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Victoria University of Wellington

Victoria University of Wellington is a university in Wellington, New Zealand. It was established in 1897 by Act of Parliament, was a constituent college of the University of New Zealand; the university is well known for its programmes in law, the humanities, some scientific disciplines, offers a broad range of other courses. Entry to all courses at first year is open, entry to second year in some programmes is restricted. Victoria had the highest average research grade in the New Zealand Government's Performance-Based Research Fund exercise in 2012, having been ranked 4th in 2006 and 3rd in 2003. Victoria has been ranked 215th in the World's Top 500 universities by the QS World University Rankings. Victoria is named after Queen Victoria. There was a dispute as to where to site it, it opened in temporary facilities in Thorndon, it was decided to place it in Kelburn, where it still has its primary campus. This decision was influenced by the Cable Car company's offer of a donation of £1,000 if it were located in Kelburn so that students would patronise the Cable Car from the city.

Several of the Company investors like Martin Kennedy were supporters of Seddon, who stalled on releasing land on the alternative Mount Cook Gaol site for the university, although this site was supported in Wellington. The foundation stone of the historic Hunter Building was laid in 1904; the original name was Victoria University College, but on the dissolution of the University of New Zealand in 1961 Victoria or "Vic" became the Victoria University of Wellington, conferring its own degrees. An extramural branch was founded at Palmerston North in 1960, it merged with Massey College on 1 January 1963. Having become a branch of Victoria upon the University of New Zealand's 1961 demise, the merged college became Massey University on 1 January 1964. In 2004, Victoria celebrated the 100th birthday of the Hunter Building. Victoria has expanded beyond its original campus in Kelburn, with campuses in Te Aro, Pipitea. Victoria hosts the Ferrier Research Institute and the Robinson Research Institute in Lower Hutt, the Coastal Ecology Laboratory in Island Bay and the Miramar Creative Centre, in Park Rd, Miramar.

In 2015, Victoria opened a new campus in Auckland to service the growing demand for its courses and expertise. In May 2018 it was reported that Victoria was exploring options to simplify its name to University of Wellington. Vice-Chancellor Grant Guillford said that the university was pursuing a name change in order to reduce confusion overseas, as several other universities carried the "Victoria" name. On 27 July 2018, the Victoria University of Wellington Council agreed in principle to the name change, as well as replacing the Māori name with Te Herenga Waka. Of the 2,000 public submissions on the name-change proposal, 75% opposed it. Alumni and students opposed the name change, staff gave mixed feedback, while other university stakeholders favoured the name change. On 24 September 2018 Victoria University's Council voted by a majority of nine to two to change the university's name to the University of Wellington; the Council voted to adopt the new Māori name of Te Herenga Waka. The University's Vice-Chancellor Grant Guilford abstained from the vote, citing a conflict of interest.

Critics such as Victoria University law professor Geoff McLay criticized the name change for erasing 120 years of history. By contrast, Chancellor Neil Pavious-Smith defended the outcome of the vote as "one decision in a much broader strategy to try and help the university achieve its potential"; the Council would submit its recommendation to the Minister of Education to make the final decision. On 18 December 2018 the Minister for Education, Chris Hipkins, announced that he had rejected the University Council's recommendation, stating that the proposed change did not have sufficient support from Victoria's staff, students or alumni, that such a change would not be in keeping with institution accountability or be in the national interest. On 6 May 2019 Victoria University's Council announced that it would not contest the Education Minister's decision to reject its name-change proposal; the name change had received exceptionally strong opposition from faculty, alumni and the Wellington City Council.

Victoria University of Wellington has three campuses spread out over Wellington city. It has premises in Auckland; the main campus is in the suburb of Kelburn, New Zealand, overlooking the Wellington Central business district, where the Faculties of Humanities and Social Sciences, Engineering and Health are based. Additionally, it is the location of the universities Central Library and the site of its administrative offices; the campus has a range of amenities including cafes, the university book store VicBooks,a pharmacy and health services, childcare facilities and a sports and recreation centre. The Victoria University of Wellington Students' Association is based here; the Faculty of Management and the Faculties of Government, Law and Finance, Information Management and International Business and Accounting and Commercial Law are located in the Pipitea Campus. The Campus is located near the New Zealand Parliament Buildings, consisting of Rutherford House, the Old Government Buildings and the West Wing of the Wellington railway station.

It is the location of the Law libraries. Student services available at the Pipi

R v Church of Scientology of Toronto

The Queen v. Church of Scientology of Toronto was a 1992 Canadian criminal case involving the Church of Scientology and members of the organization, it involved untested sections of Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. An investigation into the Church of Scientology's activities in Ontario was begun when stolen documents from public and private agencies as well as information on other covert activities in Canada turned up as part of the evidence collected in the Operation Snow White case in the U. S. On March 3–4, 1983, police raided the Scientology headquarters in Toronto and seized an estimated 250,000 documents in more than 900 boxes; the trial began on April 23, 1991. It was during this case that the events that sparked the case of Hill v. Church of Scientology of Toronto occurred. On June 25, 1992, seven members were convicted for operations against the Ontario Provincial Police, the Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; the Church of Scientology itself was convicted on two counts of breach of the public trust: infiltration of the offices of the Ontario Provincial Police and the Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General.

The Church of Scientology was ordered to pay a $250,000 fine. The Church of Scientology became the only Canadian religious organization to be convicted for breaching the public trust; the case was appealed in 1996 before the Court of Appeal for Ontario by the Church of Scientology and one of the individual defendants, Jacqueline Matz. The appellants advanced numerous grounds of appeal, some of which were abandoned at the hearing, the remainder of which were rejected by the Court. Scientology and the legal system Timeline of the history of the original court case Lucy. "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2007-09-07

Adelina Otero-Warren

Adelina "Nina" Otero-Warren was a woman's suffragist and politician in the United States. Otero-Warren created a legacy of civil service through her work in education and public health, she became one of New Mexico's first female government officials when she served as Santa Fe Superintendent of Instruction from 1917 to 1929. Otero-Warren was the first Latina to run for Congress. In 1922, she ran for a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives as the Republican candidate for New Mexico. On October 23, 1881, María Adelina Isabel Emilia Otero was born on her family's hacienda “La Constancia,” close to Los Lunas, New Mexico, her mother, Eloisa Luna Otero Bergere, father, Manuel B. Otero, were part of the Hispanic elite, her mother's family were among the first to settle in New Mexico arriving in 1598 during the Oñate settlement. Her father was a descendant of longtime settlers, who migrated to New Mexico from Spain in 1786. Manuel was well-educated, studying in Washington D. C. at Georgetown University and in Germany at Heidelberg University, while her mother had studied at a Catholic Academy in New York.

Her ancestors' successful "sheep drives" in California in the Gold Rush era enabled the family to develop political connections and rise to being landowners. Otero-Warren had an older brother, who lived from 1880 to 1932, a younger brother, who lived from 1883 to 1963, nine half siblings. In 1883, her father died during a quarrel against a band of Anglos who questioned his property ownership, leaving his daughter fatherless at the age of two. In 1886, Otero-Warren's mother married an Englishman; the businessman had migrated to New Mexico in 1880 and worked for the Spiegelberg brothers’ mercantile enterprise. He was well-connected to the German mercantile and Anglo-American families in the New Mexican territory; this cross-cultural marriage between Eloisa and Alfred merged political and economic agendas between Anglos and the Spanish elite. Her mother raised Adelina within the traditional realm of a Spanish Hacienda in Los Lunas, surrounded by relatives and other well-to-do Hispanic families, their family lived in an adobe-brick home built to resemble a Southern plantation.

The Santa Fe Railroad built the Luna Mansion in 1881 in exchange for the rights to pass through the Lunas' land. Adelina was raised, by an Irish governess named Mary Elizabeth Doyle, her mother was an activist for social and educational developments, in the early 1900s, she became the director of Santa Fe’s Board of Education. A mother figure of Santa Fe, she opened her home to political exchange, her mother focused on the importance of education, improving schools locally, she cared for those who are poor and sick. From 1892 to 1894, Otero-Warren attended a private Catholic boarding school in Saint Louis, Missouri; this school helped develop her social consciousness, it imparted the idea that women could have careers as teachers and community leaders. From a young age, her family remembers her desires to lead, describing that she "had the brains of the family." After returning from her time in St. Louis, she taught her siblings what she had learned in school, asked her male relatives to teach her how to shoot pistols and other firearms so she could protect herself.

In 1897, she moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, when her father Manuel's cousin, Miguel Antonio Otero II, was appointed territorial governor of New Mexico. Adelina married a cavalry officer, Lieutenant Rawson D. Warren in 1908. At the time, he was stationed at Fort Wingate in New Mexico. Two years at age twenty six, Otero-Warren divorced her husband, she felt dissatisfied with her newly founded, less progressive, dependent role she inherited as Warren's wife. Other sources suggest that she discovered that he had a common-law wife and two children living in the Philippines. Regardless of why she divorced, she called herself a "widow" to avoid the stigma of divorce, which at the time was deemed unacceptable culturally and religiously. However, she asserted that her husband had died soon after they married. In 1912, she relocated to New York City to care for her brother Luna Bergere, a medical student at Columbia University. While she lived in the city, she was active in Anne Morgan's settlement house, an organization aimed to aid working-class women.

At the settlement house, she organized crafts programs. Eloisa, Otero-Warren's mother and first influential role model, died in 1914. Eloisa bequeathed her first husband's lands to her first two sons and Manuel, her Luna family landholdings to Adelina, which followed traditions of Hispanas passing on lands they brought into their marriage to their daughters, her death brought Adelina back from New York City to care for her nine half-siblings. While she became a surrogate mother to her siblings, she left the day-to-day child-rearing tasks to her sister Anita, who returned from a religious vocation in a convent after their mother's death, their governess, Elizabeth Doyle. Among many some of Otero-Warren's closest friends were artists and writers who impacted the 20th century's progressive movement, including Mary Austin, Witter Byner, Mamie Meadors, Alice Henderson. Otero-Warren made close ties with Ella St. Clair Thompson the woman who headed the Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage upon her arrival in New Mexico.

In 1914, Otero-Warren started working with the woman's suffrage campaign in New Mexico with Alice Paul's Congressional Union. Her commitment to working with women's groups and lobbying legislators for suffrage helped her rise in the leadership ranks in the s

35th Illinois Infantry Regiment

The 35th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 35th Illinois Infantry was organized at Decatur and mustered into Federal service on July 3, 1861, for three years service, its organizer and first colonel was Gustavus A. Smith after whom it was called G. A. Smith's Independent Regiment; the regiment was mustered out on September 1864, at Springfield, Illinois. The regiment suffered 7 officers and 91 enlisted men who were killed in action or who died of their wounds and 5 officers and 164 enlisted men who died of disease, for a total of 267 fatalities. Colonel Gustavus A. Smith - promoted to brigadier general on September 19, 1862. Colonel William P. Chandler - Mustered out with the regiment. List of Illinois Civil War Units Illinois in the American Civil War The Civil War Archive

Tectarius coronatus

Tectarius coronatus, common name beaded prickly winkle or coronate prickly-winkle, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles. It is the type species of the genus Tectarius and is native to the limestone coasts of islands in the western Pacific Ocean. T. coronatus is the type species of the genus Tectarius and was first described by the French zoologist Achille Valenciennes in 1833. In 1972, Rosewater placed it in the subgenus tectarius; the species has a trochoidal shell. The spire is broad and surface of this shell is distinctively sculptured, being prickly or nodulose; the basic color is light pale brown, with dark brown bands and a creamy-white interior. T. coronatus is found in the tropical western Pacific Ocean, in Japan and the Philippines. It occurs on rock high in the intertidal zone, extending to above the high tide mark, it is found on karstic limestone rocks and cliffs, sometimes in the splashzone several meters above the high tide mark.

This is an challenging environment for the mollusk where it is exposed to extreme heat, high salinity, sometimes low salinity. The mollusc thus avoids competition from other animals for food and is safe from many aquatic predators; the sexes are separate with the eggs and sperm being liberated into the sea. The fertilised eggs develop into trochophore larvae, which form part of the plankton, develop into veliger larvae; when sufficiently developed, these settle on the seabed and undergo metamorphosis into juvenile mollusks. The winkle is sometimes used as food, but the mollusk is more gathered for its colorful shell. Media related to Tectarius coronatus at Wikimedia Commons


Tartuffe, or The Impostor, or The Hypocrite, first performed in 1664, is one of the most famous theatrical comedies by Molière. The characters of Tartuffe and Orgon are considered among the greatest classical theatre roles. Molière wrote Tartuffe in 1664. Following its first performance that same year at the Versailles fêtes, it was suppressed by King Louis XIV due to the influence of the archbishop of Paris, Paul Philippe Hardouin de Beaumont de Péréfixe, the King's confessor and had been his tutor. While the king had little personal interest in suppressing the play, he did so because, as stated in the official account of the fête: "...although it was found to be diverting, the king recognized so much conformity between those that a true devotion leads on the path to heaven and those that a vain ostentation of some good works does not prevent from committing some bad ones, that his extreme delicacy to religious matters can not suffer this resemblance of vice to virtue, which could be mistaken for each other.

As a result of Molière's play, contemporary French and English both use the word "Tartuffe" to designate a hypocrite who ostensibly and exaggeratedly feigns virtue religious virtue. The play is written in twelve-syllable lines of rhyming couplets - 1,962 lines in all. Orgon's family is up in arms because Orgon and his mother have fallen under the influence of Tartuffe, a pious fraud. Tartuffe pretends to be pious and to speak with divine authority, Orgon and his mother no longer take any action without first consulting him. Tartuffe's antics do not fool the rest of their friends. Orgon raises the stakes. Mariane feels upset at this news, the rest of the family realizes how Tartuffe has embedded himself into the family. In an effort to show Orgon how awful Tartuffe is, the family devises a scheme to trap Tartuffe into confessing to Elmire his desire for her; as a pious man and a guest, he should have no such feelings for the lady of the house, the family hopes that after such a confession, Orgon will throw Tartuffe out of the house.

Indeed, Tartuffe does try to seduce Elmire, but their interview is interrupted when Orgon's son Damis, eavesdropping, is no longer able to control his boiling indignation and jumps out of his hiding place to denounce Tartuffe. Tartuffe is at first shocked but recovers well; when Orgon enters the room and Damis triumphantly tells him what happened, Tartuffe uses reverse psychology and accuses himself of being the worst sinner: Oui, mon frère, je suis un méchant, un coupable. Un malheureux pécheur tout plein d'iniquité. Orgon is convinced that Damis banishes him from the house. Tartuffe gets Orgon to order that, to teach Damis a lesson, Tartuffe should be around Elmire more than ever; as a gift to Tartuffe and further punishment to Damis and the rest of his family, Orgon signs over all his worldly possessions to Tartuffe. In a scene, Elmire takes up the charge again and challenges Orgon to be witness to a meeting between herself and Tartuffe. Orgon easily convinced, decides to hide under a table in the same room, confident that Elmire is wrong.

He overhears Elmire resisting Tartuffe's forward advances. When Tartuffe has incriminated himself beyond all help and is dangerously close to violating Elmire, Orgon comes out from under the table and orders Tartuffe out of his house, but this wily guest means to stay, Tartuffe shows his hand. It turns out that earlier, before the events of the play, Orgon had admitted to Tartuffe that he had possession of a box of incriminating letters. Tartuffe had taken charge and possession of this box, now tells Orgon that he will be the one to leave. Tartuffe takes his temporary leave and Orgon's family tries to figure out what to do. Soon, Monsieur Loyal shows up with a message from Tartuffe and the court itself – they must move out from the house because it now belongs to Tartuffe. Dorine makes fun of Monsieur Loyal's name. Madame Pernelle, who had refused to believe any ill about Tartuffe in the face of her son's seeing it, has become convinced by this time of Tartuffe's duplicity. No sooner does Monsieur Loyal leave than Valère rushes in with the news that Tartuffe has denounced Orgon for aiding and assisting a traitor by keeping the incriminating letters and that Orgon is about to be arrested.

Before Orgon can flee, Tartuffe arrives with an officer, but to his surprise the officer arrests him instead. The officer explains that the enlightened King Louis XIV—who is not mentioned by name—has heard of the injustices happening in the house and, appalled by Tartuffe's treachery towards Orgon, has ordered Tartuffe's arrest instead; as a reward for Orgon's previous good services, the King not only forgives him for keeping the letters but invalidates the deed that gave Tartuffe possession of the house and all Orgon's possessions. The entire family thanks its lucky stars that it has escaped the mortification of both Orgon's potential disgrace and their dispossession