Victoria, Princess Royal
Victoria, Princess Royal was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was created Princess Royal in 1841, she was the mother of German Emperor. Educated by her father in a politically liberal environment, she was betrothed at the age of sixteen to Prince Frederick of Prussia and supported him in his views that Prussia and the German Empire should become a constitutional monarchy on the British model. Criticised for this attitude and for her English origins, Victoria suffered ostracism by the Hohenzollerns and the Berlin court; this isolation increased after the arrival of Otto von Bismarck to power in 1862. Victoria was empress and queen of Prussia for only a few months, during which she had opportunity to influence the policy of the German Empire. Frederick III died in 1888 – just 99 days after his accession – from laryngeal cancer and was succeeded by their son William II, who had much more conservative views than his parents.
After her husband's death, she became known as Empress Frederick. The empress dowager settled in Kronberg im Taunus, where she built Friedrichshof, a castle, named in honour of her late husband. Isolated after the weddings of her younger daughters, Victoria died of breast cancer a few months after her mother in 1901; the correspondence between Victoria and her parents has been preserved completely: 3,777 letters from Queen Victoria to her eldest daughter, about 4,000 letters from the empress to her mother are preserved and catalogued. These give a detailed insight into the life of the Prussian court between 1858 and 1900. Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at London, she was her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. When she was born, the doctor exclaimed sadly: "Oh Madame, it's a girl!" And the Queen replied: "Never mind, next time it will be a prince!". She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley.
The Lily font was commissioned for the occasion of her christening. Her godparents were Queen Adelaide, the King of the Belgians, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Duke of Sussex, the Duchess of Gloucester and the Duchess of Kent; as a daughter of the sovereign, Victoria was born a British princess. On 19 January 1841, she was made Princess Royal, a title sometimes conferred on the eldest daughter of the sovereign. In addition, she was heir presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom, before the birth of her younger brother Prince Albert Edward on 9 November 1841. To her family, she was known as "Vicky"; the royal couple decided to give their children as complete an education as possible. In fact, Queen Victoria, who succeeded her uncle King William IV at the age of 18, believed that she herself had not been sufficiently prepared for the government affairs. For his part, Prince Albert, born in the small Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had received a more careful education, thanks to his uncle King Leopold I of Belgium.
Shortly after the birth of Victoria, Prince Albert wrote a memoir detailing the tasks and duties of all those involved with the royal children. Another 48-page document, written a year and a half by the Baron Stockmar, intimate of the royal couple, details the educational principles which were to be used with the little princes; the royal couple, had only a vague idea of the proper educational development of a child. Queen Victoria, for example, believed that the fact that her baby sucked on bracelets was a sign of deficient education. According to Hannah Pakula, biographer of the future German empress, the first two governesses of the princess were therefore well chosen. Experienced in dealing with children, Lady Lyttelton directed the nursery through which passed all royal children after Victoria's second year; the diplomatic young woman managed to soften the unrealistic demands of the royal couple. Sarah Anne Hildyard, the children's second governess, was a competent teacher who developed a close relationship with her students.
Precocious and intelligent, Victoria began to learn French at the age of 18 months, she began to study German when aged four. She learned Greek and Latin. From the age of six, her curriculum included lessons of arithmetic and history, her father tutored her in politics and philosophy, she studied science and literature. Her school days, interrupted by three hours of recreation, began at 8:20 and finished at 18:00. Unlike her brother, whose educational program was more severe, Victoria was an excellent student, always hungry for knowledge. However, she showed an obstinate character. Queen Victoria and her husband wanted to remove their children from court life as much as possible, so they acquired Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Near the main building, Albert built for his children a Swiss-inspired cottage with a small kitchen and a carpentry workshop. In this building, the royal children learned practical life. Prince Albert was involved in the education of their offspring, he followed the progress of his children and gave some of their lessons himself, as well as spending time playing with them.
Victoria is described as having "idolised" her father and having inherited his li
Georges Jacobi was a German violinist and conductor, musical director of the Alhambra Theatre in London from 1872 to 1898. His best-known work was The Black Crook written with Frederick Clay for the Parisian operetta-star Anna Judic and which ran for 310 performances. Although never achieving the standing of Hervé, or Offenbach or Sullivan, he composed over 100 pieces for ballet and the theatre which were popular at the time. Born in Berlin in Germany as Georg Jacobi and a German Jew, his musical education began aged 6. Educated in Paris, he began his musical career as a violinist and in 1861 at the age of twenty-one he was awarded the first prize for violin playing at the Conservatoire de Paris where he studied composition with Daniel Auber, he entered the orchestra of the Opéra-Comique. He gave concerts with his own orchestra in the picture gallery of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 1869 he became musical director of the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, where he conducted operettas by Offenbach.
With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War Jacobi went to London where from 1872 to 1898 he was musical director of the Alhambra Theatre. Over the years, he composed more than 100 works for the ballet of the variety theatre. Jacobi produced a well received and original score for the Alhambra's version of Carmen in 1879 owing to copyright issues over using the music of Bizet. After a fire in the Alhambra in 1882, the house was reopened in 1883 with a new concept. Between two ballet performances, a music hall programme was offered; the choreographer of the ballet was Carlo Coppi, who opened a ballet school. The prima ballerina of the house was for a long time Emma Palladino. In 1897 Arthur Sullivan composed the ballet Victoria and Merrie England, performed at the Alhambra and conducted by Jacobi. In 1900 Jacobi became the conductor at the newly opened Hippodrome in London. In addition to ballets Jacobi composed several operettas and plays, as well as violin works, including two violin concertos.
In 1896 he became Professor of conducting at the Royal College of Music where among his students were the composers Walter Slaughter and Gustav Holst. He was twice President of the Association of Conductors in England and was decorated both by the French Government and by the King of Spain. In 1898 he took over the management of the summer theatre at The Crystal Palace, he married Marie Charlotte Eleanore Pilatte and with her had two sons: the conductor Charles Auguste'Maurice' Jacobi and Henri Louis Jacobi. On his death in 1906 Jacobi was buried in London. In his will he left £4039 7s 6d to his widow; the Demon's Bride The Fairies Home Don Quixote Yolande Carmen Titania Ali Baba The Swans Don Juan Melusine The Golden Wreath Oriella La Tzigane Cupid Nadia Enchant-Pas Seulment Dresdina Antiope The Water Queen Tempta-Andantetion Blue Beard Aladdin, Jr. Lochinvar Beauty and the Beast Cinderella Le feu aux poudres Voila le plaisir, mesdames! La Nuit du 15 Octobre The Black Crook comic opera in collaboration with Frederic Clay and starring Anna Judic and Kate Santley Mariée depuis midi, with Armand Liorat and William Busnach Rothomago or The Magic Watch, operetta - joint composition with Edward Solomon, Procida Bucalossi and Gaston Serpette L'arbre de Noël Le clairon Music for The Dead Heart for Henry Irving Music for Henry Irving's Robespierre by Victorien Sardou Claudine et Trusquin The Babes in the Wood The revue A Dream of Whitaker's Almanack, with Walter Slaughter and Henry Pottinger Stephens.
Mefistofele II, Hervé, with book by Georges Jacobi and C. Alfred. Wilhelm Pfannkuch, Georg in: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Band 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5, S. 237 f.. Jeffrey Richards and Music: Britain, 1876–1953, Manchester University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7190-6143-1, S. 253 ff. Photograph of Georges Jacobi - National Portrait Gallery, London Illustrations concerning Georges Jacobi - Victoria and Albert Museum Collection
Alfred Austin was an English poet, appointed Poet Laureate in 1896, after an interval following the death of Tennyson, when the other candidates had either caused controversy or refused the honour. It was claimed that he was being rewarded for his support for the Conservative leader Lord Salisbury in the General Election of 1895. Austin’s poems are little-remembered today, his most popular work being prose idylls celebrating nature. Alfred Austin was born in near Leeds, on 30 May 1835, to a Roman Catholic family, his father, Joseph Austin, was a merchant in Leeds. P. for Honiton. Austin was educated at Stonyhurst College, St Mary's College and University of London, from which he graduated in 1853, he became a barrister in 1857 but after inheriting a fortune from his uncle gave up his legal career for literature. He stood as the Conservative Party candidate for Dewsbury. Politically conservative, between 1866 and 1896 Austin edited National Review and wrote leading articles for The Standard, he was Foreign Affairs Correspondent with the Standard, served as a special correspondent to The Ecumenical Council of the Vatican in 1870.
An ardent imperialist and follower of Disraeli he became, in 1883, joint editor of the National Review with W. J. Courthope and was sole editor from 1887 until 1896. On Tennyson's death in 1892 it was felt that none of the living poets, except Algernon Charles Swinburne or William Morris, who were outside consideration on other grounds, was of sufficient distinction to succeed to the laurel crown, for several years no new poet-laureate was nominated. In the interval the claims of one writer and another were assessed, but in 1896, Austin was appointed to the post after Morris had declined it; as a poet Austin never ranked in the opinions of his peers, was derided as being a ‘Banjo Byron’ Broadus writes that the choice of Austin for poet-laureate had much to do with Austin's friendship with Lord Salisbury, his position as an editor and leader writer, his willingness to use his poetry to support the government. For example, shortly before his appointment was announced, Austin published a sonnet entitled "A Vindication of England", written in response to a series of sonnets by William Watson, published in the Westminster Gazette, that had accused Salisbury's government of betraying Armenia and abandoning its people to Turkish massacres.
Sir Owen Seaman gave added currency to the supposed connection with Lord Salisbury in his poem, "To Mr Alfred Austin", In Cap and Bells, London & New York, 1900, 9: At length a callous Tory chief arose,Master of caustic jest and cynic gibe,Looked round the Carlton Club and choseIts leading scribe. Austin served as Deputy-Lieutenant for Herefordshire. Austin died of unknown causes at Swinford Old Manor, near Ashford, England, where he had been ill for some time. On 14 November 1865 Austin married Hester Jane Homan-Mulock, tenth child of Thomas Homan-Mulock and Frances Sophia Berry at St Marylebone Parish Church, London. In his Autobiography, Austin gives a curious account of their first meeting with her. Seeing the photograph of a young lady in an album belonging to a friend in Florence, he had asked: "Who is that?" and received the reply, "The girl you ought to marry, if you can." Austin brought home a letter of introduction, the presentation of which led to his receiving at his cottage in Hertfordshire two of the Misses Mulock and their chaperon, together with their friend T. A. Trollope, brother of Anthony Trollope.
At the second visit Hester became engaged to Alfred. Throughout his career as journalist and writer Austin derived constant help and support from his wife, she died on 23 September 1929 at her residence in Kensington. His nephews included the Polar Explorer Captain George Mulock and British diplomat Sir Howard William Kennard, British Ambassador to Poland at the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1861, after two false starts in poetry and fiction, he made his first noteworthy appearance as a writer with The Season: a Satire, which contained incisive lines, was marked by some promise both in wit and observation. In 1870 he published a volume of criticism, The Poetry of the Period, conceived in the spirit of satire, attacked Tennyson, Matthew Arnold and Swinburne in an unrestrained fashion; the book aroused some discussion at the time, but its judgments were uncritical. As poet-laureate, his topical verses did not escape negative criticism; the most effective characteristic of Austin's poetry, as of the best of his prose, was a genuine and intimate love of nature.
His prose idylls, The Garden that I love and In Veronica's Garden, are full of a pleasant, open-air flavour. His lyrical poems are wanting in spontaneity and individuality, but many of them possess a simple, orderly charm, as of an English country lane, he had, indeed, a true love of England, sometimes not without a suspicion of insularity, but always fresh and ingenuous. A drama by him, Flodden Field, was performed at His Majesty's theatre in 1903, with incidental music by Percy Pitt. A number of his poems were set to music by Frances Allitsen, Alexander Mackenzie's contribution to Choral Songs in Honour of Her Majesty Queen Victoria was a setting of Austin's occasional poem "With wisdom, grace". Novels. Five Years of It. London: J. F. Hope Volume 1 · Volume 2. An Artist'
Clock Tower, Brighton
The Clock Tower is a free-standing clock tower in the centre of Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. Built in 1888 in commemoration of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, the distinctive structure included innovative structural features and became a landmark in the popular and fashionable seaside resort; the city's residents "retain a nostalgic affection" for it though opinion is divided as to the tower's architectural merit. English Heritage has listed the clock tower at Grade II for its architectural and historical importance; the small fishing village of Brighthelmston was transformed into a fashionable seaside resort and thriving commercial centre after local doctor Richard Russell's treatise explaining the health-giving effects of drinking and bathing in seawater became a fad in the late 18th century. Royal patronage ensued—the Prince Regent moved into a farmhouse which became the lavish Royal Pavilion—and speculative residential and commercial development, encouraged by transport improvements, attracted large numbers of day-trippers and new residents throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.
By the 1780s, North Street had become established as an important shopping street, its status as the commercial heart of Brighton grew over the next century. It first developed as a route in the 14th century, when it formed the medieval village's northern boundary, ran from west to east from the end of the main route from London towards the Royal Pavilion and the seafront. West Street, the ancient western boundary of the settlement, ran southwards towards the beach and seafront; the western section of North Street was renamed Western Road in the 1830s to match the rest of that road, built as an access route to the high-class Brunswick Town estate but became the town's main shopping street by the 1860s. The roads were widened in the second half of the 19th century, by 1880 the junction of North Street, Western Road, West Street and Queen's Road was a major landmark with a small, old waiting shelter in the middle; the site was ideal for redevelopment, in 1881 a competition was held for a replacement building.
Architects Henry Branch and Thomas Simpson were recorded as the winners, but their plans were never executed and the site stood vacant until 1888. Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee in 1887, many towns built Jubilee clock towers to commemorate the occasion. A local advertising contractor, James Willing, decided to commission one for Brighton, he donated £2,000. The town organised an architectural competition, won by a London-based architect, John Johnson; the tower was completed at the start of 1888 and was unveiled on 20 January 1888 on Willing's 70th birthday. Local inventor Magnus Volk—responsible for Britain's oldest surviving electric railway, an eccentric sea-based railway line, a pioneering electric car and Brighton's first telephone link—designed a time ball for the clock tower soon after it opened; the hydraulically operated copper sphere moved up and down a 16-foot metal mast every hour, based on electrical signals transmitted from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The feature was disabled after a few years.
The tower was the focal point of several bursts of anti-Victorian sentiment in Brighton in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The tower is acknowledged as one of Brighton's main landmarks, it has been described as "the hub of modern Brighton"; the "nostalgic affection" felt by the city's population towards the structure, the difficulty of demolishing or removing it without great expense, have ensured its survival despite demands for its destruction. Criticism by architectural historians has sometimes been intense, although others have praised the tower. Nikolaus Pevsner and Ian Nairn dismissed it as "worthless", it has been likened to "a giant salt-cellar"; the Clock Tower was listed at Grade II by English Heritage on 26 August 1999. This status is given to "nationally important buildings of special interest"; as of February 2001, it was one of 1,124 Grade II-listed buildings and structures, 1,218 listed buildings of all grades, in the city of Brighton and Hove. The Clock Tower is a Classical-style structure with Baroque touches.
It rises to 75 feet, the mast for Volk's time ball adds a further 16 feet. The four clock faces have a diameter of 5 feet. James Willing and 1887 are inscribed on the clock faces; the square base is of pink granite. On each side, the tapering columns rise part way up the shaft and are topped by pediments with open bases, below, elaborately carved scrollwork and a protuberance designed to resemble the gunwale of a ship. Incised lettering on each ship indicates where they are pointing: clockwise from north, they show to the station, to kemp town, to the sea and to hove. Below these, each side has an arched recess containing a medallion-style mosaic portrait of a member of the Royal F
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Jack in the Green
Jack in the Green known as Jack o' the Green, is an English folk custom associated with the celebration of May Day. It involves a pyramidal or conical wicker or wooden framework, decorated with foliage being worn by a person as part of a procession accompanied by musicians; the Jack in the Green tradition developed in England during the eighteenth century. It emerged from an older May Day tradition—first recorded in the seventeenth century—in which milkmaids carried milk pails, decorated with flowers and other objects as part of a procession; the decorated milk pails were replaced with decorated pyramids of objects worn on the head, by the latter half of the eighteenth century the tradition had been adopted by other professional groups, such as bunters and chimney sweeps. The earliest known account of a Jack in the Green came from a description of a London May Day procession in 1770. By the nineteenth century, the Jack in the Green tradition was associated with chimney sweeps; the tradition died out in the early twentieth century.
That century, various revivalist groups emerged, continuing the practice of Jack in the Green May Day processions in various parts of England. The Jack in the Green has been incorporated into various modern Pagan parades and activities; the Jack in the Green tradition has attracted the interest of folklorists and historians since the early twentieth century. Lady Raglan—following an interpretive framework influenced by James Frazer and Margaret Murray—suggested that it was a survival of a pre-Christian fertility ritual. Although this became the standard interpretation in the mid-twentieth century, it was rejected by folklorists and historians following the 1979 publication of Roy Judge's study on the custom, which outlined its historical development in the eighteenth century; the Jack in the Green consists of a wooden or wicker frame, covered in woven foliage, including green branches and flowers. It carried along in May Day processions. There is a slot in the frame out of which the individual inside of it can see, the individual's feet can be seen below the framework.
Jack in the Green emerged within the context of English May Day processions, with the folklorist Roy Judge noting that these celebrations were not "a set, immutable pattern, but rather a fluid, moving process, which combined different elements at various times". Judge thought it unlikely that the Jack in the Green itself existed much before 1770, due to an absence of either the name or the structure itself in any of the written accounts of visual depictions of English May Day processions from before that year; the Jack in the Green developed out of a tradition, first recorded in the seventeenth century, which involved milkmaids decorating themselves for May Day. In his diary, Samuel Pepys recorded observing a London May Day parade in 1667 in which milk-maids had "garlands upon their pails" and were dancing behind a fiddler. A 1698 account described milk-maids carrying not a decorated milk-pail, but a silver plate on which they had formed a pyramid-shape of objects, decorated with ribbons and flowers, carried atop their head.
The milk-maids were accompanied by musicians playing either a fiddle and bag-pipe, went door to door, dancing for the residents, who gave them payment of some form. In 1719, an account in The Tatler described a milk-maid "dancing before my door with the plate of half her customers on her head", while a 1712 account in The Spectator referred to "the ruddy Milk-Maid exerting herself in a most sprightly style under a Pyramid of Silver Tankards"; these and other sources indicate. Many accounts from the second half of the eighteenth century describe chimney sweeps dressing up in costumes for May Day, including in wigs and coats; some cross-dressed in women's clothing, many either blackened or whitened their faces. These chimney sweeps created music by banging together their shovels. Many of the descriptions of chimney sweeps at May Day make no reference to them carrying garlands, indicating that at this point this was not considered a standard part of their seasonal costume. There were examples where sweeps did bear garlands.
This illustration featured garlands being worn by milkmaids and bunters, implying that the custom was being adopted by various different professional groups at May Day. Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, there are further accounts of bunters having garlands, although theirs were made of pewter, on contrast to the milk maid's silver, reflecting their comparative socio-economic status; the first known textual account of the Jack in the Green tradition was written in 1770 by a Frenchman who had visited London and observed a May Day procession, Peter Grosley. The earliest known reference to the term "Jack in the Green" comes from 1785, where it was referred to in a report in The Times newspaper that gave an account of a masquerade, held at the Pantheon in London; the event would have been a upper-class affair, was attended by the Prince of Wales. The earliest possible pictorial reference to a Jack in the Green comes from a picture titled "May Day", produced between 1775 and 1785.
This image featured a procession in which three garlands of metal objects are in the foreground, but in the background of the image is something that resembles a foliate Jack in the Green. A clearer depiction of a Jack in the Green was featured in a 1795 engraving by Isaac Cruikshank, which included the foliate figure alongside a fiddler with
A diamond jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary of an event related to a person. The 60-year reign of Queen Victoria, commemorated as the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated on 22 June 1897; the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was celebrated across the Commonwealth of Nations throughout 2012. George III of the United Kingdom died a few months before his diamond jubilee was due in 1820. In East Asia, the diamond jubilee coincides with the traditional sixty-year sexagenary cycle, held in special importance despite not being called a "diamond jubilee." Monarchs such as the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors of China, Hirohito of emperor of Japan held celebrations for their sixtieth year of reign, as did King Bhumibol Adulyadej the King of Thailand on 10 June 2006. National governments mark their sixtieth anniversary as diamond jubilees, as did the Republic of Korea in 2005 and the People's Republic of China in 2009. In South Asia, the term is used for certain 100-week anniversaries.
For instance, in both India and Pakistan, a diamond jubilee film is one shown in cinemas for 100 weeks or more. The longest reigning monarch in history, Sobhuza II of Swaziland, celebrated his diamond jubilee in 1981, dating from when he gained direct rule. Silver jubilee Ruby jubilee Golden jubilee Sapphire jubilee Platinum jubilee Wedding anniversary#Celebration and gifts Hierarchy of precious substances