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Viet Cong

The Việt Cộng known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam, the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U. S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South.

Many of the Việt Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord. Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the early 1960s; the NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification". The PLAF's best-known action was the Tet Offensive, a gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in 1968, including an attack on the U. S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but overextended the Việt Cộng. Communist offensives were conducted predominantly by the North Vietnamese; the organization was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were unified under a communist government. The term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956, it is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản, or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản.

The earliest citation for Việt Cộng in English is from 1957. American soldiers referred to the Việt Cộng as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. "Charlie" referred to communist forces in both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese. The official Vietnamese history gives the group's name as the Liberation Army of South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front. In 1969, the Việt Cộng created the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam", abbreviated PRG. Although the NLF was not abolished until 1977, the Việt Cộng no longer used the name after PRG was created. Members referred to the Việt Cộng as "the Front". Today's Vietnamese media most refers to the group as the "People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam". By the terms of the Geneva Accord, which ended the Indochina War and the Việt Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces; the Việt Minh had become the government of Democratic Republic of Vietnam since the Vietnamese 1946 general election, military forces of the communists regrouped there.

Military forces of the non-communists regrouped in South Vietnam. Elections on reunification were scheduled for July 1956. A divided Vietnam angered Vietnamese nationalists, but it made the country less of a threat to China; the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the past and Vietnam in the present did not and do not recognize the division of Vietnam into two countries. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai negotiated the terms of the ceasefire with France and imposed them on the Việt Minh. About 90,000 Việt Minh were evacuated to the North while 5,000 to 10,000 cadre remained in the South, most of them with orders to refocus on political activity and agitation; the Saigon-Cholon Peace Committee, the first Việt Cộng front, was founded in 1954 to provide leadership for this group. Other front names used by the Việt Cộng in the 1950s implied that members were fighting for religious causes, for example, "Executive Committee of the Fatherland Front", which suggested affiliation with the Hòa Hảo sect, or "Vietnam-Cambodia Buddhist Association".

Front groups were favored by the Việt Cộng to such an extent that its real leadership remained shadowy until long after the war was over, prompting the expression "the faceless Việt Cộng". Led by Ngô Đình Diệm, South Vietnam refused to sign the Geneva Accord. Arguing that a free election was impossible under the conditions that existed in communist-held territory, Diệm announced in July 1955 that the scheduled election on reunification would not be held. After subduing the Bình Xuyên organized crime gang in the Battle for Saigon in 1955, the Hòa Hảo and other militant religious sects in early 1956, Diệm turned his attention to the Việt Cộng. Within a few months, the Việt Cộng had been driven into remote swamps; the success of this campaign inspired U. S. President Dwight Eisenhower to dub Diệm the "miracle man" when he visited the U. S. in May 1957. France withdrew its last soldiers from Vietnam in April 1956. In March 1956, southern communist leader Lê Duẩn presented a plan to revive the insurgency entitled "The Road to the South" to the other members of the Politburo in Hanoi.

He argued adamantly. But as China and

Center-Minami Station

Center-Minami Station is an above-ground metro station located in Tsuzuki-ku, Kanagawa Prefecture, operated by the Yokohama Municipal Subway. It is an interchange station for the Green Blue Line. Center-Minami Station is served by the Blue Green Line, it is 36.4 kilometers from the terminus of the Blue Line at Shōnandai Station and 4.8 kilometers from the terminus of the Green Line at Nakayama Station. Center-Minami Station has two elevated island platforms serving four tracks; the ground-level station building is located underneath the platforms. Center-Minami Station opened on March 18, 1993 when the Line 3 was extended from Shin-Yokohama Station to Azamino Station. Platform screen doors were installed in April 2007. Services on the Green Line started on March 30, 2008. Tsuzuki Ward Office Tokyu Department Store Showa University Hospital List of railway stations in Japan Harris, Ken. Jane's World Railways 2008-2009. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2861-9. Center-Minami Station Center-Minami Station

International Engineering Public Company Limited

The International Engineering Public Company Limited, is an information and communication company whose headquarters are located in Bangkok, Thailand. The company was established in 1922 to undertake engineering work on the Bangkok-Aranyaprathet Railway, which connected Thailand to the Cambodian border for the first time. IEC participated in building up the infrastructure of the country as it modernised. IEC became, in 1929, the sole official distributor of Westinghouse products. IEC was involved in the reconstruction efforts following World War II. For its distinguished position and services, it received in 1965 the honour of Royal Appointment from His Majesty the King of Thailand, making it one of the first Thai companies to receive this honour. IEC has been listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand since 1992, it is running and implementing a collective 16 MW solar and waste-to-energy power plants in Thailand providing information and communication solutions to state and private corporations in Thailand.

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