intermediate care beds and 20 rehabilitation beds. Queen Mary's sees over 130,000 patients a year. In 2009 the hospital's Minor Injuries Unit saw 16,500 people come through its doors to be treated by an emergency nurse practitioner; the unit is open every day of the year offering treatment and advice on a wide range of injuries and illnesses.

The Community Services Wandsworth division provides a wide variety of specialist and community hospital based services as well as providing community services to children and older people. This includes district nursing, health visiting, specialist nursing, school nursing, family planning, sexual health, HIV services, haemoglobinopathies, community dentistry, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and language therapy, rehabilitation services and services for people with learning disabilities; these services are provided from Queen Mary's Hospital in Roehampton, Dawes House intermediate care unit, Tooting Walk-in centre, St John's Therapy Centre, Balham Health Centre, Bridge Lane Health Centre, Brocklebank Health Centre, Doddington Health Centre, Eileen Lecky Health Centre, Joan Bicknell Centre, Mapleton Centre, St Christopher's Health Clinic, Stormont Health Centre, Tooting Health Clinic, Tudor Lodge Health Centre, Westmoor Health Clinic, GP surgeries, schools, in people's homes and at Wandsworth Prison.

In October 2017 the trust lost the contract for community services in Wandsworth, worth £51.6 million to Central London Community Healthcare NHS Trust HMP Wandsworth is the largest prison in the UK, with up to 1,665 inmates at any time. St George's Healthcare is responsible for providing a full range of health services at the prison. In September 2009 Community Services Wandsworth took over the running of health services at HMP Wandsworth after Secure Healthcare, who provided health services there, went into voluntary liquidation and ceased to trade. Commu

Ali Saeedlou

Ali Saeedlou is an Iranian politician, the Head of Physical Education Organization from 2009 to 2011. Before that, he was Deputy Mayor of Tehran from 2003 to 2005 under Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and had served as his interim successor until the election of Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf as new mayor, he was born on 10 October 1952 in East Azerbaijan Province. He was graduated in 1975 from Tabriz University and he moved to United States but returned to his hometown in 1980, his first political career starts in 1982, when he was appointed as a financial deputy at Ministry of Commerce. He was chosen as Deputy Minister of Commerce two years and as Deputy Minister of Cooperatives. In 1990, he was appointed as head of Iranian Department of Defence which he held most of his political years there, serves as its head until 2002. After 2003 local elections which led to victory of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as Mayor of Tehran, Saeedlou was elected as his deputy. Ahmadinejad was elected as President and Saeedlou serves as Acting Mayor of Tehran from 3 August to 17 September 2005.

He was proposed as Minister-designated of Petroleum by Ahmadinejad in 2005 but he was not confirmed by Parliament of Iran. In August 2009, Saeedlou was appointed by Ahmadinejad as head of the Physical Education Organization, a post he held until August 2011. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad