Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and treatment of disease and injury in animals. The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild, with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species. Veterinary medicine is practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most led by a veterinary physician, but by paraveterinary workers such as veterinary nurses or technicians; this can be augmented by other paraprofessionals with specific specialisms such as animal physiotherapy or dentistry, species relevant roles such as farriers. Veterinary science helps human health through the monitoring and control of zoonotic disease, food safety, indirectly through human applications from basic medical research, they help to maintain food supply through livestock health monitoring and treatment, mental health by keeping pets healthy and long living. Veterinary scientists collaborate with epidemiologists, other health or natural scientists depending on type of work.
Ethically, veterinarians are obliged to look after animal welfare. Veterinarians diagnose and help keep animals safe and healthy. Archeological evidence, in the form of a cow skull upon which trepanation been performed, shows that people were performing veterinary procedures in the Neolithic; the Egyptian Papyrus of Kahun is the first extant record of veterinary medicine. The Shalihotra Samhita, dating from the time of Ashoka, is an early Indian veterinary treatise; the edicts of Asoka read: "Everywhere King Piyadasi made two kinds of medicine available, medicine for people and medicine for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."Hippiatrica is a Byzantine compilation of hippiatrics, dated to the 5th or 6th century. The first attempts to organize and regulate the practice of treating animals tended to focus on horses because of their economic significance. In the Middle Ages, farriers combined their work in horseshoeing with the more general task of "horse doctoring".
The Arabic tradition of Bayṭara, or Shiyāt al-Khayl, originates with the treatise of Ibn Akhī Hizām. In 1356, the Lord Mayor of London, concerned at the poor standard of care given to horses in the city, requested that all farriers operating within a seven-mile radius of the City of London form a "fellowship" to regulate and improve their practices; this led to the establishment of the Worshipful Company of Farriers in 1674. Meanwhile, Carlo Ruini's book Anatomia del Cavallo, was published in 1598, it was the first comprehensive treatise on the anatomy of a non-human species. The first veterinary school was founded in France, in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary school in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The school received immediate international recognition in the eighteenth century and its pedagogical model drew on the existing fields of human medicine, natural history, comparative anatomy.
The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain. A founding member, Thomas Burgess, began to take up the cause of animal welfare and campaign for the more humane treatment of sick animals. A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The physician James Clark wrote a treatise entitled Prevention of Disease in which he argued for the professionalization of the veterinary trade, the establishment of veterinary colleges. This was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman, Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research.
In the United States, the first schools were established in the early 19th century in Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In 1879, Iowa Agricultural College became the first land grant college to establish a school of veterinary medicine. Veterinary care and management is led by a veterinary physician; this role is the equivalent of a doctor in human medicine, involves post-graduate study and qualification. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a vet is a protected term, meaning that people without the prerequisite qualifications and/or registration are not able to use the title, in many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a vet are restricted only to those people who are registered as vet. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may be performed only by registered vets, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a
Jack Jones Sings is an album by Pop vocalist Jack Jones. It was conducted by Ralph Carmichael. Doug Talbert played piano. "A Day in the Life of a Fool" "Autumn Leaves" "Somewhere There's Someone" "Watch What Happens" "People Will Say We're in Love" "Love After Midnight" "Somewhere, My Love" "The Shining Sea" "The Face I Love" "Street of Dreams" "The Snows of Yesteryear" "I Don't Care Much" This may well be Jack's best album. It was released in 1966 when he was at his peak and although it wasn't one of his biggest sellers, the singing is superb; the selection of songs is perfect for Jack and some of his versions are definitive in the minds of many. For example, he does "I Don't Care Much" in a way that conveys the gist of the song better than some of the original cast versions. Other highlights include "A Day in the Life of a Fool", "Watch What Happens", "Street of Dreams"
The Enniscorthy Echo was a local newspaper published once per week in County Wexford, Ireland. It was published in colour; the newspaper was first published in 1902 from offices at Abbey Square, County Wexford. In 1908 it moved its offices to Enniscorthy. In March 2008, the newspaper moved to new offices - located at Enniscorthy; the newspaper was part of the Thomas Crosbie Holdings group. Thomas Crosbie Holdings went into receivership in March 2013; the newspaper was acquired by Landmark Media Investments. In June 2017, a liquidator was appointed to the Wexford Echo Limited; the liquidator will keep the publications going. The newspaper contains stories relating to Enniscorthy town and its surrounding area, as well as stories relating to County Wexford, it contains a large number of photographs, which are published in colour. It has a sports section, it publishes court reports. Advertisements take up much of the back section of the paper