View-Master is the trademark name of a line of special-format stereoscopes and corresponding View-Master "reels", which are thin cardboard disks containing seven stereoscopic 3-D pairs of small transparent color photographs on film. It was manufactured and sold by Sawyer's; the View-Master system was introduced in 1939, four years after the advent of Kodachrome color film made the use of small high-quality photographic color images practical. Tourist attraction and travel views predominated in View-Master's early lists of available reels, most of which were meant to be interesting to users of all ages. Most current View-Master reels are intended for children. Edwin Eugene Mayer worked as a pharmacist at Owl Drug store in downtown Portland, after serving in the U. S. Army in World War I, he built up a photo-finishing business there, bought into Sawyer's Photo Finishing Service in 1919 with the help of his father August Mayer, his fiancée Eva McAnulty, her sister Vi McAnulty. Edwin described how he started the business in a letter dated April 1, 1954: "Suffice to say that in 1919, what little it was, was purchased with borrowed money from Dad, aided by about $1,600 in insurance money Eva got when her father died and, left in permanently, $1,600 borrowed from Vi and repaid, along with Dad's notes, within a few years."As the business grew, Ed Mayer incorporated in about 1926, taking on partners Harold and Beulth F. Graves and Pauline Meyer, Augusta and Raymond F. Kelly, renaming the business Sawyer Service, Inc.
The company relocated to a large two-story building at 181 Ella St. near Morrison Street in Portland, Oregon. The company was producing photographic postcards and album sets as souvenirs by 1926, when Harold Graves joined Sawyer's. Graves handled marketing for the products. Photographic greeting cards were added to the Sawyer's product line, marketed to major department stores. Sawyer's was the nation's largest producer of scenic postcards in the 1920s and the future View-Master viewer became an extension of the two-dimensional cards; the company took the first steps towards developing the View-Master after Edwin Mayer and Graves met with William Gruber, an organ maker of German origin trained by Welte & Sons and an avid photographer living in Portland. Mayer and Gruber had both developed devices for viewing stereo images, but Gruber had made up a stereo imaging rig out of two Kodak Bantam Specials mounted together on a tripod, he designed a machine that mounted the tiny pieces of Kodachrome color transparency film into reels made from heavy paper stock.
A special viewer was designed and produced. He had the idea of updating the old-fashioned stereoscope by using the new Kodachrome 16-mm color film, which had become available. A View-Master reel holds 14 film transparencies in seven pairs, making up the seven stereoscopic images; the components of each pair are viewed one by each eye, thus simulating binocular depth perception. According to a 1960 court document, the Gruber-Sawyer partner venture began from that first meeting in 1938. Thereafter, Ed Mayer negotiated with Gruber while production methods and some marketing were developed. After three years, a formal agreement was entered into on February 24, 1942, between Gruber and Sawyer partners, doing business as Sawyer's. Ed Mayer and people within the Sawyer's organization were uncertain what to call their new product, but they came up with the name "View-Master"; the View-Master brand name came to be recognized by 65 percent of the world's population, but William Gruber disliked the name which Mayer gave it, thinking that it sounded too much like Toast-Master, Mix-Master, or some other kitchen appliance.
The View-Master was introduced at the 1939 New York World's Fair, marked "Patent Applied For". It was intended as an alternative to the scenic postcard, was sold at photography shops, stationery stores, scenic-attraction gift shops; the main subjects of View-Master reels were the Grand Canyon. The View-Master was marketed through Ed Mayer's photo-finishing and greeting card company Sawyer's Service, Inc. known as Sawyer's, Inc. The partnership led to the retail sales of View-Master reels; the patent on the viewing device was issued on what came to be called the Model A viewer. Within a short time, the View-Master took over the postcard business at Sawyer's. Ed Mayer gave details of the company's expansion in a letter dated April 1, 1954: In 1939, 20 years after starting the business, we had, by dint of hard work and long hours and frugal living, accumulated a business worth about $58,000.00 and Western Photo Supply Co. owning the buildings, worth about $30,000.00. The above figures were for the total business and buildings owned by the Kellys, Graves and Meyers.
In 1946, we had grown a lot from 1939, Sawyer's made a lease with Western Photo Supply Co. they to build and lease two new buildings to Sawyer's, in addition to the two we had. At this point, Sawyer's decided to change its structure from a partnership to a corporation, for various good reasons, one of, to permit our children to participate in the stock ownership. In the 1940s, the United States military recognized the potential for using View-Master products for personnel training, purchasing 100,000 viewers and nearly six million reels from 1942 to the end of World War II in 1945. After the development of the View-Master, Sawyer's, Inc. moved into a new building at 735 S. W. 20th Place in downtown Portland. The company occupied a building next door at 740 S. W. 21st Avenue. Years Edwin Mayer and his Sawyer's partners purchased land in Washington County near Progres
Gina Ferranti is an American actress and producer best known for her role as Cheryl Yale in the 2007 Charles Messina play Merging. Ferranti is a native of Staten Island, she is an alumna of the State University of New York at Albany. She is a graduate of the Neighborhood Playhouse Ferranti originated the role of Cheryl Yale in the debut stage production of Merging, alongside The Sopranos alumnus Jason Cerbone, Ernest Mingione; the play was directed by Messina and won Best Play at the Players Theatre's Shortened Attention Span Horror Festival in Greenwich Village, New York City. In 2009, Ferranti reprised her role in the film version, again alongside Mingione. + The play was directed by Messina and won Best Play at the Players Theatre's Shortened Attention Span Horror Festival in Greenwich Village, New York City. In 2009, Ferranti reprised her role in the film version, again alongside Mingione. On September 20, 2010, Ferranti starred with Johnny Tammaro, Ralph Macchio, Mario Cantone, Lynne Koplitz in a staged reading of the Messina scripted and directed play A Room of My Own, at the Theater at 45 Bleecker Street in New York City.
In 2011, Ferranti appeared with former Sopranos Vincent Pastore and Frank Vincent in the action suspense feature Spy. That year, Ferranti appeared in the dramatic film Choose, which co-starred Michael J. Burg. On October 13, 2011, at the Triad Theater in New York City, Ferranti again teamed up with Charles Messina and Johnny Tammaro in a staged reading of Messina's play about the life of singer Dion called The Wanderer - the Life and Music of Dion. Ferranti made her directorial debut on March 29, 2012 as director of the Charles Messina play Fugazy at the 13th St Repertory Theater; the play, along with two other of Messina's one acts - Merging and Sick Bastids - were presented as a trilogy titled The Tenement Plays. The performances ran until April 1, 2012. Ferranti appeared at a fundraiser for the Abingdon Square Theatre on September 22, 2013, she was part of a group of actors including: Michael Barbieri, Anthony DeSando, Alfredo Diaz, Nick Fondulis, Khalid Gonçalves, Steven LaChioma, Tom Alan Robbins, Scott Seidman, Johnny Tammaro, who read from three plays by writer/director Charles Messina.
Escholzmatt is a former municipality in the district of Entlebuch in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. Escholzmatt was the Canton's second largest municipality in terms of area, it is part of the UNESCO Entlebuch Biosphere Reserve since 2001. On 1 January 2013 the former municipalities of Escholzmatt and Marbach merged to form the new municipality of Escholzmatt-Marbach. Escholzmatt is first mentioned in 1160 as Askolvismatte. In 1240 it was mentioned in 1275 it was mentioned as Aeschelsmat. Escholzmatt had an area of 61.3 km2. Of this area, 50 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 3.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1997 land survey, 44.24% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land, 49.67% is used for farming or pastures, while 0.26% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 1.4% is covered with buildings, 0.13% is industrial, 0.15% is classed as special developments, 0.07% is parks or greenbelts and 1.38% is transportation infrastructure.
Of the unproductive areas, 0.63 % is unproductive 2.07 % is other unproductive land. The former municipality is located on the watershed between the Kleine Emme rivers; the lowest elevation in the municipality is 753 m while the highest is 2,090 m on the Schrattenfluh by Hengst. It consists of the village of Escholzmatt and the hamlets of Lehn, Wiggen, Dürrenbach. Escholzmatt has a population of 3138; as of 2007, 5.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -6.2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP and the Green Party. The age distribution in Escholzmatt is. 793 people or 25.2% are 20–39 years old, 991 people or 31.6% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 369 people or 11.7% are 65–79 years old, 147 or 4.7% are 80–89 years old and 18 people or 0.6% of the population are 90+ years old.
The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Escholzmatt about 53.8% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000 there are 1,133 households. 200 or about 17.7% are large households, with at least five members. As of 2000 there were 667 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 311 were built only as housing, 356 were mixed use buildings. There were 183 single family homes, 75 double family homes, 53 multi-family homes in the municipality. Most homes were either three story structures. There were 26 four or more story buildings. Escholzmatt has an unemployment rate of 1.07%. As of 2005, there were 564 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 230 businesses involved in this sector. 566 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 33 businesses in this sector. 410 people are employed with 71 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 46.6% of the population of the municipality were employed in some capacity.
At the same time, females made up 38.8% of the workforce. In the 2000 census the religious membership of Escholzmatt was. There are 79 individuals. Of the rest; the historical population is given in the following table: Escholzmatt has an average of 153 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,424 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is June during which time Escholzmatt receives an average of 172 mm of precipitation. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 15.1 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is May, with an average of 15.5, but with only 150 mm of precipitation. The driest month of the year is February with an average of 85 mm of precipitation over 15.1 days. In 2004, the township of Escholzmatt appointed Hugo Loetscher a Citoyen d'honneur. Escholzmatt in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland