SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Vicenza

Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico, where it straddles the Bacchiglione River. Vicenza is 60 kilometres west of Venice and 200 kilometres east of Milan. Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, many museums, art galleries, villas and elegant Renaissance palazzi. With the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in the surrounding area, his renowned Teatro Olimpico, the "city of Palladio" has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994. In December 2008, Vicenza had an estimated population of 115,927 and a metropolitan area of 270,000. Vicenza is the third-largest Italian industrial centre as measured by the value of its exports, is one of the country's wealthiest cities, in large part due to its textile and steel industries, which employ tens of thousands. Additionally, about one fifth of the country's gold and jewelry is made in Vicenza contributing to the city's economy. Another important sector is the engineering/computer components industry.

Vicentia was settled by the Italic Euganei tribe and by the Paleo-Veneti tribe in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Romans allied themselves with the Paleo-Veneti in their fight against the Celtic tribes that populated north-western Italy; the Roman presence in the area grew exponentially over time and the Paleo-Veneti were assimilated. In 157 BC, the city was a de facto Roman centre and was given the name of Vicetia or Vincentia, meaning "victorious"; the citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC. The city was known for its agriculture, marble quarry, wool industry and had some importance as a way-station on the important road from Mediolanum to Aquileia, near Tergeste, but it was overshadowed by its neighbor Patavium. Little survives of the Roman city, but three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone rivers are of Roman origin, isolated arches of a Roman aqueduct exist outside the Porta Santa Croce. During the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Vandals and his Visigoths, as well as the Huns laid waste to the area, but the city recovered after the Ostrogoth conquest in 489 AD, before being conquered by the Byzantine Empire soon after.

It was an important Lombard city and a Frankish center. Numerous Benedictine monasteries were built beginning in the 6th century. In 899, Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders. In 1001, Otto III handed over the government of the city to the bishop, its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority, it took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league. When peace was restored, the old rivalry with Padua and other cities was renewed, besides which there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi and the Maltraversi; the tyrannical Ezzelino III from Bassano drove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, caused his brother, Alberico, to be elected podestà. The independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, was sacked by that monarch, after which it was annexed to Ezzelino's dominions.

On his death the old oligarchic republic political structure was restored – a consiglio maggiore of four hundred members and a consiglio minore of forty members – and it formed a league with Padua and Verona. Three years the Vicentines entrusted the protection of the city to Padua, so as to safeguard republican liberty. Vicenza came under rule of Venice in 1404, its subsequent history is that of Venice, it was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, Maximilian I held possession of it in 1509 and 1516. Vicenza was a candidate to host the Council of Trent; the 16th century was the time of Andrea Palladio, who left many outstanding examples of his art with palaces and villas in the city's territory, which before Palladio's passage, was arguably the most downtrodden and esthetically lacking city of the Veneto. After 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a duché grand-fief within Napoleon's personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt imperial Grand-Écuyer. One of the consequences of the city's occupation was the destruction of a prized silver model of the city, the Jewel of Vicenza.

After 1814, Vicenza passed to the Austrian Empire. In 1848, the populace rose against Austria, more violently than in any other Italian centre apart from Milan and Brescia; as a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the Third War of Italian independence. Vicenza's area was a location of major combat in both World War I and World War II, it was the most damaged city in Veneto by Allied bombings, including many of its monuments.

San Fernando, California

San Fernando is a city in the San Fernando Valley, in the northwestern region of Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is bordered on all sides by the city of Los Angeles; as of the 2010 census the population of San Fernando was 23,645. The city was named for the nearby Mission San Fernando Rey de España, was part of the Mexican land grant of Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. In 1874 Charles Maclay, San Fernando founder, bought 56,000 acres of the Rancho. In 1882, cousins George K. Porter and Benjamin F. Porter of future Porter Ranch each received one-third of the total land. In 1885, Maclay founded the Maclay School of Theology, a Methodist seminary in his newly founded town of San Fernando. After his death it became an affiliate and moved to the campus of the University of Southern California and the Claremont School of Theology. While most of the towns in the surrounding San Fernando Valley agreed to annexation by Los Angeles in the 1910s, eager to tap the bountiful water supply provided by the newly opened Los Angeles Aqueduct, San Fernando's abundant groundwater supplies allowed it to remain a separate city.

In the first half of the 20th century after incorporation in 1911, the city of San Fernando has tried to annex their city limits to Sylmar, Mission Hills and Pacoima, but the city of Los Angeles has kept up their rapid annexation and caused many failed attempts. As the San Fernando Valley transformed itself from an agricultural area to a suburban one in the decades after World War II, San Fernando retained its independence; as with much of the San Fernando Valley east of the San Diego Freeway, the city of San Fernando has seen a significant demographic shift in recent years. Declining birth-rates and an aging population of middle-class Caucasians, who once dominated the area in the 1950s, has contributed to the movement into other parts of the San Fernando Valley. There has been movement into the Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys to the north. Latinos became the majority population. Since late 2004, the city has been going through a series of planning development projects, that can be defined as gentrification.

San Fernando is surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, with the neighborhoods of Sylmar to the north, Lake View Terrace to the east, Pacoima to the south, Mission Hills to the west. It is served by the Golden State, Ronald Reagan, San Diego freeways; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Fernando had a population of 23,645. The population density was 9,959.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Fernando was 12,068 White, 222 African American, 314 Native American, 248 Asian, 33 Pacific Islander, 9,877 from other races, 883 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21,867 persons; the Census reported that 23,531 people lived in households, 46 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 5,967 households, out of which 3,247 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,282 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,098 had a female householder with no husband present, 592 had a male householder with no wife present.

There were 476 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 34 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 731 households were made up of individuals and 295 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.94. There were 4,972 families; the population was spread out with 6,941 people under the age of 18, 2,659 people aged 18 to 24, 7,132 people aged 25 to 44, 4,920 people aged 45 to 64, 1,993 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males. There were 6,291 housing units at an average density of 2,649.9 per square mile, of which 3,252 were owner-occupied, 2,715 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 13,425 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 10,106 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, San Fernando had a median household income of $55,192, with 16.9% of the population living below the federal poverty line.

As of the census of 2000, there were 23,564 people, 5,774 households, 4,832 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,880.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,932 housing units at an average density of 2,487.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 42.76% White, 0.98% African American, 1.69% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 49.35% from other races, 3.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 89.28% of the population. There were 5,774 households out of which 52.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.3% were non-families. 12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.07 and the average

Hippie Hollow Park

Hippie Hollow Park is a park located on the shore of Lake Travis in northwest Austin. It is the only recognized clothing-optional public park in the State of Texas. Though the land is owned by the Lower Colorado River Authority, it is leased to Travis County, whose Parks Department has administered the park since 1985. Sometimes erroneously labeled as a beach, the park sits on a somewhat steep slope above Lake Travis with limestone steps that can be quite rugged in some spots. Depending on the water level of the lake, access to the water may require some rock climbing. Hippie Hollow Park has been used as a nude swimming spot for years, because the area was along a remote section of the shoreline of Lake Travis; the area became more popular in the 1960s due to the cultural changes of that era and, after Woodstock, the nickname'Hippie Hollow' was born. Hippie Hollow was controversial in the 1970s, due to increased skinny-dipping which generated complaints from adjacent landowners. Raymond Frank, the sheriff of Travis County from 1973–1980, determined that the county's law enforcement budget was better spent on more serious offenses, skinny-dipping activities were ignored as long as no other laws were being broken.

In October 1983 the park site was leased to Travis County, in October 1985 Hippie Hollow Park opened to visitors after some modest improvements and an extensive site clean-up by the county, replacing the former name of McGregor Park. The park continues as a clothing optional park, with appropriate signage at the park entrance advising visitors that nude swimming and sunbathing may be encountered. At one time the park was frequented by families. On July 11, 1995 the county commissioners passed an ordinance restricting park usage to those over 18 years of age, as a result of Travis County Attorney Ken Oden's interpretation of nudity laws; this ordinance was challenged in court by the Central Texas Nudists headed by Bob and Christine Morton, along with other naturist families, had been bringing their children to the site for years without incident. Part of Morton's argument was that the Texas Hill Country had been settled by many German and Czech immigrants in the middle-19th century, nude sunbathing had been a part of their culture.

An appeals court ruled in favor of the county in 1999, the U. S. Supreme Court refused to hear the case in October 2001. Hippie Hollow remains clothing optional, but with park usage restricted to those over 18. In 2004, a rented double-decker party barge carrying 60 people capsized and sank in front of Hippie Hollow when the passengers on board gathered on one side of the barge to catch a glimpse of nude sunbathers on the shore; the incident, which caused two minor injuries, occurred during Splash Day, a semiannual event hosted by Austin's gay and lesbian bar association. Clothes free organizations List of public outdoor clothes free places Naturism Nude beach Public nudity Official website Hippie Hollow Clothing-Optional Nudist Park https://www.reddit.com/r/Austin/comments/8d8qug/so_you_want_to_go_to_hippie_hollowlong/