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Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real time. A videophone is a telephone with a video display, capable of simultaneous video and audio for communication between people in real time. Videoconferencing implies the use of this technology for a group or organizational meeting rather than for individuals, in a videoconference. Telepresence may refer either to a high-quality videotelephony system or to meetup technology, which goes beyond video into robotics. Videoconferencing has been called "visual collaboration" and is a type of groupware. While development of video conferencing started in the late 19th century, the technology only became available to the public starting in the 1930s; these early demonstrations were installed at "booths" in post offices and shown at various world expositions. It took until 1970 for AT&T to launch the first true video conferencing system, wherein anyone could subscribe to the service and have the technology in their home or office.

Videotelephony included "image phones" which would exchange still images between units every few seconds over conventional plain old telephone service lines the same as slow-scan TV. The development of advanced video codecs, more powerful CPUs, high-bandwidth Internet telecommunication services in the late 1990s allowed videophones to provide high quality low-cost colour service between users any place in the world that the Internet is available. Although not as used in everyday communications as audio-only and text communication, useful applications include sign language transmission for deaf and speech-impaired people, distance education and overcoming mobility issues, it is used in commercial and corporate settings to facilitate meetings and conferences between parties that have established relationships. News media organizations have begun to use desktop technologies like Skype to provide higher-quality audio than the phone network, video links at much lower cost than sending professional equipment or using a professional studio.

More popular videotelephony technologies use the Internet rather than the traditional landline phone network accounting for modern digital packetized phone network protocols, though videotelephony software runs on smartphones. The concept of videotelephony was first conceived in the late 1870s both in the United States and in Europe, although the basic sciences to permit its earliest trials would take nearly a half century to be discovered; this was first embodied in the device which came to be known as the video telephone, or videophone, it evolved from intensive research and experimentation in several telecommunication fields, notably electrical telegraphy, telephony and television. Simple analog videophone communication could be established as early as the invention of the television; such an antecedent consisted of two closed-circuit television systems connected via coax cable or radio. An example of, the German Reich Postzentralamt video telephone network serving Berlin and several German cities via coaxial cables between 1936 and 1940.

The development of video technology started in the latter half of the 1920s in the United Kingdom and the United States, spurred notably by John Logie Baird and AT&T's Bell Labs. This occurred in part, at least with AT&T, to serve as an adjunct supplementing the use of the telephone. A number of organizations believed that videotelephony would be superior to plain voice communications; however video technology was to be deployed in analog television broadcasting long before it could become practical—or popular—for videophones. During the first manned space flights, NASA used two radio-frequency video links, one in each direction. TV channels use this type of videotelephony when reporting from distant locations; the news media were to become regular users of mobile links to satellites using specially equipped trucks, much via special satellite videophones in a briefcase. This technique was expensive and could not be used for applications such as telemedicine, distance education, business meetings.

Attempts at using normal telephony networks to transmit slow-scan video, such as the first systems developed by AT&T Corporation, first researched in the 1950s, failed due to the poor picture quality and the lack of efficient video compression techniques. The greater 1 MHz bandwidth and 6 Mbit/s bit rate of the AT&T Picturephone in the 1970s did not achieve commercial success due to its high cost, but due to a lack of network effect—with only a few hundred Picturephones in the world, users had few contacts they could call to, interoperability with other videophone systems would not exist for decades. Videotelephony developed in parallel with conventional voice telephone systems from the mid- to late-20th century. Expensive videoconferencing systems evolved throughout the 1980s and 1990s from proprietary equipment and network requirements to standards-based technologies that were available for anyone to purchase at a reasonable cost. Only in the late 20th century with the advent of powerful video codecs combined with high-speed Internet broadband and ISDN service did videotelephony become a practical technology for regular use.

Practical digital videotelephony was made possible only with advances in video compression, due to the impractically high bandwidth requirements of uncompressed video. To achieve Vide

St Abbs

St Abbs is a small fishing village on the southeastern coast of Scotland, United Kingdom within the Coldingham parish of Berwickshire. The village was known as Coldingham Shore, the name St Abbs being adopted in the 1890s; the new name was derived from St Abb's Head, a rocky promontory located to the north of the village, itself named after the 7th century saint Æbbe of Coldingham. St Abbs was called Coldingham Shore. Prior to any buildings the fishermen who worked their boats from the beach resided at Fisher's Brae in Coldingham; these fishermen had to carry their fishing gear one and a half miles down a path to where their fishing vessels were tied up. The path is now known as the Creel Path; the first building in St Abbs was constructed in about the middle of the 18th century followed by a row of five cottages. This first row of houses was constructed in a traditional Scottish style with a central fire and a wide chimney; the walls were constructed of "clat and clay," a framework of wood interlaced with straw and daubed with moist clay.

By 1832 it is recorded that the inhabitants of the Shore comprised 16 families who, with 20 others residing in Coldingham, made their living by fishing. In addition to these residents, 30 people proceeded annually to the north for the herring fishing, which provided employment for 14 boats from the village; the village was renamed at the end of the 19th century by the then-laird, Andrew Usher, who played a major role in improving the fishing village and harbour. Usher purchased the Northfield estate on the edge of the village and finishing the building of a countryside manor by the coastal shore in 1892, he considered the local public hall inadequate and subsequently funded a new village hall and school, constructed in 1887 and is now occupied by the St Abbs visitor centre. Usher gave funds for the building of the local church in 1892 and the extension of the outer harbour wall in 1890. In November 1907 the Member of Parliament for Berwickshire, Harold Tennant, announced that the Royal National Lifeboat Society had agreed to supply St Abbs with a lifeboat, that the Board of Trade had agreed to place life-saving apparatus at St Abbs as soon as possible.

On 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk off St Abbs Head by the German U-21, the first Royal Navy ship to be sunk by a U-boat. St Abbs was the main subject of the book, Ebb Tide: Adrift on the Waves of Memory With the Fisher Folk of Berwickshire, by Will Wilson. St Abbs is a popular site for scuba divers; the sea around the village is unusually clear, in contrast to the more silt-laden coastal waters further to the north or south. These clear waters and the spectacular underwater scenery resulted in Britain's first Voluntary Marine Reserve being established at St Abbs; the Marine Reserve was established on 18 August 1984 by David Bellamy. Shore diving to a depth of about 15 metres is possible from the rocks on the outside of the harbour wall, it is common for trainees to do initial sea dives here. The double archway at "Cathedral Rock" is just 50 metres from the shore. Several small, nearby rocky islands, such as "Big Green Carr", "Broad Craig" and "Little Carr" are near to the harbour and can be circumnavigated underwater.

A new visitor centre was opened in St Abbs in March 2011. The centre is located in the former village hall, built in 1897 with funds made available by the whisky tycoon Andrew Usher. St Abbs has its own funded and independent Lifeboat Station; the lifeboat station was established in 1911 following the sinking of the S. S. Alfred Erlandsen; the station was operated by the RNLI but following its closure in 2015, a local fundraising effort saw the station saved through public donations and generous funding from the Tunnock's bakery company. The station was reopened and the new boat launched on 17 September 2016; the village features in the 2019 superhero film Avengers: Endgame as the location of New Asgard, a town settled by the surviving Asgardians and led by Thor. Following the film's release, the village saw a surge in popularity. More St Abbs has featured as the ‘Isle of Eroda’ in the music video of Harry Styles’ 2019 single, Adore You. William Dickson FRSE, chemist and educator Signs have been erected throughout the town declaring that it has been twinned with "New Asgard", as it was the location of filming in Avengers: Endgame.

The town is known as Eroda in Harry Styles' music video for Adore you. List of places in the Scottish Borders St Abbs community website Local plan for St Abbs St Abbs Visitor Centre website

States of emergency in France

States of emergency in France are dispositions to grant special powers to the executive branch in case of exceptional circumstances. A state of emergency was declared following the November 2015 Paris attacks, which expired, after five extensions, in November 2017. Three main provisions concern various kinds of "states of emergency" in France: two of those provisions stem from the Constitution of 1958, the third from a statute: Article 16 of the Constitution provides for "exceptional powers" to the president in times of acute crisis. Article 36 of the same constitution regulates "state of siege"; the Act of 3 April 1955 allows the President of the Republic to declare a "state of emergency". There are distinctions between article 16, article 36 and the 1955 Act, which concerns the distribution of powers; these dispositions have been used at various times, in 1955, 1958, 1961, 1988, 2005, 2015-2017. The French Constitution, adopted in October 1958, was drafted with both the experience of the difficulties experienced by the executive in 1940 during the Battle of France and taking into account the contemporary state of affairs, namely the Algerian war.

Article 16 of the Constitution gives the President "extraordinary powers" in exceptional cases, leading to an effective "state of exception": When the institutions of the Republic, the independence of the nation, the integrity of its territory, or the fulfillment of its international commitments are under grave and immediate threat and when the proper functioning of the constitutional governmental authorities is interrupted, the President of the Republic shall take the measures demanded by these circumstances after official consultation with the Prime Minister, the presidents of the Assemblies, the Constitutional Council. He shall inform the nation of these measures by a message; these measures must be prompted by a will to ensure within the shortest possible time that the constitutional governmental authorities have the means of fulfilling their duties. The Constitutional Council shall be consulted with regard to such measures. Parliament shall meet ipso jure; the National Assembly may not be dissolved during the exercise of emergency powers.

After thirty days of exercise of the exceptional powers, the Constitutional Council can be referred to by the President of the National Assembly, the President of the Senate, sixty députés or sénateurs, to determine if the conditions provided in the first paragraph are still met. The Council shall rule in the shortest time possible by a public ruling; the Council rules ipso jure and rules in the same conditions after sixty days of exercise of the exceptional powers and at any moment beyond this period. The conditions are both that the state is confronted to exceptional circumstances and that the regular institutions are disrupted and cannot govern; this amendment to the Constitution of the Fifth Republic has been qualified as "liberticide" by critics. Invoked on 23 April 1961 during the Algerian War. In the judgment Rubin de Servens of 2 March 1962, the Conseil d'État judged that it could not itself invoke Article 16, as that constituted an "act of government". Furthermore, the State Council considered that it could only pronounce on rulings which were not legislative acts carried out during this period.

Thus, a legislative measure which breaches fundamental liberties cannot be appealed against before the State Council. In 1972, the Common Programme of the Left proposed to repeal Article 16. However, François Mitterrand's program for the socialist presidential campaign in 1981, that he won, did not include this proposition; the Socialist government of Pierre Bérégovoy included a reform of this article in its project of Constitutional reform in 1992, but the project was not implemented. In 1992, the Vedel Commission, created by François Mitterrand, proposed to give to the Conseil Constitutionnel, on the concerted initiative of the President of the Republic and the presidents of both chambers, the mission to determine that the conditions required for the use of Article 16 were, in fact, met. On 23 July 2008, a constitutional act was passed which, among other amendments, added a paragraph to Article 16 of the Constitution which stated that after 30 days the Constitutional Council can be requested to determine in a public ruling whether or not the conditions that justified the use of Article 16 are still current.

At any time beyond 60 days, the Council rules on this issue without the need for a referral. Article 36 of the Constitution is concerned with the state of siege, which can be decreed by the President in the Council of Ministers for a period of twelve days which can only be extended with the approval of the Parliament. A state of siege may be declared in case of an "imminent peril resulting from a foreign war or an armed insurrection. Military authorities may take police powers. Fundamental liberties may be restricted, such as the right of association, legalization of searches in private places day and night, the power to expel people who have been condemned for common law matters or people who do not have the right of residence in the territory, etc; the state of emergency in France is framed by the Law n°55-385 of 3 April 1955 and modeled on the "état de siège". It was created in the context of the Algerian war, to allow

Collegiate sport ritual in the United States

There are a multitude of rituals associated with collegiate sporting events across the United States. Varying by sport and location, sporting rituals become essential to the preparation and game-day experience. In fact, many would argue. Rituals have become an integral part of sporting events in the United States. Traditionally, before games and fans engage in a variety of pregame celebrations including pep rallies and informal gatherings; this ritual of carousing continues throughout the game into the postgame celebrations. The ritualization of sporting events involves numerous individuals including the fans and crews in charge of maintaining and preparing the fields and stadiums; the importance of ritual in sporting events cannot be understated. Fields and stadiums must be properly prepared before game day. Fans not only spend hours preparing for game day the entire day is dedicated to game day celebrations. Fans have many pregame rituals that include superstitious activities, such as dressing in certain clothes, making specific foods, sitting in particular seats in hopes of their team winning.

For many of the players, rituals have become superstitious. After all the preparation and game-play, the ritual continues in the form of festivities and celebrations; the origins of rituals and how and why an individual partakes in traditions vary from person to person. Studies through the use of interviews have identified that individuals may seek to join in traditions as a means to fit in culturally. Traditions are a means of identity, joining in specific traditions or trends is a way to form a cultural identity, similar to your surrounding environment. Individuals join in a particular activity or ritual, such as dressing in team colors or going to rallies, as a result of the influences around them. Culturally important activities gain the support of fans; the compiled support for rituals results in an enterprise. These rituals become both tradition and business, as many universities and communities make profit off of ritual events. Over time, starting in the 1900s, as varsity team popularity grew, so did the popularity of commercialization, starting fan support and traditions.

Every sport maintains different rituals. Occurrences of rituals in every sport will be carried out over pre-game, game-play, post-game rituals. While there are specific rituals associated with many teams, the organization of game play determines the type of rituals that take place. Rituals will find comfortable homes in the time between game-play. Whether the game is divided into rounds, innings or another form of time keepings, the time between is filled with either a performance by cheer groups, the band, or other organizations, or participation from within the crowd in attendance through body movements, chants, or cheers. However, rituals are not isolated to the time between game-play, silences, cheering, or intimidation and taunting can become part of the experience. Many sport participants and observers would be left with a feeling of absence. Many passionate sport observers feel that the outcomes of particular games are of the most importance in their lives, will conduct rituals in an attempt to increase the chance that their wishes come true.

The rituals vary. Members of Alpha Phi Omega carry the world's largest Texas flag during a pregame ceremony at a University of Texas football game. Another notable flag-related tradition is that of Washington State University. Ritual is in the history and rivalry between schools. Ritual surrounds major sporting events between universities that have a profound sense of competition amongst each other. From the trophies and bragging rights awarded to winning teams, to the hype and tradition centering on the game itself, many university teams and communities take part in the rituals surrounding rivalry games. One such example, prominent since 1900 is the rivalry between the University of Texas and the University of Oklahoma rivalry. Known as the Red River Rivalry and Show Down, members of the teams and communities fight for both conference standing and national titles, but most bragging rights. Played on a neutral field, the Longhorns and Sooners duke it out for the claim of the Red River for the year.

One example of similar intensity is the Iron Bowl, the football rivalry between the University of Alabama and Auburn University. These teams play for a trophy, but more ownership and bragging rights of the state. A further example of ritual within rivalry is the passing of the Old Oaken Bucket between the football teams of Indiana University and Purdue University; these two teams have been exchanging this 100-year-old bucket for the past 76 years. Crowned with a paired I-P from the first game resulting in a tie, each year, the winning team adds a "P" or an "I" link to the chain of the bucket, growing by victories. Said to be "filled with the spirits of gridiron men," the Little Brown Jug represents a steadfast football battle between the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota; this Little Brown Jug marked with a large "M" after a tie between the two teams in 1903 when the

Peter S. Kim

Peter S. Kim is an American scientist, he was president of Merck Research Laboratories, 2003-2013 and is Virginia & D. K. Ludwig Professor of Biochemistry at Stanford University, Institute Scholar at Stanford ChEM-H, Lead Investigator of the Infectious Disease Initiative at the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub. Kim is of Korean descent. Kim grew up in Ridgewood, New Jersey the son of a single mother, his first job was in 1974 at a Roy Rogers restaurant, where he earned money to pay for college. Kim earned his A. B. in chemistry at Cornell University in 1979 where he conducted research with the late George P. Hess, he received his Ph. D. in Biochemistry at Stanford University under the guidance of Robert L. Baldwin, he was appointed by David Baltimore as one of the early Whitehead Fellows at the Whitehead Institute. Kim was a Professor of Biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a Member of the Whitehead Institute and an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Kim is known for his studies of coiled coils and for discovering how proteins cause viral membranes to fuse with cells.

He has a special interest in HIV/AIDS research and designed compounds that stop membrane fusion by HIV, thereby preventing it from infecting cells, has pioneered efforts to develop an HIV vaccine based on similar principles. Kim served as a member of the National Institutes of Health AIDS Vaccine Research Committee. Kim joined Merck Research Laboratories in 2001 as executive vice president and Development, he was promoted to president in January 2003. In this role Kim oversaw all of development activities. During his tenure, Merck gained approval of more than 20 new vaccines; these include Januvia, Isentress and Rotateq. He led the biomarker-based development of Keytruda. In 2013, he was succeeded by Roger Perlmutter, he was appointed to the faculty at Stanford University in 2014. Kim is a member of the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. NAS Award in Molecular Biology Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry DuPont Merck Young Investigator Award of the Protein Society Samsung Foundation Ho-Am Prize in Basic Science The Hans Neurath Award of the Protein Society Doctor of Science, Honoris Causa, Pohang University of Science and Technology The Arthur Kornberg and Paul Berg Lifetime Achievement Award in Biomedical Sciences, Stanford University Medical Advisory Board, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Scientific Advisory Working Group, Vaccine Research Center, NIH Member, National Academy of Sciences Member, National Academy of Medicine Member, National Academy of Engineering Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology Fellow, Biophysical Society Member, Korean Academy of Science and Technology MIT Corporation, Visiting Committee, Department of Biology, MIT HARC Scientific Advisory Board, University of California, San Francisco External Scientific Advisory Board, Harvard Program in Therapeutic Science, Harvard Medical School

Catholic Medical Center

Catholic Medical Center is a 330-licensed bed not-for-profit full-service acute care hospital located in the West Side area of Manchester, New Hampshire, United States. CMC offers medical-surgical care with more than 26 subspecialties and outpatient services, diagnostic imaging and a 30-bed 24-hour emergency department. Norris Cotton Cancer Center at CMC offers medical infusion services. A rooftop helipad allows for incoming medevac transport of the most critically ill patients from the region. Catholic Medical Center is home to the nationally recognized New England Heart Institute which provides a full range of cardiac services and is a pioneer in offering innovative surgical procedures; as one of the largest cardiac hospitals north of Boston, CMC has performed more than 70,000 invasive cardiac procedures, including an average of 400 open heart surgeries each year. The New England Heart Institute is home to the Cholesterol Management Center. Dr. Peter Klementowicz serves as the medical director of the Cholesterol Management Center.

NEHI offers cardiovascular rehabilitation and wellness education to help patients recover in a multi-step program of exercise, risk factor management and development of a healthy lifestyle. The New England Heart Institute is the region's premier comprehensive cardiac center with 32 board certified cardiologists, CT surgeons and mid-level providers who diagnose and treat cardiovascular disease. In May 2002, CMC opened The Mom's Place maternity center. 1,200 mothers use The Mom's Place and CMC's Special Care Nursery to deliver their babies each year. CMC is one of the few hospitals in New England using the DaVinci Institute Surgical System to perform life-saving surgery with fewer complications. In 2009, CMC acquired a second robot to meet the increasing demand for minimally invasive surgeries, it was the first hospital in southern New Hampshire to utilize the 64-Slice CT Scanner to provide faster, less invasive diagnosis of cardiac disease. CMC is equipped with an Achieva Quasar dual 3.0T MRI from Phillips Medical Systems, allowing for higher resolution images in less time.

The orthopedic surgeons now have access to the new O-ARM Imaging System, a high definition CT scan that provides real-time three-dimensional images during spine surgery. It offers digital mammography. Catholic Medical Center is located in northern New England. Manchester is located in southern New Hampshire, 20 miles from the Massachusetts border and 58 miles from Boston