Province of Reggio Calabria
The Province of Reggio Calabria is a province in the Calabria region of Italy. It is the southernmost province in mainland Italy and is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina; the Aspromonte massif dominates the western part, with its long coastline, the province is a popular tourist destination during the summer. The capital is the city of Reggio, it will be replaced by the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria starting from 2018. The province of Reggio Calabria is located at the extreme southern tip of mainland Italy. To the west lies the Tyrrhenian Sea and to the south and southeast lies the Ionian Sea; the land borders are short. Across the Strait of Messina, some 3 kilometres to the southwest, lies the island of Sicily; the province can be divided into three types of terrain. Near the west it is mountainous, with the Aspromonte massif being formed of overlapping terraces of gneiss and mica schists; the highest point is 1,956 m and this area is part of the Aspromonte National Park.
From the mountains flow many seasonal and rivers, the largest being the Amendolea and the Calopinace. The lower hills are terraced for the cultivation of citrus fruits and vines, the higher parts are wooded, with chestnuts, holm oaks, Sicilian firs and Mediterranean maquis shrubland; the southern part of the province has a coastal plain and to the east of the mountainous area, there is a plateau that extends from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Ionian Sea, the distance from Rosarno to Punta Stilo being about 220 kilometres. The Ancient Greeks built a town "Rhegion" at the site of present-day Reggio, a strategic site beside the Strait of Messina; the town's Museo Nazionale houses two bronze statues, the Riace bronzes, recovered from the sea at Riace some 50 miles to the east. By the third century BC, the Greeks were conquered by tribes from the north, including a branch of the Samnites called the Bruttii, they established their sovereignty over present day Calabria and founded new cities, including their own capital "Consentia", now known as Cosenza.
After their victory in the Pyrrhic War, Rome occupied Calabria, it remained under their control until the fifth century AD. The town of Reggio and other parts of the province, as well as Messina and neighbouring parts of Sicily, were devastated by the 1908 Messina earthquake; this was followed by a series of tsunamis. In the 1950s there was a mass migration of rural people from Reggio Calabria and other provinces in southern Italy to the cities of Rome and Turin in the north, they were driven by poverty, the poor soils of the region and the chronic lack of employment opportunities to move to places with more thriving economies. Between 1969 and 1973, southern Italy suffered from urban unrest due to the lack of employment possibilities and poor living conditions, urban protest took place. In 1970, Catanzaro was chosen as the location for a new regional government. Catanzaro and Reggio Calabria were among the poorest cities in southern Italy and the people of Reggio were desperate that it should be chosen for this purpose so riots broke out.
Strikes and demonstrations occurred and went on for more than a year, were sometimes put down brutally by the police. The railway service from Sicily was disrupted, the airport, post offices and TV station were occupied at different times, police stations were assaulted. Three people were killed, more than two hundred wounded and over four hundred were charged with public-order offences; the Italian government responded to this by confirming Catanzaro as the regional capital but arranging for the regional assembly to be held at Reggio. A new port and steel works were announced at Gioia Tauro, to create employment in the area, but before the steel works was completed, the price of steel collapsed and the steel works were abandoned; the port however was built, but another project, a new power station, did not go ahead because of environmental factors. The port has since become a busy container terminal handling more than three million shipping containers each year, new roads have been built to handle the resulting increase in traffic.
The region is famous for the production of the Bergamot orange. Production is limited to the Ionian coastal region of the province of Calabria in Italy, to such an extent that it is a symbol of the entire region. Most of the bergamot comes from a short stretch of land, it is cultivated in France, Brazil and the US state of Georgia. Clementines are cultivated in the fertile area of Piana di Gioia Tauro; this area is used for the cultivation of other citrus fruits and olive trees, much of the local economy is involved in olive oil extraction and the processing of citrus products. Calabrian wine Official website Calabria Exchange Province of Reggio Calabria Tourist Web Official Site of Reggio Calabria
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. The name of Capua comes from the Etruscan Capeva; the meaning is'City of Marshes'. Its foundation is attributed by Cato the Elder to the Etruscans, the date given as about 260 years before it was "taken" by Rome. If this is true it refers not to its capture in the Second Punic War but to its submission to Rome in 338 BC, placing the date of foundation at about 600 BC, while Etruscan power was at its highest. In the area several settlements of the Villanovian civilization were present in prehistoric times, these were enlarged by the Oscans and subsequently by the Etruscans. Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the Samnite invasion in the latter half of the 5th century BC. About 424 BC it was captured by the Samnites and in 343 BC besought Roman help against its conquerors. Capua entered into alliance with Rome for protection against the Samnite mountain tribes, along with its dependent communities Casilinum, Atella, so that the greater part of Campania now fell under Roman supremacy.
The citizens of Capua received the civitas sine suffragio. In the second Samnite War with Rome, Capua proved an untrustworthy Roman ally, so that after the defeat of the Samnites, the Ager Falernus on the right bank of the Volturnus was confiscated. In 318 BC the powers of the native officials were limited by the appointment of officials with the title praefecti Capuam Cumas, it was the capital of Campania Felix. In 312 BC, Capua was connected with Rome by the construction of the Via Appia, the most important of the military highways of Italy; the gate by which it left the Servian walls of Rome bore the name Porta Capena. At what time the Via Latina was stretched to Casilinum is doubtful; the importance of Capua increased during the 3rd century BC, at the beginning of the Second Punic War it was considered to be only behind Rome and Carthage themselves, was able to furnish 30,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. Until after the defeat of Cannae it remained faithful to Rome, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be selected from it or in order to secure regional supremacy in the event of a Carthaginian victory, it defected to Hannibal, who made it his winter quarters: he and his army were voluntarily received by Capua.
Livy and others have suggested that the luxurious conditions were Hannibal's "Cannae" because his troops became soft and demoralized by luxurious living. Historians from Bosworth Smith onwards have been skeptical of this, observing that his troops gave as good an account of themselves in battle after that winter as before. After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and punished. Parts of it were sold in 205 BC and 199 BC, another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of Volturnum and Liternum, established near the coast in 194 BC, but the greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state. Considerable difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private persons, it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 BC, it was, after that period, not to large but to small proprietors. Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to divide the land among new settlers. Brutus in 83 BC succeeded in establishing a colony, but it was soon dissolved.
In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of this thickly populated district was in a measure supplied by grouping them round important shrines that of Diana Tifatina, in connection with which a pagus Dianae existed, as we learn from many inscriptions. The town of Capua belonged to none of these organizations, was dependent on the praefecti, it enjoyed great prosperity, due to their growing of spelt, a grain, put into groats, roses, unguents etc. and owing to its manufacture of bronze objects, of which both the elder Cato and the elder Pliny speak in the highest terms. Its luxury remained proverbial. From the gladiatorial schools of Campania came Spartacus and his followers in 73 BC. Julius Caesar as consul in 59 BC succeeded in carrying out the establishment of a Roman colony under the name Julia Felix in connection with his agrarian law, 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in this territory; the number of colonists was increased by Mark Antony and Nero. In the war of 69 it took the side
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Vía de la Plata
The Vía de La Plata or Ruta de la Plata is an ancient commercial and pilgrimage path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Mérida to Astorga. An extended form reaches north to the Bay of Biscay at Gijón; the path is used by AP-66 freeways, as well as by the older N-630 national road. The term Vía de la Plata is thought to use from the modern Spanish word for silver, plata; the name derives from the Arabic word al-balat, which means cobbled paving and described the road as engineered by the Romans. The historical origins of this route are uncertain, it is believed, based on diverse archaeological findings, that the route was used for commercial purposes involving tin. Tin was present in many regions of the Iberian Peninsula including Tartessos; the "Tin Way" was used as an access road, which allowed the Romans to conquer tribes such as the Callaici, the Astures, the Vacceos. Many sources, among them the Antonine Itinerary, describe the route to leave from Emerita Augusta, capital of Lusitania, towards Asturica Augusta through Tarraconensis.
The road contains physical evidence that shows a Roman constructed road, unchanged at various sections. It was conceived and built as a trade route for the exploitation of gold, as mentioned by Pliny the Elder who held high office as Procurator in Hispania Tarraconensis in 73 AD, it ran to Emerita Augusta in southwestern Spain. The road's first official name was Via Delapidata, stretched around 900 km, had a branch that joined with the Via Augusta. After its establishment, the Via Delapidata crossed Hispania from Cádiz, through the Pyrenees, towards Gallia Narbonensis and Rome in the Italian Peninsula; the road passes through Salmantica and Castra Caecilia. The Via Delapidata served as an access road from Hispania Baetica. During the Roman Empire it is known that it was used to connect two main areas of the highest importance at both end, the gold mines of Las Medulas and the copper mines of Rio Tinto; the suitability of the route's layout is demonstrated today. It is used by modern AP-66 freeways as well as by older N-630 national road.
Some stretches, pass through urban areas like Seville, where the Vía de la Plata runs along the Guadalquivir. The Vía de la Plata has become popular as an alternative to the French Way for pilgrims walking, cycling, or riding to Santiago de Compostela. Large sections are less the same as they were two thousand years ago. Camino de Santiago Vía de la Plata route website Guide to walking the Vía de la Plata La Vía de la Plata
The Via Domitia was the first Roman road built in Gaul, to link Italy and Hispania through Gallia Narbonensis, across what is now southern France. The route that the Romans regularised and paved was ancient when they set out to survey it, so old that it traces the mythic route travelled by Heracles; the construction of the road was commissioned by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose name it bore, following the defeat of the Allobroges and Averni by himself and Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus. Gnaeus Domitius established a fortified garrison at Narbo on the coast, near Hispania, to guard its construction, it soon developed into a full Roman colony Colonia Narbo Martius. The lands on the western part of the route, beyond the River Rhône had been under the control of the Averni who, according to Strabo, has stretched their control to Narbo and Pyrenees; the Via Domitia connected Italy to Hispania. Crossing the Alps by the easiest passage, the Col de Montgenèvre, it followed the valley of the Durance, crossed the Rhône at Beaucaire passed through Nîmes followed the coastal plain along the Gulf of Lion.
At Narbonne, it met the Via Aquitania. Thus Narbonne was a crucial strategic crossroads of the Via Domitia and the Via Aquitania, it was an accessible, but well-defendable, port at that time; this "cusp point" in the Roman westwards expansion and ensuing supply and fortification was a important asset, was treated as such. In between the cities that it linked, the Via Domitia was provided with a series of mansiones at distances of a day's journey for a loaded cart, at which shelter and fresh horses could be obtained for travellers on official business; the route as it was in Late Antiquity is represented in schematic fashion on the Tabula Peutingeriana. This route can be traced on topographical maps overprinted with the ancient route, in G. Castellve, J.-B. Compsa, J. Kotarba and A. Pezin, eds. Voies romaines du Rhône à l'Èbre: Via Domitia et Via Augusta Paris 1997. Briançon Chorges Gap Le Monetier Allemont Embrun Sisteron Lurs Céreste Apt Notre Dame des Lumières Cavaillon Saint-Rémy-de-Provence Saint-Gabriel Beaucaire Nîmes Ambrussum Lunel-Vieil Castelnau-le-Lez Montpellier route remains unknown Montbazin Mèze Pinet Saint-Thibéry and its Roman bridge Béziers Narbonne At Narbonne, a section of the Via Domitia is exposed in the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville.
The Via Domitia crossed the Atax by a seven-arched bridge at the site of the Pont des Marchands. Fitou Salses Perpignan RuscinoAt Ruscino, the road separates in two: the Inland Route and the Coastal Route, which rejoin at La Junquera. Coastal Route Elne Saint-Cyprien Argelès Collioure Port-Vendres BanyulsInland Route Montescot Le Boulou Les Cluses Le Perthus, at the Trophy of PompeyRejoins at: La Junquera Here the Via Augusta begins. For an overview of the location of Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges. There are the remains of several Roman bridges along the road, including the Roman Bridge of Saint-Thibéry, the Pont Ambroix at Ambrussum, the Pont Julien and the Pont Serme. Roman roads Roman bridge Roman engineering Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus Raymond Chevalier, Les Voies Romaines, Paris, 1997. ISBN 2-7084-0526-8 Pierre A. Clement and Alain Peyre, La Voie Domitienne: De la Via Domitia aux routes de l'an 2000, Presses du Languedoc/Max Chaleil Editeur, 1992.
ISBN 2-85998-097-0 Pierre A. Clement, La Via Domitia: Des Pyrénées aux Alpes, Editions Ouest-France, Rennes, 2005. ISBN 2-7373-3508-6 "Suivez la Via Domitia" DVD 60 mins. English - French - German Luberon News - Via Domitia Traces of the Via Domitia St Thibery - Via Domitia
An itinerarium was an Ancient Roman road map in the form of a listing of cities and other stops, with the intervening distances. One surviving example is the Peutinger Table; the Romans and ancient travelers in general did not use maps. They may have existed as specialty items in some of the libraries, but they were hard to copy and were not in general use. On the Roman road system, the traveller needed some idea of where he or she was going, how to get there, how long it would take; the itinerarium filled this need. In origin it was a list of cities along a road: "at their most basic, itineraria involve the transposition of information given on milestones, which were an integral feature of the major Roman roads, to a written script." It was only a short step from lists to a master list. To sort out the lists, the Romans drew diagrams of parallel lines showing the branches of the roads. Parts of these were sold on the streets; the best featured symbols for cities, way stations, water courses, so on.
The maps did not represent landforms but they served the purpose of a simple schematic diagram for the user. The Roman government from time to time undertook to produce a master itinerary of all Roman roads. Julius Caesar and Mark Antony commissioned the first known such effort in 44 BC. Zenodoxus and Polyclitus, three Greek geographers, were hired to survey the system and compile a master itinerary; this task required over 25 years. The result was a stone engraved master itinerarium set up near the Pantheon, from which travelers and itinerary sellers could make copies. Archaeology has turned up some itinerary material in unexpected places; the Cups of Cadiz, four silver cups found by workmen excavating a foundation at Bracciano in 1852, are engraved with the names and distances of stations between Cadiz and Rome. The term itinerary changed meaning over the centuries. In the Itinerarium Burdigalense, the itinerary is a description of what route to take to the Holy Land; the Itinerarium Alexandri is a list of the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Today it means either a list of recommended stops. The term refers to medieval guide-books written by travellers: most of these are accounts of pilgrimages to the Holy Land. Antonine Itinerary Itinerarium Burdigalense Tabula Peutingeriana Periplus
Via Domiziana is the modern name for the Via Domitiana in the Campania region of Italy, a major Roman road built in 95 AD under the emperor, Domitian, to facilitate access to and from the important ports of Puteoli and Portus Julius in the Gulf of Naples. The Via Domitiana was not built from scratch, but was based on an existing secondary road and used works undertaken in the Neronian period for the construction of the Fossa Neronis; the road left the Appian Way at Sinuessa. It followed the coast and crossed the rivers Savona and Volturna, passed through an area of coastal lagoons by Linterne and Cumae and ended in Pozzuoli. In 102 Trajan extended the Via Domitiana to Naples, it was damaged by Alaric in 420 AD and destroyed by Gaiseric in 455 AD. It was restored under various rulers of the Kingdom of Naples in the Middle Ages and in its modern guise is a major coast road leading north from Naples. Statius wrote an entire poem on the theme of Via Domitiana, he recalled the progress praised the Emperor.
The poem is an interesting testimony on the construction of roads under the Roman Empire