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Vielle

The vielle is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body. Whatever external form they had, the box-soundchest consisted of back and belly joined by ribs, which experience has shown to be the construction for bowed instruments; the most common shape given to the earliest vielles in France was an oval, which with its modifications remained in favour until the Italian lira da braccio asserted itself as the better type, leading to the violin. The instrument was known as a fidel or a viuola, although the French name for the instrument, vielle, is used, it was one of the most popular instruments of the medieval period, was used by troubadours and jongleurs from the 13th through the 15th centuries. The vielle derived from the lira, a Byzantine bowed instrument related to the rebab, an Arab bowed instrument.

There are many medieval illustrations of different types of vielles in manuscripts and paintings. Starting in the middle or end of the 15th century, the word vielle was used to refer to the hurdy-gurdy, as a shortened form of its name: vielle à roue. Several modern groups of musicians have formed into bands to play early music, they sometimes include vielles, or modern reproductions, in their ensembles, together with other instruments such as rebecs and saz. Vielles Vielles

2014 World TeamTennis season

The 2014 World TeamTennis season was the 39th season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N. V. the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2014. The Washington Kastles defeated the Springfield Lasers in the WTT Final to win their fourth consecutive King Trophy; the 2014 World TeamTennis season included seven teams split into two conferences. The Eastern Conference had three teams and the Western Conference had four teams; each team played a 14-match regular-season schedule with seven home and seven away matches. The top two teams in each conference qualified for the conference championship matches hosted by the first-place finishers; the conference champions met in the World TeamTennis Final hosted in 2014, by the Western Conference champion. An Eastern Conference champion, a higher seed than a Western Conference champion is treated as the "home" team and has the right to determine order of play; the winner of the WTT Final is awarded the King Trophy.

On November 21, 2013, WTT announced that entrepreneur Lorne Abony had purchased the Orange County Breakers and relocated the team to Cedar Park, renaming it the Austin Aces. After the transaction, the Aces acquired the rights to Austin's hometown hero Andy Roddick in a trade with the Springfield Lasers in exchange for financial consideration; the team remains in the Western Conference. On January 6, 2014, WTT announced that San Diego businessman Russell Geyser had purchased the New York Sportimes and relocated the team, renaming it the San Diego Aviators; the team was moved by WTT from the Eastern Conference to the Western Conference. On February 4, 2014, after 28 years in Sacramento, the Sacramento Capitals announced the team was moving to Las Vegas for the 2014 season and would be renamed the Las Vegas Neon; the Capitals cited dissatisfaction with the team's stadium, a temporary facility on the parking lot of a mall. Management made plans for the team to play the 2014 season in the Darling Tennis Center, a permanent 3,000-seat stadium about 11 miles west of the Las Vegas Strip in the Summerlin community within the Las Vegas city limits.

On February 20, Neon principal owner Deepal Wannakuwatte was arrested on federal fraud charges. The assets of his Sacramento-based medical supply company, International Manufacturing Group Inc. were frozen by a federal judge. Wannakuwatte's family had owned the Capitals/Neon franchise since 2011. International Manufacturing Group Inc. was the parent company of Capital Sports Management LLC, the legal owner of the Neon. With the assets frozen, Neon ownership was unable to meet its financial obligations to the WTT, on March 5, the league contracted the franchise. With the Sportimes moving from New York and becoming the San Diego Aviators and changing conferences, WTT had planned to move the Springfield Lasers from the Western Conference to the Eastern Conference and have four teams in each conference. After the contraction of the Las Vegas Neon, WTT decided to keep the Lasers in the Western Conference; the 2014 World TeamTennis Marquee Player Draft was conducted in New York City on February 11, 2014.

The order in which teams selected was based on the results the teams achieved in 2013 with weaker teams selecting earlier and stronger teams selecting later. The order for relocated franchises was based on the results achieved in their previous city. Teams could protect up to two marquee players or doubles teams to which they held the rights from the previous season or acquired in a trade; these protected players could not be chosen by other teams unless the team protecting them failed to choose them in the draft. Rights to marquee players can be traded from one team to another before or during the draft, the acquiring team may protect and select those players; the selections made. The 2014 World TeamTennis Roster Player Draft was conducted in Indian Wells, California on March 11, 2014; the order in which teams selected was based on the results the teams achieved in 2013 with weaker teams selecting earlier and stronger teams selecting later. The order for relocated franchises was based on the results achieved in their previous city.

Teams could protect up to four players to which they held the rights from the previous season or acquired in a trade. These protected players could not be chosen by other teams unless the team protecting them failed to choose them in the draft. Rights to roster players can be traded from one team to another before or during the draft, the acquiring team may protect and select those players. In addition, the rights to make a selection in a particular position within the draft can be traded from one team to another; the selections made. Notes: July 7: The San Diego Aviators and the Austin Aces opened their seasons against each other at the Valley View Casino Center in San Diego in the debut match for both teams after the relocations of their franchises; the Aviators ended a seven-match losing streak with which they ended the 2013 season as the New York Sportimes by beating the Aces, 23–11. The match opened with men's singles as Andy Roddick represented the Aces, Somdev Devvarman took the court for the Aviators.

Devvarman won the opening set, 5–2. The Aces struck back in the next set as Vera Zvonareva beat Daniela Hantuchová, 5–3, to cut the Aviators' lead to 8–7, but the Aviators took control of the match from there winning the next three sets. Raven Klaasen and Květa Peschke topped 5 -- 2, in mixed doubles. Hantuchová and Peschke beat 5 -- 2, in women's doubles. Devvarman and Klaasen dominated 5 -- 0, in men's doubles. July 8: The Austin Aces had a successful home debut at Ced

Texas Midland Railroad

Texas Midland Railroad was incorporated in Texas on December 1, 1892 by Hetty Green. The original standard gauge 52 mile line was built between Garrett and Midland Junction by the Houston and Texas Central Railroad in 1882; this original line was known as the Northeast Extension of the Texas Central. The line went bankrupt in 1885 and the Northeast Extension was sold at foreclosure on April 22, 1891 and became the Texas Central; this portion of the Texas Central was sold on October 1892 to Hetty Green. Hetty Green sold the 52 mile railroad to the Texas Midland on January 27, 1893 and installed her son Edward Howland Robinson Green as President and General Manager. Headquarters city of the Texas Midland was Texas. At start up the new company had five steam locomotives a 2-4-4, three 4-4-0s and a 4-6-0. Initial capitalization of the Texas Midland was $500,000. Over the next two decades Hetty Green invested some $1.8 million in the Texas Midland. In 1894 a new 4-4-0 was purchased from Schenectady. A 19-mile extension was built from Roberts to Greenville in 1895.

A new 4-4-0 was purchased from Baldwin in 1896. On September 1, 1896 trackage rights were granted by the St. Louis Southwestern Railway from Greenville to Commerce. A 38-mile extension was completed between Commerce and Paris in 1897; when the line to Paris was completed the Texas Midland had 125 route miles. Schenectady built three 4-4-0s and nine 4-6-0s for the Texas Midland in 1897. Two 2-8-0s were purchased from Alco in 1913. In 1921 the Texas Midland built its own 14 mile line between Commerce. A 1923 report in Poor's Railroads showed the Texas Midland owned 16 locomotives, 16 passenger cars and 183 freight cars; the Texas Midland was part of a through route between St. Galveston; the line connected with the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad at Paris and with the Houston and Texas Central at Ennis. A large portion of the freight traffic originated on the Texas Midland was cotton grown in the Blacklands region of East Texas; the Texas Midland placed its first all steel box car in service in 1900.

The Texas Midland was the first railroad to use burnt gumbo as ballast. Texas Midland passenger equipment was the most luxurious in Texas; the Texas Midland operated observation sleepers in the southwest. President Green cooperated with the federal government in developing a model demonstration cotton farm near Terrell; this model farm was in response to the Boll Weevil infestation of the cotton crop. The farm promoted new varieties of cotton. President Green paid his freight solicitors on commission rather than salary; this practice ended. The Texas Midland was sold to the Southern Pacific Railroad on April 1, 1928; the Southern Pacific leased the Texas Midland to the New Orleans Railroad for operation. The Texas Midland was dissolved on June 30, 1934 when the Southern Pacific sold it to the Texas and New Orleans Railroad; the new 14 mile line built between Greenville and Commerce was abandoned in 1933. Trackage rights were again established over the St. Louis Southwestern between those two points.

Texas State Highway 224 now occupies a majority of this abandoned ROW between Greenville and Commerce. The line between Ennis and Kaufman was abandoned in 1942; the line between Kaufman and Greenville was abandoned in 1958. In 1971, floods on the North Sulphur and Jernigan Rivers washed out several miles of trackage on what was called the Paris Branch. Formal abandonment of this line was completed in 1975. A portion of track was left in place from Mile Post 86.79 in Commerce east to Mile Post 93.50 near Horton and utilized for car storage into the early 1980s. The rails were removed east of Hunt County Road 4513 leaving a short stub in Commerce, reconnected directly to the former St. Louis Southwestern C-branch main line track and is still utilized as a car storage track by the Blacklands Railroad; some Texas Midland trackage remains in Commerce, used by the Blacklands Railroad for freight car storage. Former Texas Midland trackage exists in Ennis and Terrell as spurs serving local industry. Track is still down on a spur in Paris.

The Texas Midland Freight Depot remains in Commerce. The Texas Midland depot in Cooper is now the Patterson Memorial Delta County Museum; the Texas Midland depot in Rosser is extant. Texas Midland passenger car #993 is preserved in Terrell; the Texas Midland freight depot is still standing in Terrell. It is located below the Highway 34 bridge, about 100 yards south of the Pacific main line. Railroad Magazine October 1963. Handbook of Texas Online "Texas Midland Railroad http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqt22 Abandoned Rails website http://www.abandonedrails.com/Texas_Midland_Railroad http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqt11 Texas Central http://www3.familyoldphotos.com/photo/texas/11760/texas-midland-railroad-depot-greenville-texas-1900s https://web.archive.org/web/20140221225235/http://railroadtreasures.com/Railroad%20Indexes/Texas%20Midland.htm list of photos https://web.archive.org/web/20140222135358/http://terrellheritagemuseum.org/midlandrr.html TM car 993 at Terrell http://faculty.tamuc.edu/jdavis/railroad/commerce/parisbranch.htm Paris Branch information and photos https://archive.is/20140217175358/http://www.tnorr.com/sptco/Depots-Texas/TNO_Sub_Texas_Paris_1942.htm T&NO Paris Sub Timetable 35, 1942 http://www.tnorr.com/sptco/Depots-Texas/SP_Branches_Texas_Ennis_1962.htm#Paris-Branch SP Ennis Sub Timetable 2, 1962